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in number, and are supposed to have been used as market-place as very offensive, from the effluvia sepulchres by the principal inhabitants of Hermo- rising from a heap of human skulls ; while in the outpolis, a city that stood on the opposite side of the skirts of the town they were still more revolted by river. Some of the grottos consist of three apart- the sight of turkey-buzzards feeding on bodies of men ments, the largest of which is 60 by 40 feet; recently decapitated. At Gato, a harbour lower down and pillars are cut out of the rock in imitation of the river, where the traveller Belzoni died, European the columns that support the roofs of buildings. merchants formerly had factories. Warree is another These shafts are polygons of sixteen sides, fluted principal place. The export trade of B. consists except on the inner side, which is left smooth for of palm-oil, salt, blue coral, jasper, wild-beast skins, a line of hieroglyphics. They are usually about 16 slaves, &c. B. was discovered by the Portuguese feet high, and from 3 to 5 feet in diameter at the Alfonso de Aveiro, 1486. In 1786, the French base. The sides of the caverns are covered with founded settlements at the mouth of the river, paintings representing the industrial pursuits, sports, which were destroyed by the British in 1792. pastimes, &c., of the ancient Egyptiars. The paint-BENI'N, BIGHT OF, that portion of the Gulf of ings, though not so artistic as those in the Theban Guinea (q. v.) extending from Cape Formosa ou catacombs, are of earlier date, and throw much the east to Cape St Paul's on the west, a distance of curious light on the manners and customs of the about 390 miles, with a coast-line of 460 miles. people.

Several rivers empty themselves into the B. of B., BE'NI-ISGUE'N, a large town in the interior the three principal of which, Benin, Escardos, and of Algeria, surrounded by a rampart, flanked with Forcados, are accessible to shipping. The coast towers, and said to be nearly as populous as Algiers. along the Bight was blockaded in 1851 by the British It has some trade in grain.

fleet engaged in the suppression of the slave-trade. BE'NI-I'SRAEL (Sons of Israel), a remarkable

EL (Song of Tarool) a remarkable Palm-oil and ivory are the principal articles of trade race in the west of India, who preserve a tradition at the towns on the coast. of Jewish descent, and have from time immemorial BENI-SOUE'F, a town of Central Egypt, on the acknowledged the law of Moses, although in many right bank of the Nile, about 70 miles south-southrespects conforming to the idolatry of the Hindus west of Cairo, one of the stations where travellers by whom they are surrounded. Dr. Wilson estimates making the tour of Egypt, usually stay. It is the their whole number at not much more than 5000. entrepot of all the produce of the fertile valley Their original settlement was at Navagaum, about of Fayoum, and has cotton-mills and quarries of 30 miles from Bombay, where they were protected alabaster. Pop. 5000. by the native princes; they have spread through the BENITIER, or BENATURA, the name of the maritime parts of the Konkan, and some of them are vase or vessel in which cousecrated or "holy-water: now to be found in Bombay itself. Their features is held in Roman Catholic churches. In England. exhibit a resemblance to those of the Arabian the B. was known by the names of the holy-water Jews. Until recently, they were ignorant even of font' the holy-water vat' the holy-water not? the names of many of the books of the Old Testa- the holy-water stone' the holy-wat

the ‘holy-water stone,' the holy-water stock,' and ment; and it was not without hesitation that they the holy-water stoup.' Benitiers were either mov. consented to receive those of the later prophets. Dr. able or fixed. Portable ones, commonly of silver, Wilson supposes them to be a remnant of the ten were used in processions. Fixed benitiers were tribes, and to have settled in India long before the placed near the doors of churches, so that the people Jews of Cochin. See Cochin, JEWS OF. They might dip their fingers in the water, and cross reject the name of Jews, and deem its application themselves with it as they entered or left the to them a reproach. They have no MS. of the church. The learned French ecclesiologist, M. law in their synagogues. Their communities are Viollet-le-Duc, is disposed to think that, before the governed by a makadam, or head-man of their own 12th c., there were no fixed benitiers, their place number; and their religious assemblies are presided | being served by vases of metal set down near over by a kazi, who also performs circumcision and the entrance of the church when the doors were other rites.

opened. The fixed B. is usually placed either BENI'N, a state in Guinea, Africa, dependent on against a pillar, or upon a pedestal. It is of all the kingdom of Ashantee, situated in 4° -9° N. shapes, and is of the most different materials, but lat., and 49--8° E. long. It takes its name from oftenest of stone. The benitiers belonging to the the western arm of the Niger--formerly supposed church of St. Sulpice, in Paris, are remarkable for to be a main river, and styled Benin or Formosa— their beauty. They are formed of magnificent shells, which leaves the Niger at Kirii, and, after a course and bordered with gilt copper. In Great Britain, of about 115 miles, forms an embouchure two miles benitiers are found of every style, from Romanesque wide. The country of B. is bounded on the N. E. to late Third Pointed. On the continent, they range and the F. by the Niger; on the S. by the Bay of from Romanesque to Renaissance, those of the latter Benin, into which Cape Formosa is projected; on style being generally of marble, richly sculptured, the W. by Dahomey; and on the N.W. by Yariba. and supported by figures. The coast is indented by numerous estuaries, and BENJAMIN (a Hebrew proper name, signifying is generally level; but the land gradually rises 'Son of my Right Hand,' or Son of Good Fortune'), towards the north, until it reaches an elevation of the youngest and most beloved of the sons of Jacob. 2500 feet in the Kong Mountains. The soil is His mother, Rachel, who died soon after he was very fertile, producing rice, yams, palms, sugar, &c. born, called him Benoni (Son of my Pain), but his The animals are the same as those in other states father changed it to Benjamin. He was the head of of Guinea, but the hippopotamus is more common. one of the twelve tribes of Israel. The tribe in the The popalation is so dense that the king—who is desert reckoned 35,400 warriors above twenty years worshipped as a great fetish-can bring into the field of age ; and on the entrance into Canaan, 45,600. an army of 100,000 men. The government, customs, Its territory, which was small but fertile, lay on the and superstitions of B. are similar to those prevailing west side of the Jordan, between the tribes of in Ashantee. The capital, Benin, which is situated Ephraim and Judah. The chief places were Jericho, in lat. 6° 20' N., long. 5° 50' E., with about 15,000 Bethel, Gibeon, Gilgal, and Jerusalem, the last of inhabitants, has a considerable trade. Messrs. Smith which was on the confines of Judah. In the time and Moffat, who visited it in 1838, describe its of the Judges,' the tribe of B. became involved in


war with the eleven other tribes of Israel, on, while some of the beautiful Perthshire lochs are account of refusing to deliver up to justice the seen. Gibeonitish ruffians who had brutally abused the

BEN MACDHU'I, a lofty mountain of Aberdeenconcubine of an Ephraimite. The result was dread

shire, belonging to the Grampian range, at one time ful. All the male descendants of B. were put to

regarded as the highest in Great Britain, but now the sword (Judges xx. and xxi.), excepting 600,

ascertained to be the second-its elevation being towards whom the hearts of their brethren finally

| 4296 feet. relented. Saul, the first king of Israel, was of the tribe of B., which remained loyal to his son,

..BEN NE’VIS, the highest mountain in Great Ishbosheth. 'After the death of Solomon, B., along

Britain, is situated in the county of Inverness, with Judah, formed the kingdom of Judah ; and on Scotland. It has a height of 4406 feet, is exceedingly the return from the Captivity, these two constituted

nted difficult of ascent, with a tremendous precipice of the principal element of the new Jewish nation.

1500 feet in depth on the north-east side. Here BENJAMIN OF TUDE'LA, a Jewish rabbi,

snow remains throughout the year. Granite and was born in Navarre, Spain.

gneiss form the base of the mountain, which in its

He was the first European traveller who gave information respect

upper part is composed of porphyry. ing the distant East. Partly with commercial views,

| BENNETT, WILLIAM STERNDALE, a modern and partly to trace the remnants of the lost tribes, English pianist and composer, was born at Sheffield. he made a journey in the years 1159_1173, from April 13, 1816. After studying under Crotch, Holmes. Saragossa, through Italy and Greece, to Palestine,

to Palestine Potter, and other professors in the Royal Academy, Persia, and the borders of China, returning by way | London, he attracted the notice of Mendelssohn of Egypt and Sicily. He died in 1173, the last at the Dusseldorf, Musical Festival, appeared with year of his travels. His notes of foreign lands success at Leipsic in the winter of 1837-1838, and originally written in Hebrew, and frequently repub-1)

ühe was received with great applause when he returned lished in Latin, English, Dutch, and French-are |

to London. In 1838, he was elected member of occasionally concise and valuable ; but on the whole the

the whole the Royal Society of Music. Besides a great nummust be accepted with qualifications. Like all the be,

the ber of compositions for the pianoforte, solo and early travellers, B. had a greedy ear for the marvel

els with other instruments, B. has written quartetts lous. His errors are also numerous. The latest for stringed instruments, concertos, and overtures in edition by Asher (London, 1841) contains the ori

Mendelssohn's style. He has also published a work ginal text, with an English translation and learned

ed entitled Classical Practice for Pianoforte Students annotations.

(Lond. 1841). BE'NJAMIN TREE. See BENZOIN.


one of the most famous Russian generals, was born LAWERS, a mountain in Perthshire, l at Brunswick. February 10. 1745. His father was Scotland, about 32 miles west-north-west of Perth, an officer in the Brunswick Guards; and B. himself on the west side of Loch Tay. This mountain, entered the Hanoverian service for a time; but havwhich is easy of ascent, is rich in specimens of

ing squandered the property left him, he joined the Alpine plants, and a magnificent view is commanded Russian army in 1773. and in the Turkish war soon from its summit, which has an elevation of 3945 |

attracted the notice of the empress, Catharine, who feet. Ore of titanium is found in the mountain.

employed him to carry out her designs against BEN LE'Dİ, a mountain also of Perthshire, Poland. He was one of the leaders of the con4 miles west-north-west of Callander, with an spiracy against the Emperor Paul (1801); though elevation of 2863 feet. It received its name from he is said not to have been present at the catasthe Druids, who are supposed to have had a place trophe, but to have prevented the Empress Maria of worship on its summit-the Gaelic words Beinn- from rushing to her husband when she heard his le-Dia, signifying Hill of God. This mountain is cries. He fought with considerable success in celebrated in Scott's Lady of the Lake.

the battle of Pultusk (1806); and held the chief BEN-LO'MOND. a celebrated Scottish mountain command in the obstinate and murderous struggle in the north-west of Stirlingshire, on the east side

at Eylau (1807). When Napoleon invaded Russia of Loch Lomond, and about 27 miles west-north

in 1812, B. commanded the Russian centre on the west of Stirling. This mountain, forming the south

bloody field of Borodino, and gave his voice for extremity of the Grampians or Central Scottish | fighting a second battle before the walls of Moscow. Highlands, is 3192 feet high, and consists of mica Before the French began their retreat, he gained slate, with veins or quartz, greenstone, and felspar a brilliant victory over Murat at Woronowa (18th porphyry. The summit is precipitous on the north October). Differences with Kutusov, who would side, with a gentle declivity on the south-east; it is not adopt B.'s plan to prevent the French froin

retire from the covered with vegetation to the top. Though consider crossing the Beresina, made him ably surpassed in height by several other Scottish | army; but after Kutusov's death, he took the mountains, none are more imposing. Seen from

command of the Russian army of reserve, which Loch Lomond, it appears a truncated cone, and

entered Saxony in July 1813, fought victoriously at from between Stirling and Aberfoyle, a regular

gular the battle of Leipsic, and was created Count by the pyramid. It has perhaps been ascended by a Emp

i ova Emperor Alexander on the field. When Leipsic greater number of tourists than any other of the was taken, it was he that was commissioned by the Highland mountains. The magnificent view from allies to announce to the king of Saxony that he was

retire from the top, in clear weather, includes the whole length a prisoner. Failing health made him (30 miles) of Loch Lomond, with its diversified the Russian service in 1818 to his paternal estate isles, and wooded and cultivated shores, the rich in Hanover, where he died October 3, 1826.-His plains of Stirlingshire and the Lothians, the windings

son, ALEX. LEVIN B., is now a leading Hanoverian of the Forth, the castles of Stirling and Edinburgh, statesma of the heights of Lanarkshire, the vales of Renfrewshire, 1 BEN-RHY'DDING, a celebrated hydropathic Ayrshire, Firth of Clyde, Isles of Arran and Bute, establishment in the West Riding of Yorkshire, in a the Irish coast, Kintyre, and the Atlantic. The beautiful situation on the right bank of the river north semicircle of the horizon is bounded by Wharf, 16 miles north-west of Leeds. The building, Bens Lawers, Voirlich, Ledi, Cruachan, and Nevis ; 1 erected 15 years ago, at the cost of nearly £30,000, is BENSHIE_BENTHAM.

a very imposing pile, on an eminence midway up the its creeping perennial roots. This is the Herds-grast; side of the valley. There is accommodation for 80 or Red-top of Pennsylvania, but not of N. York of -100 patients and visitors, and extensive pleasure. N. England. The MARSH B. G. (A. alba), also very grounds around. In addition to the usual appliances common in Britain, forming a large part of tho of the water-cure, and a variety of gymnastic exer- natural pasture in many moist situations, is very cises, Dr. M.Leod has introduced the Compressed- similar to the species just described, but generally air Bath (q. v.); and quite recently a sumptuous taller and stouter. Of this also there are many Turkish bath has been added to the other attractions varieties, but in all of them, the ligule (the little of the establishment.

membranous tongue at the junction of the blade of BE'NSHIE or BANSHEE, an imaginary being the leaf with its sheathing base) is elongated and in the superstitions of the Irish. The B. is a female, acute, whilst in A. vulgaris it is very short, and who is called the wife of the fairies, and she makes appears as if cut off. A variety, so little different herself known by wailings and shrieks, premonitory as scarcely to deserve the name, but with somewhat of a death in the family over which she is presumed broader leaves and more luxuriant habit of growth, to exercise a kind of guardianship. The name of was at one time much celebrated among agriculthis tutelary demon is supposed to be from the turists, under the name of Fiorin Grass, or Agrostis Irish celtic ben or bean, a woman; and sighe, a stolonifera. It was unduly lauded, and the consefairy. A similar superstition prevailed, and is per- quent disappointment led to its being unduly dishaps not yet extinct, in the Highlands of Scotland. paraged. It is a useful grass in moist grounds, BENT GRASS (Agrostis), a genus of grasses

newly reclaimed bogs, or land liable to inundation. distinguished by a loose panicle of small, one-flowered,

The first three or four joints of the culms lie flat on laterally compressed spikelets; the glumes unequal,

the damp soil, emitting roots in abundance, and it awnless, and longer than the paleæ, which are also

was formerly. propagated by chopping these into unequal, and of which the inner one is sometimes

pieces, and scattering them, but now generally by wanting, and the outer sometimes has and some

seed.--SOUTHERN BENT (A. dispar) is a native of the times has not an awn; the seed free. (For explana

United States, with broader leaves than either of the tion of these terms, see GRASSES.) The species are

re preceding species, very creeping roots, and large numerous, and are found in almost all countries and panicies

à panicles almost level at top. It was at one time climates; several are natives of Britain. All of strongly recommended for cultivation, but has gone them are grasses of a slender and delicate appear

out of repute in Britain. It is, however, more highly ance. Some are very useful as pasture-grasses and

esteemed in France, particularly upon account of for hay, upon account of their adaptation to certain

the great crop which it yields on deep sand and on kinds of soil, although none of them is regarded as

moist calcareous soils.-Brown B. G. (A. canina), a very nutritious.—The Common B. G. (A. vulgaris)

common perennial British grass, abundant in moist heaths and moorish grounds, is valuable for mixing with other grasses to form permanent pasture on poor wet peaty soils.--Silky B. G. (A. Spica venti) is a beautiful grass, with very slender branches to its ample panicle, which, as it waves in the wind, has a glossy and silky appearance. It is a rare native of sandy grounds in England, common in Southern and Central Europe; an annual grass, occasionally sown in spring to fill up blanks in grass-fields.

BENTHAM, JEREMY, an eccentric but eminent writer on ethics and jurisprudence, was the son of a wealthy solicitor in London, where he was born (in Red Lion Street, Houndsditch) on the 15th February 1748. He received his early education at Westminster School; and when yet a boy, being little more than twelve years of age, he went to Queen's College, Oxford, where he took his Master's degree in 1766. But though his years were so tender, he appears not to have been so unprepared as might be supposed to benefit by the university; for before entering it, he had already, by his precocious tendencies to speculation, acquired the title of philosopher.' On graduating, his father, who expected his son to become Lord Chancellor, set him to the study of the law at Lincoln's Inn, where he was called to the bar in 1772. He never practised in his profession, however, for which he had a strong distaste, which is paraded in many of his writings. Turning from the practice of law to its theory,

he became the greatest critic of legislation and Bent Grass (Agrostis vulgaris).

government in his day. His first publication, A

Fragment on Government, 1776, was an acutely forms a principal part of the pasture in almost all hypercritical examination of a passage in Blackthe elevated districts of Britain, and is equally stone's Commentaries, prompted, as he has himself abundant in many parts of the continent of Europe. explained, by a passion for improvement in those It resists drought better than almost any other shapes in which the lot of mankind is meliorated grass, but is only sown by agriculturists on soils by it.' The Fragment abounds in fine, original, unsuitable for the more luxuriant grasses. It is also and just observation; it contains the germs of regarded as very suitable for lawns; but in light, most of his after-writings, and must be highly dry, cultivated grounds it is often a troublesome esteemed, if we look away from its disproportion to weed, known as Black Squitch, or Quick-grass, and its subject and the writer's disregard of method. frequent harrowing is resorted to for the removal of The Fragment procured him the acquaintance of



Lord Lansdowne, in whose society at Bowood he codification and reconstruction of the laws; and afterwards passed perhaps the most agreeable hours insisted, among other changes, on those which came of his life. It was in the Bowood society that he at a later day to be popularly demanded as the points conceived an attachment to Miss Caroline Fox (Lord of the Charter - viz., universal suffrage, annual parHolland's sister), who was still a young lady, when liaments, vote by ballot, and paid representatives. B., in the 54th year of his age, offered her his heart However impossible some of these schemes were, it and hand, and was rejected with all respect. In cannot be denied that B. did more to rouse the spirit 1778, he published a pamphlet on The Hard Labour of modern reform and improvement in laws and Bill, recommending an improvement in the mode politics, than any other writer of his day. Many of of criminal punishment; which he followed in 1811 his schemes have been, and many more are, in the by A Theory of Punishments and Rewards. In these course of being slowly realised; the end and object of two works, B. did more than any other writer them all was the general welfare, and his chief error of his time to rationalise the theory of punish- —apart from his over-estimate of the value of some ments by consideration of their various kinds and changes which he proposed-lay in conceiving that effects, their true objects, and the conditions of their organic changes are possible through any other proefficiency. He published in 1787 Letters on Usury; cess than that of growth and modification of the in 1789, Introduction to the Principles of Morals and popular wants and sentiments. It was this error Legislation; in 1802, Discourses on Civil and Penal that led the philosopher, in his closet in London, Legislation; in 1813, A Treatise on Judicial Evi- to devise codes of laws for Russia (through which dence; in 1817, Paper Relative to Codification and country he made a tour in 1785) and America, the Public Instruction, in 1824, The Book of Fallacies. adoption of which would have been equivalent to These were followed by other works, of less revolutions in these countries, and then bitterly to consequence. His whole productions have been bewail the folly of mankind when his schemes were collected and edited by Dr. Bowring and Mr. John rejected. Hill Burton, and published in eleven volumes. It In ethics, as in politics, he pressed his doctrines is well, however, for B.'s reputation, that it does to extremes. It has been said that his doctrine of not rest wholly on his collected works; and that utility was so extended that it would have been he found in M. Dumont, Mr. James Mill, and Sir practically dangerous, but for the incapacity of the Samuel Romilly, generous disciples to diffuse his bulk of mankind for acting on a speculative theory. principles and promote his fame. In his early By the death of his father in 1792, B. succeeded works, his style was clear, free, spirited, and often to property in London, and to farms in Essex, yieldeloquent; but in his later works, it became repul- ing from £500 to £600 a year. He lived frugally, sive, through being overloaded and darkened with but with elegance, in one of his London houses technical terms. It is in regard to these more espe (Queen Square, Westminster); and employing young cially that M. Dumont has most materially served men as secretaries, corresponded and wrote daily. his master by arranging and translating them into By a life of temperance and industry, with great French, through the medium of which language B.'s self-complacency, in the society of a few devoted doctrines were propagated throughout Europe, till friends (who, says Sir James Mackintosh, more they became more popular abroad than at home. resenibled the hearers of an Athenian philosopher Mr. James Mill, himself an independent thinker, did | than the proselytes of a modern writer), the eccenmuch in his writings to extend the application intric savant attained to the age of eighty-four. new directions of B.'s principles, a work in which,

1 BENTHA'MIA, a genus of plants of the natural apart from his original efforts, he has achieved al lasting monument of his own subtilty and vigour of

order Cornaceæ (q. v.), consisting of Asiatic trees or mind. Criticisms of B.'s writings will be found in

shrubs, of which the fruit is formed of many small the Edinburgh Review, by Sir Samuel Romilly; and

drupes grown together. B. frugifera, a native of in the Ethical Dissertation, in the Encyclopædia

Nepaul, is a small tree, with lanceolate leaves, and a Britannica, by Sir James Mackintosh. But the

reddish fruit, not unlike a mulberry, but larger; not

unpleasant to the taste. It has ripened fruit in the most valuable contribution in English to his reputa

south of England, and will probably be found to tion is unquestionably Benthamiana, by Mr. John Hill Burton, advocate, containing a memoir, selec

' succeed in the open air, wherever the winters are so tions of all the leading and important passages from

mild that fuchsias are not cut down by frost. The bis various writings, and an appendix embracing an

flowers are fragrant. essay on his system, and a brief clear view of all his | BENTINCK, LORD WILLIAM GEORGE FREDEleading doctrines.

RICK CAVENDISH, commonly called Lord George B., In all B.'s ethical and political writings, the doc- at one time the leader of the agricultural Protection trine of utility is the leading and pervading prin- party, third son of the fourth Duke of Portland, was ciple; and his favourite vehicle for its expression is born 27th February 1802, and entering the army when the phrase, 'the greatest happiness of the greatest young, eventually attained the rank of major. He subnumber,' which was first coined by Priestley, though sequently became private secretary to his uncle, the its prominence in politics has been owing to Bentham. Right Hon. George Canning. Elected in 1826 M. P. 'In this phrase,' he says, “I saw delineated for the first for Lynn-Regis, he sat for that borough till his time a plain as well as a true standard for whatever death. At first, attached to no party, he voted for is right or wrong, useful, useless, or mischievous, in Catholic Emancipation and for the principle of the human conduct, whether in the field of morals or Reform Bill, but against several of its most importpolitics. It need scarcely be remarked, that the ant details, and in favour of the celebrated Chandos phrase affords no guidance as to how the benevolent Clause (q. v.). On the formation of Sir Robert Peel's end pointed at is to be attained; and is no more ministry in December 1834, he and his friend Lord than a quasi-concrete expression of the objects of Stanley, terwards Earl of Derby, with some true benevolence. In considering how to compass adherents, formed a separate section in the House these objects, B. arrived at various conclusions, of Commons. On the resignation of Sir Robert Peel which he advocated irrespective of the conditions of in April following, Lord George openly joined the society in his day, and of the laws of social growth great Conservative party, which acknowledged that which, indeed, neither he nor his contemporaries | statesman as its head, and adhered to it for nearly understood. He demanded nothing less than the eleven years. On Peel's return to power in 1841, immediate remodelling of the government, and the Lord George received an offer of office, which hə


declined, being at that time deeply interested in the į Evidences of Natural and Revealed Religion. He sports of the field and the race-course. When Peel entered the church, and owed to the patronage of introduced his free-trade measures in 1845, a large the Bishop of Worcester various good ecclesiastical portion of his supporters joined the Protection party appointments, and through the same influence

head, and a leading speaker in the debates. His James's. In 1690, he published his Dissertation speeches in the session of 1845--1846 were most upon the Epistles of Phalaris, which established his damaging to the government of Sir Robert Peel, and reputation throughout Europe, and may be said to contributed in no small degree to hasten its downfall have commenced a new era in scholarship. The in July of the latter year. Lord George supported the principles of historical criticism were then unknown, bill for the removal of the Jewish disabilities, and and their first application to establish that the sorecommended the payment of the Roman Catholic called Epistles of Phalaris, which professed to have clergy by the landowners of Ireland. In the sport- been written in the 6th c. B. C., were the forgery of ing world he is understood to have realised very a period some eight centuries later, filled the learned considerable gains, and he shewed the utmost zeal at world with astonishment. all times to suppress the dishonest practices of the In 1700, B. was appointed Master of Trinity turf. He died suddenly of a spasm of the heart, 21st College, Cambridge ; and in the following year, he September 1848, while crossing his father's park at married Mrs. Joanna Bernard, the daughter of a Welbeck Abbey, Nottinghamshire.

Huntingdonshire knight. The history of B.'s BENTINCK, LORD WILLIAM HENRY CAVENDISH,

Mastership of Trinity is the narrative of an un

broken series of quarrels and litigations, provoked a general officer and statesman, uncle of the preceding, and second son of the third Duke of Port

by his arrogance and rapacity, for which, it must be land, was born 14th September 1774, and became an

confessed, he was fully as well known during his ensign in the Coldstream Guards in 1791. Having

lifetime as for his learning. He contrived, neverserved with distinction in Flanders, Italy, and Egypt,

theless, to get himself appointed Regius Professor of he was in 1803 appointed governor of Madras,

Divinity, and, by his boldness and perseverance, where he advocated several useful reforms; but his

managed to pass scathless through all his contro

versies. Notwithstanding that at one time the Bishop proscription of beards and the wearing of turbans and earrings by the sepoys when on duty, led to the

of Ely, the visitor of Trinity, pronounced sentence mutiny and massacre of Vellore, and his own imme

depriving him of his mastership, and that at another diate recall. In August 1808, he was placed on

the senate of the university pronounced a similar

entence of his academic honours, he remained in full the staff of the army in Portugal under Sir Harry Burrard. Subsequently selected to proceed on an

possession of both the former and the latter till the important mission to the supreme Junta of Spain, he

day of his death. This stormy life did not impair accompanied the army under Sir John Moore in its

his literary activity. He edited various classicsretreat, and at Corunna commanded a brigade. He

among others, the works of Horace-upon which next commanded a division of Lord Wellington's

he bestowed vast labour. He is, however, more

s celebrated for what he proposed than for what army, and shortly after was sent as British minister to the court of Sicily, and commander-in-chief of the

he actually performed. The proposal to print an British forces in that island. At the head of an

edition of the Greek New Testament, in which the expedition, he landed at Catalonia in July 1813,

received text should be corrected by a careful com. penetrated to Valencia, and afterwards laid siege to

parison with all the existing MSS., was then sing Tarragona, but was repulsed at Villa Franca. Early

| larly bold, and evoked violent opposition. H in 1814, quitting Sicily, he repaired to Tuscany, pub

failed in carrying out his proposal : but the prir. lished at Florence a proclamation inviting the

ciples of criticism which he maintained have since Italians to shake off the French yoke, and after

been triumphantly established, and have led to wards made himself master of Genoa. Between

important results in other hands. He is to be 1796 and 1826, he held a seat in parliament as

regarded as the founder of that sehool of classical meniber for Camelford, Nottinghamshire, and Ash

criticism of which Porson afterwards exhibited the burton. In 1827, he was appointed governor-general

chief excellences as well as the chief defects; and of India, and sworn as privy-councillor. His policy

which, though it was itself prevented by too strict

attention to minute verbal detail from ever achievin India was pacific and popular, and his viceroyship was marked by the abolition of Sutti (q. v.),

ing much, yet diligently collected many of the and by the opening up of the internal communi.

facts which men of wider views are now groupin: cation, as well as the establishment of the overland

together, to form the modern science of comparativ route. After his return in 1835, he was elected M. P.


B. died in 1742, leaving behind him o: for Glasgow. He died at Paris, June 17, 1839.

son, Richard, who inherited much of his fathe

taste with none of his energy, and several daughte BENTLEY, RICHARD, a distinguished classical one of whom, Joanna, married, and was the mot scholar, was born at Oulton, in Yorkshire, January of Richard Cumberland the dramatist. Mo 27, 1662. In 1676, he entered St. John's College, life of Richard Bentley, 1830. Cambridge, in the humble capacity of subsizar. BÉNUÉ, or BI'NUÉ, or, as Dr. Barth pr Little is known of his university career, except that to spell it, BE'NUWÉ, called also Chadda and he shewed early a strong taste for the cultivation of Tchadda; an important river of Central Africa, ancient learning. At the usual time, he took the forming the eastern branch of the Quorra or Niger, degree of Bachelor of Arts; and on leaving the which it joins about 230 miles above the mouth of university, he was appointed head-master of the that river in the Gulf of Guinea. At its junction grammar-school of Spalding, Lincolnshire. About a with the Faro, in lat. about 9° 33' N., long. 120 year afterwards, he resigned this situation to become 40' E., the point where Dr. Barth crossed, lie tutor to the son of Dr. Stillingfleet, then Dean of describes the B. as being 800 yards across, with St. Paul's, and subsequently Bishop of Worcester. a general depth in its channel of 11 feet, and a B. accompanied his pupil to Oxford, where he had liability to rise under ordinary circumstances at full scope for the cultivation of classical studies ; least 30 feet, or even at times 50 feet higher.' and, that he succeeded in acquiring there some local in 1854, an expedition under the command of Dr. reputation, is evinced by his having been twice Baikie explored the B. as far as Dulti, a place about appointed to deliver the Boyle Lectures on the 350 miles above its confluence with the Niger, and



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