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BENEFIT SOCIETIES-BENEFIT OF CLERGY.
c. 56, and the 4 and 5 Will. IV. c. 40, are extended , spoke of their great value in implanting habits of to these benefit building societies. These two acts, economy and feelings of self-respect. The first however, are both wholly repealed by the 18 and 19 payment is productive, and every succeeding one Vict. c. 63, which consolidates and amends the law improves the investor's position, while the deterrelating to friendly societies; and in the latter we mination to save is strengthened by every month's do not find any corresponding enactment giving the deposit. A payment of 108. per month is worth in benefit of its provisions to building societies expressly one year £6, 38. 3d. ; in five years, £35, 2s. 9d. ; in and by name, nor does it contain any allusion to seven years, £50, 78. 5d. ; in ten years, £77, 198. 3d. ; or recital of the above act of the 6 and 7 Will. IV. in fourteen years, £121, 168.-£37, 16s. of which is But by its 2d, 3d, 4th, and 5th sections, it saves the interest. The total sum which has been deporights and privileges of societies existing at its sited in four societies in Bradford, is £1,179,790, of date (1855) under former acts; and by section 11, which £222,522 was received last year (1858). The on the preamble that many provident, benevo- average annual receipts are about £150,000. The lent, and charitable institutions and societies are total of the advances on mortgage is £632,457.' formed, and may be formed, for the purpose of In London, Birmingham, and other parts of England, relieving the physical wants and necessities of there are now numerous benefit building societies, persons in poor circumstances, or for improving of which these are an example; and the good they the dwellings of the labouring classes, or for granting have done, and are doing, could scarcely be exaggerpensions, or for providiny habitations for the members ated. In Scotland, associations of this kind are less or other persons elected by them; and it is expe- numerous, besides being chiefly composed of persons dient to afford protection to the funds thereof,' in the middle ranks of society, who wish to buy and it is enacted that, if the registrar shall certify occupy a superior class of houses. While freehold that the rules of such institution or society are property in England, to the value of 408. per annum, not repugnant to law, thereupon the following sec- imparts a qualification to vote for a member of tions of the act shall extend and apply to such parliament for the county connected with the town institution and society—that is to say, the 17th, in which the property is situated, no such qualifica18th, 19th, 20th, 21st, and 22d sections, which relate tion exists in Scotland, where land is held from to the appointment, duties, and responsibilitities of the crown, or in feudal tenure, not freehold ; and the societies' trustees, and to the duty and respon- perhaps this accounts in some measure for the sibility of the treasurer. The other sections define want, in Scotland, of that general enthusiasm for the mode of determining disputes according to the supporting building societies, which forms a striking rules of the society, either by arbitrators, or by feature in the humbler department of urban society application to the county court of the district in in England. See FREEHOLD. England, the court of the assistant-barrister in BE'NEFIT OF CLERGY. This expression Ireland, and the sheriff's court in Scotland—the relates to happily a former state of the law of Lord Chancellor being empowered to make such England, which at once shews the power of the rules and orders, and the judges of the Court of clergy and the ignorance of the people. Session in Scotland such acts of Sederunt as may otherwise called privilegium clericale, and in the be necessary for regulating the procedure. By an days of its real meaning and force, the benefit or apparent oversight, a similar control over the court privilege meant little short of the total exemption of the assistant-barrister in Ireland is not given to of the clerical order, in respect of crimes and the Irish Chancellor, or to any other Irish judicial offences, from the jurisdiction and authority of the authority.
secular magistrate an exemption pretended to be Building societies are of two kinds: those which founded upon the text of Scripture, ‘Touch not are to terminate at the end of a specified period— mine anointed, and do my prophets no harm. The usually twelve or fourteen years and those of a only exception to this was the priest being held in permanent nature. As attended with numerous custody by the king himself; but even in that case, inconveniences, the terminating are giving way to he could only remain in such regal custody with the permanent associations, and these latter alone the pleasure and consent of the bishop, who had need be described. The object which a member has entire control over his person, and over the inquiry distinctly in view is to be the proprietor of a dwell into his offence. If a priest or clerk ' happened to be ing-house. Instead of paying rent to a landlord, imprisoned by the secular arm, on a criminal charge he proposes to set aside so much of his earnings or capital felony, he was, on the Bishop's demand, to monthly towards the purchase-money of a property, be instantly delivered up without any further inquiThe advantage of this plan is two-fold. Instead of sition; not, indeed, to be let loose upon the country, continually paying rents, and never becoming any but to be detained by the ordinary, till he had richer, he finds that his instalments, which are only either purged himself from the offence, or, having a little more than what a rent would be, make him failed to do so, had been degraded; and this state his own landlord, and give him an improved social of things continued till the reign of Henry VI., position. In the best arranged societies, members when it was settled that the prisoner should first are allowed to pay much or little as instalments, be arraigned, and might either then claim his according to their ability; and in cases of sickness B. of C. by plea declining the jurisdiction, or, as or want of work, the payments may be for a time sus- was most usually practised, after conviction, by way pended. The method of acquiring a property is as of arresting judgment. The test of admission to follows: A member fixes on a house which he wishes this singular privilege was the clerical dress and to buy, and proposes to the society that he wishes tonsure; and a story is told of one William de to borrow the price of it. The society appoints a Bussy, a serjeant-at-law, 1259 A, D. (the practising surveyor to report as to the value of the building, lawyers then were all priests), who, being called and if satisfied on that point, make the purchase into account for his great knavery and malpractices, name of the applicant, who, under proper guarrantees, claimed the benefit of his orders or clergy, which enters on possession immediately. A usual period till then remained an entire secret, and to this of payment is about thirteen years, a sum equal end wished to untie his coif, that he might shew to 5 per cent, of the principal, and 5 per cent. that he had the clerical tonsure; but this was not interest, being paid every year. Mr. J. A. Binns, permitted, and the bystanders seizing him, not by in describing these societies, in a paper read the coif, but by the throat, dragged him to prison. at the Social Science Congress at Bradford, 1859, | See i Stephen, p. 17. But in course of time BENEFIT OF INVENTORY-BENEVOLENCE.
à much wider and more comprehensive criterion holds that the only possible foundation for philowas established, all who could read, whether of sophy lies in a strict adherence to the facts of the clergy or laityma mark of great learning in our consciousness. His system of psychology is those days—and therefore capable of becoming therefore what the Germans call empirical, and clerks, being allowed the privilege. But laymen his method is the Baconian as pursued in natural could only claim it once, and upon so doing, were science. Of his numerous writings may be menburned on the hand, and discharged; to be again tioned Psychologische Skizzen (2 vols. 1825–1827); tried, however, by the bishop, whose investiga- Lehrbuch der Psychologie als Naturwissenschaft tion usually resulted in an acquittal, which, although (Text-book of Psychology as a Natural Science, the offender had been previously convicted by his 2d ed. 1845); System der Logik (2 vols. 1842); country, or perhaps by his own confession, had the Erziehungs-und-Unterrichtslehre (A Treatise effect of restoring him to his liberty, his credit, and Education, 1842). The best German educationists his property-in fact, the episcopal acquittal so recommended B.'s psychology as more capable of entirely whitewashed him, that in the eye of the practical application than the prevailing systems of law he became a new and innocent person. The Germany. mode in which the test of reading was applied was BENEVE'NTO (ancient Beneventum), a city of as follows: On conviction, the felon demanded his Southern Italy, capital of the Papal delegation of clergy, whereupon a book (commonly a psalter) was the same name, but situated within the kingdom of put into his hand, which he was required to read, Naples. It occupies the site of the ancient city, out when the judge demanded of the bishop's commissary, of the materials of which it is entirely built, on the who was present, Legit ut clericus ? and upon the declivity of a hill, near the confluence of the Calore answer to this question depended the convict's fate : and Sabato, about 32 miles north-east of Naples. if it were simply legit, the prisoner was burned on B. is about two miles in circumference, is surthe hand, and discharged; but if non legit, he suffered rounded by walls, has a citadel, a fine old cathedral, the punishment due to his offence. But by 5 Anne, some noteworthy churches, and a magnificent arch, c. 6, the B. of C. was extended to all persons con- erected to the honour of the Emperor Trajan, by victed of clergyable offences, whether they could the senate, 114 A.D., which, with the single excepread or not; and by the same statute and several tion of that of Ancona, is the best preserved subsequent ones, instead of burning on the hand, specimen of Roman architecture in Italy. It is an a discretionary power was given to the judge to archiepiscopal see, and has a population of about inflict a pecuniary fine or imprisonment. But all 17,000. B. is a place of very great antiquity. Some further attempts to modify and improve the law writers attribute its origin to Diomed, and in the on this subject proving impracticable, the B. of C. cathedral is a bas-relief representing the Calydonian was at last totally abolished, by the 7 and 8 Geo. IV. boar adorned for sacrifice, said to be the gift of the C. 28; and now by the 4 and 5 Vict. c. 22, the same Greek hero himself. Others give the credit of its is the law with regard to the peers.
origin to Auson, a son of Ulysses and Circe. It was, This privilege had never any existence or legal however, in the possession of the Samnites, when meaning in Scotland; and a learned writer on the history first takes notice of it, and it appears to have law of that country complains of its introduction been captured from them hy the Romans, some time into a statute applicable to Scotland (Hutchison's during the third Samnite war. It was certainly in Justice of the Peace in Scotland, vol. ii., p. 191). See the hands of the Romans 274 B.C., who changed its on the subject of this article generally, Kerr's name from Maleventum to Beneventum, six years Blackstone, vol. iv., p. 452; Hale's Pleas of the later, and made it a Roman colony. The CarthaCrown, part 2, c. 45 ; and Reeves's History of the ginians under Hanno were twice decisively defeated English Law.
in the immediate neighbourhood, during the second BE'NEFIT OF I'NVENTORY, in the Scotch Punic war. It rapidly rose to a place of importance law, was a legal privilege whereby an heir secured under the Roman empire, and was visited at various himself against unlimited liability for his ancestor, times by several of the emperors. by giving up, within the annus deliberandi (q. v.), Under the Lombards, who conquered it in the an inventory of his heritage or real estate, to the 6th c., B. continued to flourish, and became the extent of which, and no further, was the heir capital of a duchy which included nearly the half of liable. But the annus deliberandi is now abolished, the present kingdom of Naples. In the 9th c. the and the privilege in question is of the less conse duchy was separated into three states—B., Salerno, quence, seeing that by the 10 and 11 Vict. c. 47, ss. and Capua. In 1077, the whole was taken posses23 and 25, decrees of service infer only a limited sion of by the Normans, excepting the town and representation of a deceased party, and the heir its present delegation, which had previously (1053) is only liable to the extent of the inheritance descend- been presented to the pope, by the Emperor Henry ing to him. See Annus DELIBERANDI, HEIR, INHERI- III. During the 11th and 12th centuries, four TANCE, DEBT, and MORTGAGE.
councils were held at the city of Benevento. BENEKE, FREDERIC EDUARD, professor of philo- Since that time, with some slight intervals, it has sophy in Berlin, was born in that city in 1798, remained under the direct dominion of the popes, and studied theology and philosophy, first at Halle, who govern it through a resident cardinal with the and then at Berlin. In 1820, he commenced lectur” title of Legate. In 1806, it was erected into a ing in the latter university, but his lectures were principality by Napoleon, who made Talleyrand soon interdicted by the minister Altenstein, as his Prince of B.; but it was restored to the pope at the
At the revolution of 1848-1849, B. philosophical views were quite opposed to those of peace of 1815. Hegel. After a few years his lectures were again remained faithful to the pope. allowed, and on Hegel's death, in 1832, he was BENE’VOLENCE, in the history of the law of appointed extraordinary professor of philosophy. England, was a species of forced loan, arbitrarily In March 1854, B. disappeared suddenly from his levied by the kings in violation of Magna Charta, residence, and nothing more was heard of him until and in consequence of which it was made an article June 1856, when his body was found in the canal at in the Petition of Rights, 3 Car. I., that no man Charlotteburg in the same place in which he had shall be compelled to yield any gift, loan, or sought his death. B. has more affinity with British B., tax, or such like charge, without common thinkers than any other German philosopher. He consent by act of parliament; and by the statute
1 Will. and Mary, st. 2, c. 2, it is declared, that the areas and populations of the presidency of B. levying money for or to the use of the crown, by were as follows: pretence of prerogative, without grant of parlia
Square Miles. Population. ment, or for longer time, or in other manner than
Gov.-general's Domain, 340,871 41,807,760 the same is or shall be so granted, is illegal. See
84,982 30,016,137 Hallam's Constitutional History of England, and Bengal,
246,785 37,505,599 1 Stephen's Com., p. 167.
Totals (British), 672,638 109,329,496 BENGA'L, a term used in three distinct senses-as Native Powers,
596,790 47,909,199 presidency, sub-presidency and province, in Hindustan.
Grand Totals, In 1765, the soubah or viceroyalty of this name
1,269,428 157,238,695 was, along with Babar and part of Orissa, ceded by Thus, without reckoning the nominally independent the Great Mogul, virtually in full sovereignty, to the principalities, the three grand divisions of B., as a English East India Company. As a natural conse- presidency, present six times the area, and nearly quence of this acquisition of territory, the presi- five times the population of Great Britain. In their dency of Calcutta, which had been separated from mutual relations, these three grand divisions still that of Madras in 1707, came to be styled the form one and the same presidency of Bengal, as presidency of Bengal. Moreover, in 1773, this, the distinguished from the presidencies of Madras youngest of the three distinct governments of and Bombay. They are all, more or less directly, British India, was elevated above both its older subject to one and the same central authority rivals by an act of parliament, which declared its an authority which the recent transfer of our immediate ruler to be ex officio the governor-general eastern empire does not appear, at least in express of the whole of the Company's dominions. With its terms, to have disturbed or modified. They poscommanding position on and around the delta of sess also one and the same military organisation to the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, B., as a presi- orerawe or protect them. Of that military organdency, grew almost as uninterruptedly as a 'tree, isation the form and extent are at present under alike to the north-west and to the south-east-far discussion, for the B. native army virtually combeyond the basins of its own mighty rivers. Within mitted suicide in the summer of 1857. Other less than 90 years, it had overleaped, without a features, whether local or universal, of Bengal, either break in its continuity, at once the Irrawaddy and as a presidency or as a sub-presidency, will fall the Indus. Benares in the one direction, was the naturally under either more general or less general first considerable increment, having been absorbed heads. Bengal Proper alone, the ancient soubah in 1775; while the last addition of importance or the modern province, now claims more special unless one should except Onde, which, however, had notice. really become British in 1801-was Pegu, in the B. Proper, then, is bounded on the N. by Nepaul, other direction, the Burmese war of 1862 filling up Sikim, and Bhotan ; on the E. by Assam ; on the s. the gap on the coast which that of 1826 had still by the Bay of Bengal; on the S.W. by Orissa and left between Assam and Aracan on the north, and Gundwana ; and on the W. by Bahar. Taking its Tenasserim on the south. From Tenasserim to the widest range, it measures about 350 miles from west Punjab inclusive, B., as a presidency, embraced about to east, by an average of about 300 from south to 29° of long., and about 21° of lat. Further, it north, and covers an area, in round numbers, of comprised, to the south-east, the detached settle- 100,000 square miles. It embraces about 30 adminments of Penang, Malacca, and Singapore ; while to istrative districts: and its population may be stated the north-west it might, for a time at least, have at 26 millions. Thus, Bengal Proper differs but claimed Afghanistan. The whole of this vast little, in extent and population, from Great Britain, tract was, either directly or indirectly, under the while of its own sub-presidency, it comprises immediate rule of the governor-general, advised, and nearly one-half of the area, and more than threein some cases, controlled, by a council of 5 members, fifths of the population. Next to Calcutta, the of whom one was the commander-in-chief, and at cities of note are Moorshedabad, Dacca, Burdwan, least one other was not to be a Company's servant. Purneah, Hoogly, Midnapore, Rajmahal, Bancorah
Recently, however, the presidency of B., having Berhampore, &c. In B. Proper, within the districi proved to be too extensive for a consolidated of Hoogly, there stands also the French settle administration, has been divided into three portions ment of Chandernagore, containing somewhat less -one portion remaining under the governor-general, than 4 square miles, with a population of 32,670.. and two being assigned to subordinate function. The Hoogly district, moreover, contained, at one aries, the lieutenant-governors, respectively of “The time, two other dependencies of foreign countries, North-western Provinces,' and of Bengal.' The the Dutch Chinsura, and the Danish Serampore, first portion, under the direct sway of the governor- respectively ceded to England in 1824 and 1845. general, consists of the Punjab (q. v.); the Cis B. Proper, as a whole, may be regarded as almost a Sutlej states, 4 in number-Oude, Nagpoor, Pegu, dead level
. It is only on the south-west frontier Tenasserim; and the 3 detached settlements already that it shews any hill-country, for towards the mentioned in and near the Straits of Malacca. The north it is said nowhere to reach even a single two other portions, occupying, between them, the spur of the Himalaya. The principal rivers are entire space from Pegu to the Cis-Sutlej states, meet the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, the former near the confluence of the Gogra and the Ganges, intersecting the country diagonally from northPatna being situated in Bengal,' and Benares in. The west to south-east, and the latter crossing its North-western Provinces. The western section more easterly portion in a direction to the west of contains the districts of Delhi, Meerut, Allygurh, south. During their lower courses, these main Rohilcund, Bareilly, Shahjehanpoor, Bijnour, Agra, channels are so interlaced together as to form Furruckabad, Allahabad, Cawnpore, Futtehpoor, perhaps the most singular net-work of waters in the Benares, Goruckpore, Azimghur, Jounpoor, Mirza- world; and their first point of confluence is said to pore, Ghazeepore, &c.; and the eastern section be Jaffergunge—the head also of tide-water-in lat. contains the districts of Jessore, Burdwan, Bancorah, 23° 52' N., and long. 89° 46' E., at a distance of 160 Bhagulpore, Monghir, Cuttack, Balasore, Midna- miles from the sea. But the thousand-isled delta pore, Moorshedabad, Rungpoor, Dacca, Silhet, commences 120 miles further up the Ganges, where Patna, Bahar, Chittagong, the Sunderbunds, Assam, the highest offset, the Bhagirathi, breaks off to Aracan, &c. According to official returns of 1869, the right, afterwards to join a similar offset, the
Jellinghee, in forming the Hoogly of Calcutta. | abandoned by every tide, where the singularly powerBesides these two grand arteries, the province is ful evaporation--said to be sometimes an inch a watered by many less considerable rivers, chiefly day on the depth of the adjacent bay-impairs the northerly tributaries of the Ganges ; so that even health of the labourer in proportion as it facilitates in the driest season there is scarcely any spot 20 his labour. Of all these commodities, indigo (q. v.) miles distant from a navigable stream. During the is, in one important view, the most valuab rainy months, almost every water-course in the being more likely than any other to attract English more level regions inundates the adjacent plains ; agriculturists to India. From the earliest times the while, down in the delta, the separate floods some-dye appears to have been cultivated on the Lower times mingle themselves into a breadth of 100 Ganges, which for ages enjoyed, in this respect, the miles. To say nothing of temporary inconvenience monopoly of the European trade. But when once the and loss, these visitations often inflict permanent cultivation of the plant was introduced into America, damage such as is wholly irreparable. The soil, it gradually engrossed the market--the greater care in most parts of the province, is so decidedly alluvial, in the preparation making up for a natural inferiority that hardly a rock or a stone meets the ascending in the article itself; and it was only when British voyager within a distance of 400 miles from the capital and skill undertook the manufacture, that seama soil offering but a feeble barrier to torrents. B. began to resume her original supremacy in this which, besides gathering, as they rise, velocity branch of agriculture. The annual rainfall at Caland momentum, are liable to change their direction cutta varies from 50 inches to 85, diminishing with each increase of depth and width. A twofold gradually towards the interior. At Calcutta also evil is the result. The Ganges and the Brama- the mean temperature for the year, from 1841 to putra, resuming, as it were, their gifts of a former 1850 inclusive, averaged 73•4° F. at sunrise, 87•2° at age, cut for themselves new passages, to the in- 2 hours and 40 minutes P. M., and 82o at sunset the jury of private individuals, while their old ones largest differences between the several years of the become so many seething swamps, to the preju- series having been respectively 1.6°, 2.9°, and 1.4°. dice of the public health. To a partial extent, Iron and coal are understood to abound, though by such calamities have been averted by embankments. no means continuously, in a tract as large as In these circumstances, the intercourse is ordinarily England, running to the west from Rajmahal-a carried on by water; the Bengalee, in fact, may tract, however, not wholly situated in Bengal be viewed as almost amphibious ; and on the Proper. The Bengalees are a feeble and unwar- . Lower Ganges alone, there are said to be--unless like race. Within the period of authentic history, in so far as steam may have reduced the number the province bas always been subject to foreigners. about 30,000 professional boatmen. Speaking gen- | Its last change of owners was in 1757, when a erally, the communications by land are merely single battle, gained against odds of twenty to one, beaten paths. The only exception of note-and transferred it from the Mogul's viceroy to the that certainly a noble one--is the Grand Trunk English East India Company-the Mogul's own grant Road, which traverses . the province from Calcutta of 1765 merely ratifying the decision of Plassy. upwards on its way to Delhi, Lahore, and the With respect to education, which is more, or less, of Indus. Much of the country is covered by thick European character, the province numbers about woods and impenetrable jungles, which abound in 5000 pupils, who, so far as they have been classified, wild animals, such as the jackal, the leopard, the consist of 31 Christians, 689 Mohammedans, and tiger, and the elephant. The last is often tamed 4134 Hindus, besides those who are described as of for domestic use, the more
the more common beasts of other persuasions.' burden being the camel and the horse, the latter BENGA'L, BAY OF, a portion of the Indian Ocean, of an altogether inferior variety. Lying, as B. of the figure of a triangle, or rather of a quadranProper does, between the 21st parallel and the 27th, gle, for the northern extremity, instead of running its climate and productions, so far as the latitude to a point, measures about 250 miles from Balasore alone is concerned, may be expected to be toler- to Chittagong. Its southern side, drawn from ably uniform over the entire province. But other Coromandel to Malacca, so as merely to leave causes intervene to affect the result. Thus the on the right both Ceylon and Sumatra, may be nearer any place is to the sea, the heavier are the stated at 1200 miles. The Bay of B. receives many rains, and the broader is the overflow; the difference large rivers--the Ganges and the Brahmaputra on of moisture, however, being, in the remoter locali- the north, the Irrawaddy on the east, and on the ties, often made up by irrigation. Moreover, in an west the Mahanuddy, the Godavery, the Kistna inverse proportion to the latitude, the alternate or Krishna, and the Cauvery. On the west coast, monsoons of the Bay of Bengal (see next article), there is hardly anything worthy of the name of with their respective influences on the thermometer harbour; while on the east there are many good and barometer, are more sensibly felt in the mari- ports—such as Aracan, Cheduba, Negrais, Syriam, time tracts. Lastly, to these special causes must Martaban, Tavay River, King's Island, besides be added a cause of more general character---the several more in the islands between Pegu and Sudifference of elevation. Hence, wheat and barley, for matra. The evaporation, as stated in the previous instance, grow only on the higher grounds, while article, sometimes amounts, in the hottest season, rice cannot thrive unless within the range of the to about an inch a day. The monsoons prevail inundations, yielding, too, an endless diversity of over the whole of the north part of the Indian varieties, according to the infinitely fluctuating Ocean, of which the Bay of B. is a part, and also conditions under which it may be cultivated. Be- over the maritime tracts of B. itself. The northsides grains and vegetables in great variety and east monsoon is clearly the ordinary trade.wind abundance, B. Proper gives to commerce opium, of the northern hemisphere; while that from the indigo, silk, sugar, tobacco, coffee, and cotton. See south-west is shewn by Maury, in his Physical CALCUTTA. Cotton manufactures, once extensively Geography of the Sea, to be a deflection of the carried on, particularly in the district of Dacca, ordinary trade-wind of the southern hemisphere. lave latterly given way to British competition. Generally speaking, the north-east and south-west The article of salt, to come up under another head monsoons prevail respectively in summer and winin connection with revenue, claims separate notice. ter. Maury, however, shews that, on different Most of what is consumed in B. Proper is made parallels, there are different seasons for the alternate in deserts on the coast, alternately covered and changes.
BENGA'L ARMY. A succinct account of the posed to be laid down in the Apocalypse, that the military forces in India, European and native, will world would endure for the space of 77777 years ; be found under East INDIA ARMY; including a no- and that the breaking loose and the binding of tice of the changes made consequent on the transfer Satan' would take place in the summer of 1836. of the Company's powers to the crown, in 1858.
BENGUE'LA, a country of Western Africa, the BENGA'L LIGHT, BLUE LIGHT, or BENGAL limits of which are not very definitely fixed. It FIRE, is a brilliant signal-light used' at sea during is usually represented as lying between lat. 9° and shipwreck, and in ordinary pyrotechny for illuminat- 16° S., and long. 12° and 17°°E. The river Coanza ing a district of country. It is prepared from nitre, separates it from Angola on the N., the mountains sulphur, and the tersulphuret of antimony. The behind Cape Negro bound it on the S., and the materials are reduced to fine powder, thoroughly Atlantic Ocean on the W. Its surface is generally dried, and intimately mixed in the following propor- mountainous, rising from the coast-line inland, in å tions by weight: nitre, 6; sulphur, 2; tersulphuret series of terraces; several important rivers' flow of antimony, 1. The mixture constitutes the B. L., through it in a north-west direction to the Atlantic. and when kindled by a red-hot coal, red-hot iron, These rivers have numerous affluents, and water is or flame, immediately bursts into rapid and vivid everywhere so plentiful that it may be found by combustion, evolving a brilliant, penetrating, but digging two feet beneath the surface. Vegetation mellow light, which, during the darkness of night, of the most luxuriant and varied description is readily overcomes the gloom for a considerable the consequence of this humidity. The fruit-trees,
As the fumes evolved during the combustion both of tropical and subtropical climates, succeed of the B. L. contain an oxide of antimony, and are extremely well. The inhabitants, however, are poisonous, the light cannot be used with safety in too ignorant or indolent to take advantage of the rooms or enclosed spaces.
productiveness of the soil. Animals of all kinds
common to Western Africa abound in B., both BENGALI' LANGUAGE. See HINDUSTAN.
on land and in water. Peacocks are said to be BENGA'ZI, a seaport town of Barca, North Africa, accounted sacred in B., and kept tame about the finely situated on the east coast of the Gulf of Sidra, graves of the great chiefs
. Sulphur, copper, and in lat. 32° 6' N. and long. 20° 2' E. It has a popula- petroleum are found in the mountains, and also gold tion of about 2500, who carry on a trade with and silver in small quantities. The coast is unusually Malta and Barbary in oxen, sheep, wool, and corn. unhealthy, but the interior is more salubrious. B. is It has a castle, the residence of a bey, who governs inhabited by a variety of petty tribes, some of which it for the pasha of Tripoli. Its harbour is rapidly are cannibals, and bárbarous beyond even the barfilling up with sand. B. is chiefly interesting to the barism of Africa. As might be anticipated, religion traveller, as having been the site of the ancient city exists only in the form of Fetichism. The Portuof Hesperis, in the neighbourhood of which were guese claim B., but they exercise no real power in several singularly luxuriant dells of large extent, the interior. enclosed within steep rocks rising to the height of 60 or 70 feet. These were supposed to answer well capital of the above region, on the Atlantic,
BENGUEʻLA, St. PHILIP DE, the Portuguese the description of the fabled Gardens of the Hes- the mouth of the river Catumbella. Lat. 12° 33' S., perides. It first rose to importance under Ptolemy III., who called it Berenice, in honour of his wife. long. 13° 25' E. It is very unhealthy; so inimical
to European life, indeed, that the Portuguese affirm large population, chiefly of Jews. Justinian afterwards fortified it, and adorned it with it. It has à miserable appearance, being built of
their countrywomen could not live three months in
half-baked bricks, and made ruinous-like by a pracBENGEL, JOHANN ALBRECHT, a distinguished Ger- tice that prevails of never repairing the houses, man theologian and commentator, whose writings which, whenever they exhibit symptoms of decay, have exercised considerable influence in England, | are abandoned for new ones erected in the vicinity. was born at Winnenden, in Würtemberg, June 24, Pop. 3000, chiefly free blacks or slaves. It was a 1687. His early life was chequered by many vicissi- great slave-station at one time, exporting annually tudes. After completing his theological curriculum 20,000 slaves. The trade has fallen off greatly of in 1707, he became curate of Metzingen; a year late years. The town was, some time ago, invaded after, he was appointed theological tutor at Tübin- by a herd of thirsty elephants in quest of water, and gen.' Later in life, he held several high offices; almost entirely destroyed. among others, that of Consistorial councillor and prelate of Alpirsbach, in Würtemberg, where he died Bolivia, formed by the junction of all the streams
BENI', a river of South America, in the state of 28 December 1752.' He was the first Protestant that rush down from the Eastern Andes between 14° author who treated the exegesis of the New Testa- and 18° S. lat. Flowing through the province of ment in a thoroughly critical and judicious style: Moxos, it joins the Mamore to form the Madeira, one He did good service also in the rectification of of the largest affluents of the Amazon. the text of the Bible, and in paving the way for classifying the sacred manuscripts into families. BENICA'RLO, a poor, dirty, walled town of The short notes in his Gnomor Novi Testamenti Spain, in the province of Valencia. Pop. 6000, who (Tübingen, 1742) have been generally regarded as manufacture full-bodied' wines for export to Borvaluable, and translated into various languages. They deaux, where they are used in cooking clarets for were especially made use of by John Wesley, in his the English market. Bad brandy is also manufacNotes on the New Testament, which forms one of the tured here; and the town being situated on the standards of Wesleyan Methodism. Indeed Wesley's Mediterranean, a little fishing is carried on. work may be regarded as little more than an BE'NI-HA'SSAN, a village of Upper Egypt, on abridged translation from Bengel. An Exposition of the cast bank of the Nile, in lat. 27° 53' N., and the Revelation of St. John (Stuttgard, 1740), and a long. 30° 55' E. The place is remarkable for the chronological work—the Ordo Temporum a Principio numerous grottos in its vicinity, which are among per Periodos Economo Divince Historicus atque | the most interesting in Egypt. These catacombs are Propheticus (Tübingen, 1741), gained for B., in his excavated in the calcareous bank-apparently, at one time, a great reputation; some regarding him as time, washed by the Nile, now flowing further west an inspired prophet, but the majority as a visionary. /-in which the low hills that rise in this part of the In these works he calculated, on the basis he sup-1 valley terminate. The catacombs are about thirty