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BENYOWSKY-BENZOIN.

some 80 or 100 miles from where Dr. Barth crossed., Palus and Sisaroe Palus, two lakes within the Dr. Barth regards this river as offering the best dominions of Tunis, from which town they are about channel for the introduction of civilization into the 30 miles distant, in a north-west direction. They heart of Central Africa. If not actually connected are each about 94 miles long, and the larger one, in some way with the Shari (q. v.), and consequently which is clear and salt, is about 54 miles broad; the with Lake Tsad, the breadth of the water-parting smaller, which is turbid and fresh, 37. They are between these two basins (the Niger and the Tsad], about two miles apart, but united by a channel with at the utmost, cannot exceed 20 miles, consisting a general depth of 6 feet and breadth of 75. Tunis of an entirely level flat, and probably of alluvial | is supplied with fish mainly from these lakes. So soil. ... The level of the Tsad, and that of the valuable is the fishing, that a wealthy Arab rents it river B. near Gewe, where it is joined by the Mayo from the Bey of Tunis for £4000 per annum. Kebbi, seem to be almost the same; at least, accord- BE'NZILE, BE'NZOILE, or BE'NZOYLE, is ing to all appearance, the B., at the place mentioned, the radicle or root of the group of substances which is not more than 850 or 900 feet above the level comprehends as members the hydride of benzoyle of the sea. A second expedition to explore the B. (oil of bitter almonds), benzoic acid, benzoin, and was undertaken by Dr. Baikie in 1861.

benzole. It is prepared by passing a stream of BENYOWSKY, MAGRICE AUGUSTUS, COUNT DE, chlorine gas through fused benzoin, or by heating a man of remarkable character and extraordinary one part of benzoin with two parts of concentrated fortunes, was born at Verbowa, in Hungary, 1741. nitric acid. B. floats to the upper part of the He served in the Seven Years' War, and during his liquid mixture as a liquid oil, which solidifies on youth displayed that restless love of adventure cooling. B. is a tasteless solid, insoluble in water, which marked his subsequent career. He went to but readily dissolved by ether and alcohol, and on Dantzic for the purpose of studying navigation, and concentration of the ethereal or alcohol solution, from thence made several voyages to Hamburg and the B. crystallises in regular six-sided prisms, of Plymouth. When about to start for the East Indies a yellow colour. When heated to 194° to 198°, it in 1767, he received a pressing invitation to join the fuses. Its composition is expressed by the chemical Polish Confederation, with which he complied, and formula C28H1004, and many chemists name the shared most of the dangers and glories of the substance possessing this formula benzile, reserving campaign against the Russians until he was taken the title benzoile, or benzoyle, for a substance polyprisoner in May 1769. After being transferred meric (see POLYMERISM) with benzile, which has not from one Russian prison to another, he was, in yet been isolated, but which may be represented by December 1769, banished to Siberia, and from C1H30. thence, in a few months, to Kamtchatka. During BENZO'IC ACID, or the Flowers of Benzoin and the voyage, his exertions and skill saved the Benjamin, occurs naturally in many balsamiferous vessel that carried him. This recommended the plants, and especially in Benzoin (q. v.), from which prisoner to the governor, Nilov, who was further it may be readily obtained by several processes, pleased by B.'s skill as a chess-player, and made which it is not necessary here to describe. B. A. him tutor in his family. In this capacity he is always in the form of snow-white, glistening, gained the affections of Aphanasia, daughter of the feathery crystals, with a fairy aspect of lightness. bovernor, by whom he was assisted in his plans It has a very fragrant and pleasant aromatic odour, for escape ; which, however, was not effected with due to the presence of a trace of an essential oil, out a struggle, in which the governor was killed. and a hot bitter taste. It is readily dissolved by B., with ninety-six companions, in a ship well alcohol and ether, but sparingly soluble in water. armed and provisioned, and with a considerable B. A. is one of the materials present in Tinctura amount of treasure, set sail from Kamtchatka | Camphoro Composita, and has been administered in May 1771. Having visited some of the islands in chronic bronchial affections; but the benefit of Japan and Formosa, B. arrived at Macao on the derivable from its use in such cases is questionable. 22d of September, where he remained until the B. A. taken into the stomach, increases within 3 or 14th January, and then sailed for France. He 4 hours the quantity of hippuric acid in the urine. bad not been here long when the French govern- It forms a numerous class of compounds with the ment proposed that he should found a colony at oxides of the metals, lime, &c., called benzoates. Madagascar, and he at once acquiesced. B. arrived The chemical formula for crystallised B. A. is on the island in February 1774, and was made king HO,C14H50s. in 1776 by the chiefs in conclave, he adopting the BE'NZOIN, BE'NJAMIN, or BENZO'IC GUM, native costume. Returning to Europe with a view a fragrant resinous substance, formed by the drving to establish commercial relations between France of the milky juice of the Benzoin or Benjamin Tree and Madagascar, B, met with a very cold reception (Styrax, or Lithocarpus Benzoin), a tree of the from the French government, and returned to the natural order Styracace, and a congener of that service of Austria, in the hope that the emperor which produces STORAX (q. v.), a native of Siam, and would assist him in his schemes a hope not fulfilled. of Sumatra and other islands of the Indian ArchiHe next made unsuccessful overtures to the British pelago. The tree grows to nearly two feet in diamegovernment, but at length receiving assistance from ter; the smaller branches are covered with a whitish private persons in England and America, departed | rusty down; the leaves are oblong, acuminate, and again for Madagascar, where he arrived in 1785 ; entire, downy and white beneath; the flowers are and, involving himself in contention with the French in compound racemes. B. comes to us in reddishgovernment of the Isle of France, was killed in yellow transparent pieces. Different varieties, said battle, May 23, 1786. B. was a man of remark- / to depend upon the age of the trees, are of very able resources, great decision of character, courage, different price; the whitest, said to be the produce of and sagacity. He was particularly well versed in the youngest trees, being the best. There is a variety human nature, a knowledge which proved of essen- known in commerce as dmvadaloidal Benzoin. tial service to him during his brief but most which contains whitish almond-like tears diffused remarkable career.-Memoirs and Travels of Count through its substance, and is said to be the produce de Benyowsky, Written by Himself, and Edited by W. of the younger trees. B. is obtained by making Nicholson (2 vols. 4to. London, 1790).

longitudinal or oblique incisions in the stem of the BENZE'RTA, LAKES OF, the ancient Hipponitis tree; the liquid which exudes soon hardens by

BENZOLE-BEOWULF.

exposure to the sun and air. B. contains about 10 great power it possesses of dissolving caoutchouc, -14 per cent. of Benzoic Acid (q. v.); the remainder gutta-percha, wax, camphor, and fatty substances. of it is resin. B. is used in perfumery, in pastilles, It is thus of service in removing grease-stains from &c., being very fragrant and aromatic, and yielding woollen or silken articles of clothing. When heated, a pleasant odour when burned. It is therefore it also dissolves sulphur, phosphorus, and iodine. much used as incense in the Greek and Roman B., when acted upon by chlorine, nitric acid, &c., Catholic Churches. Its tincture is prepared by gives rise to a very numerous class of compounds. macerating B. in rectified spirit for seven to fourteen days, and subsequent straining, when the

BE'NZOYLE, HYDRIDE OF, is the volatile or Coin pound Tincture of Benjamin, Wound Balsam, essential oil belonging to the benzoic series. It is Friar's Balsam, Balsam for Cuts, the Com- represented by the formula C14d5O2, H, and has mander's Balsam, or Jesuits Drops, is obtained. been already considered under ALMONDS, VOLATILE It is frequently applied to wounds directly; or still | OIL, or ESSENTIAL OIL OF (q. V.). better, when the edges of the wound are brought BEOWULF, an Anglo-Saxon epic poem, which together, and bound with lint or plaster, the tinc- is one of the greatest literary and philological ture of B. may be used as an exterior varnish. | curiosities, and one of the most remarkable historical In the preparation of Court-plaster, sarcenet (gene-monuments in existence. The date of the events rally coloured black) is brushed over with a solution described is probably about the middle of the 5th of isinglass, then a coating of the alcoholic solution c.; and as the legends refer to the Teutonic races of benzoin. The tincture is likewise employed in which afterwards peopled England, it is believed making up a cosmetic styled Virgin's Milk, in the that the poem, in its original shape, was brought by proportion of two drachms of the tincture to one the Anglo-Saxons from their original seats on the pint of rose-water; and otherwise it is used in the continent. Only one MS. of the poem is known preparation of soaps and washes, to the latter of to exist; that, namely, in the Cottonian Library, which it imparts a milk-white colour, and a smell which was seriously injured by the fire of resembling that of vanilla. B. possesses stimulant 1731. This MS. consists of two portions. written properties, and is sometimes used in medicine, at different times and by different hands, and is particularly in chronic pulinonary affections. It manifestly a copy, executed perhaps about the may be partaken of most pleasantly when beaten beginning of the 8th c., from an older and far comup with mucilage and sugar or yolk of egg. The pleter version of the poem. But, even in the form in name Asa dulcis (q. V.) has sometimes been given to which it came from the hands of its last recaster, it, although it is not the substance to which that B. is the oldest monument of considerable size of name seems properly to have belonged.The milky German national poetry, and notwithstanding the juice of Terminalia Benzoin, a tree of the natural Christian allusions which fix the exising text at a order Combretacece, becomes, on drying, a fragrant period subsequent to 597 A.D., a general heathen resinous substance resembling B., which is used as character pervades it, which leaves little doubt as incense in the churches of the Mauritius. It was to the authentic nature of the pictures which it at one time erroneously supposed that B. was the presents of Teutonic life in ante-Christian times. produce of Benzoin odoriferum, formerly Laurus Much learned labour has been bestowed on this Benzoin, a deciduous shrub, of the natural order strange relic, chiefly by Mr. Kemble, of whose Lauraceae, a native of Virginia, about 10—12 feet beautiful edition, published by Pickering in 1833, high, with large, somewhat wedge-shaped, entire and dedicated to James Grimm, the celebrated leaves, which still bears in America the name of Teutonic scholar, as also of his subsequent translaBenzoin, or Benjamin Tree, and is also called Spice- tion and second preface, we shall avail ourselves in wood or Fever-bush. It has a highly aromatic bark, I the following sketch. which is stimulant and tonic, and which is much used in At first Mr. Kemble was disposed to regard B. as North America in intermittent fevers. The berries an historical epic, but his view of it latterly came to are also aromatic and stimulant, and are said to be, that though to some extent historical, it must be have been used in the United States during the regarded, in so far as the legends are concerned, as war with Britain as a substitute for pimento

maiņly mythological; and this remark he conceived or allspice. An infusion of the twigs acts as a to apply to the hero not less than to the incidents vermifuge.

related. But Beowulf, the god, if such he was, BE'NZOLE, BE'NZINE, or PHENE, is a com occupies only a small space in the poem, and seems pound of carbon and hydrogen (C12H), formed to be introduced chiefly for the purpose of conduring the destructive distillation of coal (see necting Hrothgar, king of Denmark, whom Beowulf, COAL-GAS), and found dissolved in the naphtha the hero, comes to deliver from the attacks of the which is condensed from the vapours evolved from monster Grendel, with Scef or Sceaf, one of the the gas retort. It may be prepared from coal-tar ancestors of Woden, and the common father of the naphtha by subjecting the tar to a temperature whole mythical gods and heroes of the north. Sceaf of 32° F., when the B. solidifies, while the other is traditionally reported to have been set afloat as a naphtha constituents remain liquid. Two gallons of child on the waters, in a small boat or ark, having the naphtha yield a pint of pure rectified benzole. a sheaf (Ang.-Sax. sceaf) of corn under his head; It can also be obtained (1) by subjecting oil-gas whence his name. The child was carried to the to a pressure of 30 atmosphéres;.(2), by the dry dis- shore of Sleswig, and being regarded as a prodigy, tillation of kinic acid (q. v.); and (3) by cautiously was educated and brought up as king. Between heating a mixture of one part of benzoic acid and Sceaf and Beowulf, Scyld intervened, according to three parts of quick-lime, when the material which the opening canto of the poem; but when compared distils over is impure benzole. At ordinary tem- with kindred traditions, the whole genealogy becomes peratures, B. is a thin, limpid, colourless liquid, involved in extreme obscurity, and Scyld seems evolving a characteristic and pleasant odour. At sometimes to be identified with Sceaf, and some32° F., it crystallises in beautful fern-like forms, times with Woden. But the view of the connection which liquefy at 40° ; and at 177°, it boils, evolv- between Beowulf and Sceaf is strengthened by ing a gas which is very inflammable, burning with the following considerations. The old Saxons, and a smoky flame. It readily dissolves in alcohol, most likely the other conterminal tribes, called their ether, turpentine, and wood-spirit, but is insoluble harvest month (probably part of August and Sepin water. It is valuable to the chemist from the Itember) by the name Beo or Bewod, in all probability

BEOWULF-BEQUEATH.

their god of agriculture or fertility. Whether, i permitted to dwell in tranquillity. The grim or to what extent, this divinity is identical with stranger Grendel, almighty haunter of the marshes, the mythical hero of the poem, Mr. Kemble does one that held the moors, fen and fastness, the dwellnot venture to determine, though he indicates a ings of the monster race,' and who seems to be a strong leaning to the affirmative ; and the identity sort of combination of the man and the monster, of the hero of a later tradition with the divinity of whose cursed bide recketh not of weapons,' could an earlier one, as a subsequent translator (Wacker- not endure every day to hear joy loud in the hall.' barth) remarks, need not surprise us when we con- 'He the Grendel set off then, after night was come, sider, that it is the usual course, where one religion to visit the lofty house, to see how the Ring-Danes supersedes another, for the gods of the abandoned (had ordered it, after the service of beer. He found system to descend gradually in that which follows, then therein a troop of nobles, sleeping after the first, into demi-gods or supernatural heroes, and at feast: they knew not sorrow, the wretchedness of last into mere traditionary heroes.

men, the knew not aught of misfortune; the grim and But in so far as the main points of historical greedy one was soon prepared, savage and fierce, and interest are concerned-viz., the date of the legions, in their sleep he seized upon thirty of the thanes. and the race and regions to which they belong—the Thence he again departed, exulting in his prey, to go results of the historical and of the mythological view home, with the carcasses of the slain, to visit his seem to be pretty nearly the same. The poem falls own dwellings.' Similar exploits are repeated, and entirely out of the circle of the Northern Sagas, and Healfdene's son is continually seethed in the sorrow probably belongs to Sleswig. All the proper names of the time;' nor might the prudent hero turn away are Anglo-Saxon in form, but not the slightest men- the ruin, till Hygelac's thane, chief of the Geats, tion is made of Britain, the Ongle mentioned being sends his retainers to his aid. The description of manifestly Angeln (see ANGLES), and not Anglia. the expedition, and of many other parts of this From these and many other considerations, the remarkable poem, remind one strongly of Homer; learned editor infers that B. records the mythical and were we to describe it, we should do so by beliefs of our forefathers; and in so far as it is assigning it a place somewhere between the lliad historical, commemorates their exploits at a period and Hiawatha. B. is the leader of this friendly not far removed in point of time from the coming band, and the chief incidents of the poem relate to of Hengest and Horsa, and that in all probability his encounters, first with Grendel, and afterwards the poem was brought over by some of the Anglo- with a dragon. Saxons who accompanied Cerdic and Cyneric, 495 The domestic arrangements which were made for A. D.

the reception of B, and his companions present a The poem opens with an incident which reminds striking, and probably genuine picture of the us of one of the most beautiful of Mr. Tennyson's manners of our ancestors; and convey some inforearlier poems, the Mort d'Arthur, and seems to show mation as to a liquor which has not ceased to find a similarity between British and Saxon traditions. favour with their children. "« Sit now to the feast, We give it in the simple words of Mr. Kemble's and joyfully eat, exulting in victory among my war. prose translation.

riors, as thy mind may excite thee." Then was for 'At his appointed time then Scyld departed, very the sons of the Geats, altogether, a bench cleared decrepit, to go into the peace of the Lord; they in the beer-hall; there the bold of spirit, free from then, his dear comrades, bore him out to the shore quarrel, went to sit; the thane observed his office, of the sea, as he himself requested, and while that he, he that in his hand bare the twisted ale-cup; he the friend of the Scyldings, the beloved chieftain, poured the bright sweet liquor ; meanwhile the had power with his words; long he owned it! poet sang serene in Heorot, there was joy of heroes, There upon the beach stood the ringed-prowed ship, no little pomp of Danes and Westerns. the vehicle of the noble, shining like ice, and ready Further on there is an interesting description of to set out. They then laid down the dear prince, the Danish queen: 'There was laughter of heroes, the distributer of rings, in the bosom of the ship, the noise was modulated, words were winsome; the mighty one beside the mast; there was much of Wealtheow, Hrothgar's queen, went forth ; inindful treasures, of ornaments, brought from afar. Never of their races, she, hung round with gold, greeted heard I of a comelier ship having been adorned with the men in the hall; and the freeborn lady gave the battle-weapons and with war-weeds, with bills and cup first to the prince of the East Danes; she bad mailed coats. Upon his bosom lay a multitude of him be blithe at the service of beer, dear to his treasures which were to depart afar with him, into people. He, the king proud of victory, joyfully the possession of the flood. They furnished him not received the feast and hall-cup. The lady of the less with offerings, with mighty wealth, than those Helmings then went round about every part of had done who in the beginning sent him forth in his young and old; she gave treasure-vessels, until the wretchedness, alone over the waves. Moreover they opportunity occurred, that she, a queen hung round set up for him a golden ensign, high over head; they with rings, venerable of mood, bore forth the mead. let the deep-sea bear him; they gave him to the cup to Beowulf. Wise of words, she greeted the ocean. Sad was their spirit, mournful their mood. Geat, she thanked God because her will was accomMen know not in sooth to say (men wise of counsel, plished, that he believed in any earl, as a consolaor any men under the heavens) who received the tion against the crimes.' freight.'

It seems strange that beer should be the only The poem, still keeping to the royal house of Den- drink on so great an occasion, seeing that wine is mark, goes on to narrate that Scyld is succeeded by continually mentioned, and the hall is usually called B. (the elder), who is followed by Healfdene and his the Wine Hall.' A spirited metrical translation of four children, of whom the second, Hrothgar, becomes B., by A. D. Wackerbarth, was published in 1849 king. There was success in arms given to Hroth-|(Pickering). gar, the dignity of war; so that his dear relations | BEQUEATH, to leave personal property by will gladly obeyed him, until the young people waxed or testament to another. In the case of real estate, a mighty kindred band.' Hrothgar builds a magni the proper term to employ is devise. But although it ficent palace, called Heorot. Here ‘he distributed is usual and safe so to use these words, neither of rings, treasure at the feast; the hall rose aloft, high them is essential to the validity of an English will, and curved with pinnacles it awaited the hostile but other words, showing clearly the intention of the waves of loathed fire.' But Hrothgar is not long testator, will suffice. In the Scotch law, the term BEQUEST-BERBERA.

B. can only apply to personal estate. Real estate, power, were anxious to bestow, he retired to live in indeed, according to the existing regulations of that privacy at Passy. In 1833, he published a fifth system, cannot be left or conveyed by will or tes collection of songs, when he took a formal leave of tament; a testamentary disposition or settlement, the public; and from that time until the day of his expressed in certain technical terms of present con- death, twenty-four years after, he remained silent. vevance, being necessary for the purpose. See WILL; In 1848, B. was elected a member of the Assemblée TESTAMENT ; LEGACY ; DISPOSITION (Mortis Causa); Constituante by more than 200,000 votes; but after SETTLEMENT ; REAL ESTATE; PERSONAL ESTATE. taking his seat, to shew his appreciation of the BEQUE'ST, a legacy of personal property left by

honour conferred on him, he almost immediately

resigned. He consistently rejected all the offered will. See BEQUEATH and its references.

favours of the present Emperor as well as a graceBERANGER, JEAN-PIERRE DE, a celebrated ful overture on the part of the Empress, which he Prench poet, was born in Paris, 19th August 1780, owned it cost himu nuch to refuse. B. died at Paris. in the house of his grandfather, a tailor in the Rue July 17, 1857. The cost of his funeral was defrayed Montorgueil, to whose care he was left entirely by by the French government, and his remains were his father, a scheming and not over-scrupulous attended to the grave by the most distinguished men financier. After living some time with an aunt at in all departments of literature. B. was as emphaPéronne, to whom he appears to have been indebted tically the poet of the French people as Burns was for those republican principles which afterwards

the bard of the Scottish peasantry. The same made him so obnoxious to successive French govern

stanch and fearless independence, genuine manliments, B., at the age of fourteen, was apprenticed to ness. sound common sense, and contempt for every, a printer in that place, where he remained three thing mean and hypocritical characterised both years, devoting all his leisure hours to the acquire

hours to the acquire men; and as poets, they differ in excellence only as ment of knowledge. He now returned to Paris, the sentiments of the French and Scottish people where his father, a zealous royalist, was engaged in differ in their capacity to be turned into song. some questionable schemes of money getting, which Neither friend nor enemy has as yet disclosed to were mixed up with conspiracy.

acy: B. assisted him in us any speck on the heart, the honour, the genius,

B. assisted him in his money affairs, so far as he honourably could, and/or the good sense of Béranger.' Since his death, his kept his political secrets; but he did not disguise his Last Songs, written between 1834 and 1851, have contempt for the royalist cause, nor fail to express been published, and also My Biography (Paris, M. his opposite sympathies. The business, however, Perrotin : London, Jeffs). See My Biography; and was not one to the taste of B., who was throughout | Memoirs of Béranger, by M. Lapointe (Paris, 1857). the whole of his life a man of the most sensitive honour, and he soon left it. He had ere this begun

BERA'R, a valley situated locally in the Nizam's to write, but his poems were not successful; and

territories, but annexed politically to British India, reduced almost to destitution, he, in 1804, enclosed

for the maintenance of what is called the Nizam's some of his verses to M. Lucien Bonaparte, with a

Contingent. It is bounded on the N. by a

detached portion of Scindia's dominions and the letter explaining his circumstances, and with a

Nerbudda provinces ; on the E., by Nagpoor ; on the request for assistance-the one solitary instance of

W., by Candeish; and on the S., by two of the solicitation during a long life of independence, marked by the refusal of numerous offers of lucra

Nizam's remaining districtsm Maiker Bassim and tive patronage. The appeal was not made to a deaf

Mahur. It lies between 20° 15' and 21° 40' N. lat.,

and between 76o and 78° 2' E. long., having an area ear. M. Bonaparte obtained employment for the

of about 9000 square miles. It is traversed in its poet, first as editor of the Annales du Musée and afterwards as a subordinate secretary in the University.lengin by the Poornan-ltseli a tributary of the a post which he held for twelve years when the Taptee-which, with its numerous affluents, affords government, provoked at his satire, and alarmed at

an ample supply of water to the valley, and, on his popularity, dismissed him. During the ‘Hundred

other grounds, is peculiarly suitable to the culti

vation of cotton. The recent transfer from the Days,' Napoleon offered B., the remunerative post of censor-a singular office for such a man. He refused

Nizam to the British promises likewise to be favour.

able to this staple production. Not only have it. But though he scorned to accept favour from, or to flatter Napoleon, at a time when it was i.

the oppressive transit-iluties been removed, but a

railway is about to connect the cotton district with alike fashionable and profitable to do so, he was of much too noble a nature to join in the sneers

Bombay. Though Ellichpore is officially the chief

town, yet it is inferior in real importance to Comraand reproaches which greeted the hero on his fall. Above the fear of power, he was incapable of taking

wattee, the dépôt for the raw cotton. advantage of misfortune. In 1815, B. published his

1 BERA'T, a town of Albania, European Turkey, first collection of songs, which soon attained a very in the pashalic of Avlona, situated on the banks of wide popularity. In 1821, he published another the Tuberathi or Ergent, about 30 miles north-east collection, which was followed shortly after by some of the seaport of the same name. It has a populafugitive pieces, which subjected him to a govern- tion of from 8000 to 10,000, two-thirds of whom are ment prosecution, a sentence of three months' im- Greeks; the remainder, Turks. The valley in which prisonment, and a fine of 500 francs. In 1825, a B. stands is very fertile, producing large quantities third collection, and in 1828, a fourth appeared, still of grain, oil, and wine. B. has a citadel, and traces inore withering in its sarcasm on those in power; of ancient Greek buildings, and gives title to a Greek and the penalty of B.'s outspokenness was a fine of archbishop. 10,000 francs, and nine months' confinement in BERBERA, a seaport station of Somauli, Eastern La Force. The fine was soon paid by the poet's Africa, with a good harbour, on the bay of the friends, and his prison became the resort of the Gulf of Aden. Lat. 10° 26' N., long. 45° 8' E. It most eminent men in the kingdom, and a very is celebrated as the scene of a large annual fair, armoury in which he forged those keen-piercing which brings nearly 20,000 people together from all bolts which galled so terribly, and contributed so quarters in the East. Coffee, grains, ghee, goldmuch to the overthrow of the Bourbons. But B. dust, ivory, gums, cattle, ostrich-feathers, slaves, &c., refused to profit by the new state of things he had are brought down to this place from the interior on been instrumental in bringing about. Rejecting the strings of camels, sometimes numbering as many as emoluments and honour which his friends, now in 2000, and exchanged for cotton, rice, iron, Indian BERBERIDEÆ-BERCHTA.

piece-goods, &c. As soon as the fairwhich usually , expect from their high physical organisation. They extends from November to April is over, the huts live in clay-huts and tents; but, in their larger are carefully taken down, and packed up, and villages, they have stone-houses. They have herds nothing remains to mark the site of the town but of sheep and cattle, and practise agriculture, and the bones of animals slaughtered for food during the are especially fond of the cultivation of fruit-trees. continuance of the fair.

They possess water-mills and oil-presses. Thi BERBERI'DEÆ, or BERBERIDACEÆ, a na

mines of iron and lead in the Atlas are wrought by tural order of exogenous plants, of which the differ

| them, and they manufacture rude agricultural ent species of Barberry (q. v.) afford the best known

implements, as well as swords, guns, and gunpowder. examples. Many of the plants of this order are

They formerly professed the Christian religion ; but spiny shrubs; some are perennial herbaceous plants.

since the Arabs drove them from the fertile plains Their leaves are alternate, their flowers sometimes

between the mountains and the sea, they appear to Bolitary, sometimes in racemes or panicles. The

have retrograded in every way, and they are now calyx consists of 3, 4, or 6 deciduous sepals; the

among the most bigoted adherents of the religion of corolla, which arises from beneath the germen, con-|

Mohammed; although their former creed has left a sists of petals equal in number to the sepals, and

| few traces, as in the names Mesi for God, and opposite to them, or twice as many; the stamens are

angelus for angel, and many curious customs still equal in number to the petals, and opposite to them;

observed among them. See Barth's Africa, vol. i. the anthers are 2-celled, each cell opening curiously! BERBICE, the east division of British Guiana, by a valve which curves back from bottom to top; having its middle division, Demerara, on the W.; the carpel is solitary and 1-celled; the fruit is either the Atlantic on the N.; Dutch Guiana or Surinam a berry or a capsule. This order, which is nearly on the E.; and on the S., the basin of the Amazon, allied to Vitacece (q. v.), (Vines, &c.), contains more or rather, perhaps, the upper waters of the Surinam. than 100 known species, chiefly belonging to the From being a Dutch possession, this part of the temperate parts of the northern hemisphere, and of coast, between the Amazon and the Orinoco, fell South America.

under the power of England in 1796. It was, BE'RBERS, the general name usually given to

however, soon restored to Holland at the peace of the tribes inhabiting the mountainous regions of

Amiens, but only to be recaptured in 1803. It Barbary and the northern portions of the Great

stretches in long between 570 and 58° W., and in

lat. indefinitely southward, from about 6° 30' N. Desert. It is derived, according to Barth, either

B. is subdivided into six parishes. from the name of their supposed ancestor, Ber,

The population, which we recognise in the Lat. A-fer, an African

in 1834, was returned at 21,589, of whom 570 were (see letter B); or from the Greek and Roman term

whites; and the principal products are sugar, coffee, Barbari. The name by which they call themselves,

and cotton. But details generally of trade and and which was known to the Greeks and Romans,

statistics, and of climate also, may be more easily is Américh or Mazigh Mazys Amoshach. Imoshagh' and satisfactorily treated under the general head of

34; BRITISH GUIANA, than under the separate divisions &c., according to locality, and whether singular or

of B., Demerara, and Essequibo. New Amsterdam, plural. These tribes have a common origin, and are the descendants of the aboriginal inhabitants of

standing on the right bank of the river near its

mouth, is at once the chief town and the seaport of Northern Africa. They appear to have been origin

the district. The Berbice river, though by no means ally a branch of the Semitic stock; and although

the largest in the colony, is navigable certainly to they have been conquered in succession by the

the greatest distance from the sea. While the Phænicians, Romans, Vandals, and Arabs, and have become, in consequence, to some extent, a mixed

vastly more considerable Essequibo is interrupted race, they still remain, in great part, their distinctive

by rapids within 50 miles of the coast, the Berbice

admits a draught of 12 feet for 100 miles, and one peculiarities. Till the eleventh century, the B. seem to have formed the larger portion of the population

of 7 feet for 60 more, the influence of the tide

" reaching nearly the whole way; and even as far as inhabiting the southern portion of the Mediterranean,

·lat. 3° 55' N.-175 miles from its outlet by the crow's from Egypt to the Atlantic Ocean; but, on the

flight it was found to have still a width of 100 feet, great Arab immigrations which then took place,

with a depth of from 8 to 10. they were driven to the Atlas Mountains, and to the desert regions where they now live. In Tripoli. | BERCHEMIA. See SUPPLE JACK. the allegiance they pay to the Turks is little more BE'RCHTA (in Old German, Peracta, and the than nominal; in Algeria, where they usually are original form of the name Bertha, being from the same termed Kabyles, they are yet unconquered by the root as the English word bright, and meaning "shinFrench; and in Morocco, where they are called ing, 'white') is, in German mythology, the name "Shellooh,' they are only in form subject to the given in the south of Germany and in Switzerland emperor. The B. occupying the desert, who are to a spiritual being, who was apparently the same as called, Tuaric, or Tawarek, by the Arabs, have become the Hulda (gracious, benign) of Northern Germany, much mixed with the negro race. The number This being represented originally one of the kindly of the B. is estimated at between three and four and benign aspects of the unseen powers; and so millions. They are of middle stature, sparely but the traditions of Hulda (q. v.) in the north constrongly built. The complexion varies from a redtinued to represent her. But the B. of the south, to a yellow brown, and the shape of the head in the course of time, became rather an object of and of the features has more of the European terror, and a bugbear to frighten children; the than the oriental type. The hair is, in general, difference probably arising from the circumstance, dark, and the beard small. The eyes are dark and that the influence of Christianity in converting the piercing. Their manners are austere, and in dispo- pagan deities into demons was sooner felt in the sition they are cruel, suspicious, and implacable. south than in the north. Lady B. has the oversight They are usually at war either with their neigh- of spinners. The last day of the year is sacred to bours or among themselves; are impatient of her, and if she find any flax left on the distaff that restraint; and possessed of a rude, wild spirit of day, she spoils it. Her festival is kept with a independence, which makes it impossible for them prescribed kind of meagre fare-oatmeal-gruel, or to unite for any common purpose, or to make the pottage, and fish. If she catches any person eating advances in civilisation which one might otherwise other food on that day, she cuts them up, fills their

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