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BUFFALO-BUFFALORA.

The very regions where malaria is most prevalent, escape. The B. is still found in large herds in the seems to be those most adapted to its constitution. interior of South Africa, but in Cape Colony, where

The B. is a very powerful animal, much more it was once plentiful, it has now become comparapowerful than the ox, and capable of dragging or tively rare. The Buffalo of the Anglo-Americans is carrying a far heavier load. The female yields the American Bison. See BISON. a much greater quantity of milk than a cow, and of

BUFFALO, a city of Erie co., N. Y., at the easexcellent quality. It is from B. milk that the ghee tern extremity of Lake Erie, lat. 42° 53' N., long. 78° or semi-fluid butter of India is made. The hide is 55' W., being 300 miles W. of Albany by rail, 460 greatly valued for its strength and durability, but miles N. W. of N. York, and 22 miles S.S.E. of Niagthe flesh is very inferior to that of the ox.

ara Falls. B. has railway connections with Albany The B. exhibits a considerable amount of intelli- via the N. Y. Central, with the city of N. York by tence. In a state of domestication, it is capable of

means of the Erie R. R. and branch from Corning, becoming very docile. In the south of Europe, it is and by the Pennsylvania and Erie and branches with generally managed by a ring passed through the Philadelphia. With the cities of the lakes, B. is cartilage of the nose, but in India by a mere rope. connected by the Lake Shore R. R., and the Great The Indian driver rides upon a B.; but these Western through Canada and its extensions in Michanimals keep so closely together as they are driven igan. The city has a front of 24 miles on the lake along, that, if necessary, he walks from the back of and 27 miles on the Niagara river, and rises to an exone to that of another perfectly at his ease. In a tensive plain, 50 to 60 feet above the water. It is, in wild state, the B. is savage and dangerous, and even the main, handsomely built, with broad, straight in domestication it is apt to resent injury. The streets, ornamented with shade trees. Among the native princes of India make buffaloes and tigers principal buildings are the City hall, two Court-houses, fight in their public shows; and the B. is more than markets, Custom-house, City penitentiary, State arsea match for the tiger, even in single combat. The nal, B. Úniversity, hall of Young Men's Association, appearance of a tiger excites a herd of buffaloes, Society of Natural Sciences, Law Library, Historical much as we see oxen excited by the approach of a Society, Fine Arts Gallery, Young Men's Christian dog; and if his safety is not secured by flight, they Association, and Female Academy. kill him, tossing him from one to another with their B. sustains 18 newspapers, etc., 6 of which are horns, and trampling him with their feet.

issued daily, and 8 weekly. The system of public The B. is used in some parts of the east in the schools is second to that of no other city. There are shooting of waterfowl, being trained to the sport, 32 school districts, one high school, and numerous and sold at a considerable price. The sportsman primary schools, at which upwards of 16,000 pupils conceals himself behind the B., which, being a attend, maintained at an annual expense of more than familiar sight, is not alarming to the birds.

$100,000. The CAPE B. (Bos Caffer) is generally regarded The manufactures of B. have attained very considas a distinct species. It seems never to have been erable magnitude, among which those of iron, leather, reduced to the service of man, although there is agricultural implements, distilled spirits, flour, and reason to believe it to be very capable of domestica- oil refining are most prominent. The iron establishtion. The horns are very large; they spread hori- ments are among the most perfect in the country, and zontally over the top of the head, and are then bent supply not only the home demand, but send large down laterally, and turned upwards at the point. quantities of their products to the east. The ore from The head is carried, as by the common B., with which it is made is derived from the Lake Superior projecting muzzle and reclining horns, but the bases mines, which shipped, in 1869, 633,238 tons of iron of the horns nearly meet on the forehead, where ore and 39,000 tons of pig metal, valued at nearly they are from eight to ten inches broad. The $5,000,000. In 1869, there were in B. 31 grain elelength of a full-grown Cape B. is about 8 feet from vators, capable of storing 7,415,000 bushels, and

having a transfer capacity of 2,883,000 bushels in 24 hours. Twelve flouring mills manufactured, in 1869, 278,423 barrels of flour; 1,882,904 gallons of high wines were distilled, and 620,227 barrels of beer were produced. The internal tax and customs revenue for 1869 amounted to $3,591,000. B. had, in 1869, 8 banks, with an aggregate capital of $2,440,000, 6 savings banks, and numerous insurance companies and agencies. Though the harbor of B. is one of the best on the lakes, and its basins capacious, its commerce has been declining since 1865, when it employed 13,444 vessels, of 7,032,593 tons, and 145,864

In 1869, but 10,534 vessels, of 4,091,204 tons, and 106,253 men, belonged to the port. B. is no longer the grand terminus of the lake trade, competition among the great railroad lines and the removal westward of the chief grain-producing areas

having diverted much of her commerce to other ports. TIEWE

In 1869, B, imported 37,014,628 bushels of grain, of which about 19,000,000 were wheat and 11,500,000 were corn -a vast increase over the business of

1839, when the imports were but 1,117,232 bushels, Cape Buffalo.

but a decline of 12,947,865 bushels from the receipts

of 1866. The present terminus of the Erie Canel is the root of the horns to the tail, and the height 57 at Black-Rock Pier, and is comprised in the harbor feet. This animal is regarded as more formidable of B., which includes Buffalo Creek, Blackwell Canal, than any other in South Africa ; and the hunter and Ohio and Erie basins. The lumber import of B. will more readily risk an encounter with a lion amounted to 225,000,000 feet, besides an enormous than offer any provocation to a B. without great amount of laths, shingles, and staves. The imports advantages for the combat, or great facilities for from Canada, in 1869, were $2,488,255, and the ex

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BUFF LEATHER--BUG.

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ports to the same but $305,000. The canal imports study, and by savans as play-work. B. first conin 1869 were $30,524,959, and the exports $50,648,- ceived the idea of making it attractive to the first of 827. The aggregate by railroad cannot be ascer- these classes, and of securing for it, at the same tained. In Oct., 1868, an industrial exhibition was time, the respect of the second. His plan was held in B. The population, in 1840, was 18,213; in assuredly comprehensive enough, since he aimed at 1850, 42,621 ; in 1860, 85,500, and according to the nothing less than a collection of all the separate census returns in 1870 it was 117,715.

known facts of physical investigation, and a systeBUFF LEATHER is usually made out of salted matic arrangement of these, to assist the author in and dried South American light ox and cow hides. forming a theory of nature ; but B. possessed neither After being limed in the usual way, they are un task. Endowed, however, with a brilliantly rheto

the science nor the patience necessary for such a haired and rounded, so that only the best part of rical imagination, and always inclined to deliver filesh being then scraped or cut off, the true cuticle, himself from doubts and ignorance by sparkling which is of a flexible fibrous nature, alone remains. hypotheses, the elaboration of which cost him little The hide is next sprinkled over with cod-oil, and trouble, he contrived to produce a work which, if placed in the stocks, where it is worked for about with what many then conceived to be the brightest

not severely scientific in its method, at least shone dried, it is again submitted to a similar process of literary lustre. However, it is not to be denied that oiling and stocking; and during the first day, these many of his views are very ingenious, although later operations may be repeated six times, decreasing Natural History of B. made an epoch in the study

researches have completely exploded them. The daily for about a week, when one oiling and stock of the natural sciences, though it has now little or ing in a day is sufficient. The hides are then placed in a stove, and subjected to a process called “ heating natural phenomena were opposed by Condillac, who,

no scientific value. His attempted explanations of off,' after which they are scoured and rendered free with Helvetius, Diderot, D'Alembert

, and others, from oiliness by being soaked in a strong lye of also ridiculed, with a certain degree of justice, the carbonate of potash. They are next worked well in the stocks, hot water being poured copiously upon most insignificant part of B.'s treatise is the

excessive pomp of style used by Buffon. them until the water runs off pure. Having been mineralogy, for which he was quite unqualified by dried, they are subjected to a process called

the deficiencies of his chemical, mathematical, and grounding-i. e., they are rubbed with a round kuife, and also with puzice-stone and sand, until a mical arrangement of the mammalia was executed

physical knowledge. The systematic and anatosmooth surface is produced. The leather, which is very pliant, and not liable to crack or rot, is now by Daubenton, the colleague of Buffon. B.'s works ready for the market, and is generally used for passed through numerous editions, and several were

translated into most of the languages of Europe. soldiers' belts and other army purposes. During the early part of this century, the principal Générale et Particulière, in 36 volunies (Par. 1749–

The best complete edition is the Histoire Naturelle seat of the B. L. manufacture was in the neighbour- 1788). After receiving several high honours, being hood of Edinburgh, one manufacturer turning, out, elevated to the rank of Comte de B. by Louis previous to the battle of Waterloo, about 1300 hides XV., and treated with great distinction by Louis per week. In peaceable times, the demand for B. L. XVI., B. died in Paris, April 16, 1788. In person is comparatively small

, and the manufacture is now and carriage, B. was noble; as'a Parisian acadealmost confined to London and the neighbour- mician, and a self-complacent, theoretical natuhood, where the raw material is most readily pro- ralist, dressed in courtly style pursuing his pleasant cured, and the demand for the manufactured article studies in the allées of the Royal Garden, and is greatest. The natural colour of the leather is light-yellow, but for some purposes it is bleached largely participating in the vices of his time, B. was white. The precise chemical operation of the oil in quite a model of a French philosopher of the 18th

century. His son, Henri Leclerc, Comte de B., the process of the manufacture is rather obscure, but as no glue can be got from hide that has been made born 1764, was attached, at the outbreak of the reinto buff, the gelatine of the hide must have entered volution, to the party of the Duke of Orleans, and into combination with some of the constituents of Citoyens, je me nomme Buffon.'

fell under the guilotine.

His last words were: the oil, and had its nature completely changed. BUFFON, George Louis LECLERC, COMTE DE, Italian buffo (from buffa, a farce) is the name given

BUFFOO'N (Fr. bouffon), a low jester. The one of the most famous naturalists and writers of to a comic singer in an opera. In the corrupt the 18th c., was born at Montbard, in Burgundy, Latinity of the middle age, buffa meant a slap on September 7, 1707. He studied law at the college the cheek; and in the Italian," buffare signifies the of Jesuits at Dijon, but showed so marked a pre- puffing of wind through the mouth. It is probably dilection for astronomy and mathematics, that his father allowed him to follow his own inclinations from the favourite trick played by clowns in farces At Dijon, he became acquainted with Lord King- slapping them, so as to make a ludicrous explosion

-one swelling out his cheeks with wind, the other ston, whose tutor, a man of learning and taste, directed the mind of B. to the study of the sciences, bouffons in French, and in English buffoon, were

that the terms buffones in Latin, buffoni in Italian, With Lord Kingston and his tutor, B. travelled

derived. through France and Italy, and came to England, from the buffo comico; the former having greater

In Italy, the buffo cantante is distinct where, to improve his knowledge of our language, musical taleut, and sustaining a more important he translated Newton's Fluxions and Hales's Vege; part, the latter having greater licence in jocoseness. table Statics. In 1733, he wrote several original The voice of a buffo cantante is generally a bass, but essays, which gained notice in the Academy, of sometimes a tenor buffo is introduced. which he had been made a member. His general love of science received a definite impulse toward BUG, or BOG. zoology by his appointment, in 1739, as intendant of name in Russian Poland. The Western B., the the royal garden and museum. Hitherto zoology, largest tributary of the Vistula, rises in Austrian consisting of a series of unconnected observations Galicia, and after a course of about 450 English and fruitless attempts at classification, had been miles, and receiving numerous tributaries, it joins commonly regarded by educated readers as a dry the Vistula at the fortress of Modlin, near Warsaw.

There are two rivers of this BUG-BUGENHAGEN.

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It is navigable for a considerable distance. The / of some of the inferior vertebrate animals, as Eastern B., the Hypanis of the ancients, rises in pigeons, swallows, bats, &c.; but the greater numPodolia, and flows south into the estuary of the ber of insects of the B. family live by sucking Dnieper. Its length is more than 400 miles. It is the juices of vegetables. A small species (Tingis navigable for small-craft as far as Wosnessensk. pyri) which sucks the leaves of the pear-tree, is At the junction of the Ingul with the B., stands very destructive in some parts of Europe, where the city of Nicolaiew (q. v.).

it is popularly called the tiger. Some of these BUG, a name applied to a large family of in- winged wood-bugs or field-bugs are capable of sects, Cimicidæ, of the order Hemiptera (q. v.), sub- inflicting very painful wounds. Flying-bugs, enororder Heteroptera, and often still further extended mous and fetid,' are among the pests of India. in its signification so as to include the whole of Night is the time of their activity. Warm countries that sub-order, the insects of the section Geocorisce generally have winged bugs of great size and being designated land-bugs, and those of the section beauty ; but if touched or irritated, they 'exhale an Hydrocorisc, water-bugs, the latter including water- odour, that once perceived, is never after forgotten.' scorpions, boat-flies, &c. All these insects, and A winged B., as large as a cockchafer, lodges in the particularly the land-bugs, although some of them thatch and roofing of houses in Chili, and sallies are radiant in beautiful colours, have a strong forth at night, like the Bed B., to suck blood, of resemblance in form and structure to the annoying which it takes as much as a common leech.-It is and disgusting House B. or Ben B. (Cimex lectu- worthy of notice that a species of field. B. (Acanlarius). The statement that this insect was intro- thosoma grisea), a native of Britain, is one of the duced into England with timber brought from few insects that have yet been observed to shew America to rebuild London after the great fire of affection and attention to their young. De Geer 1666, must be rejected as erroneous ; for although it observed the female of the species, which inhabits appears to have been comparatively rare in Eng- the birch-tree, conducting a family of thirty or forty land, it was well known in some parts of Europe long young ones as a hen does her chickens, shewing before that time, and is mentioned by Dioscorides. great uneasiness when they seemed to be threatened The Bed B. is destitute of wings-an anomalous with danger, and waiting by them instead of trying peculiarity, as the insects of its order, and even of to make her own escape. the same family, are generally furnished with them.

BUGEAUD, MARSHAL, was born at Limoges, in France, October 15, 1784. In his 20th year he enter

ed the army as a private. His conspicuous bravery e

in the Prussian, Polish, and Spanish campaigns gain|ъ

ed him rapid promotion. Shortly before the fall of Napoleon, B. was made a colonel, and in 1815 com

manded the advance-guard of the army corps of the a

f

Alps. He afterwards retired to his estate, but was called into public life by the July revolution of 1830. He was elected deputy for Perigueux, and gained the esteem of Louis-Philippe, who created him a marshal. In 1835, he voted against electoral reforms and universal suffrage, denounced 'the tyranny of the press,' and soon contrived to make

himself very unpopular. In December 1840, he Bed Bug:

was appointed governor-general of Algiers. He the insect, magnified; b, its natural length; C, the head, immediately set about organizing the celebrated upper side ; d, labrum; e, proboscis extended; t, base of irregular force known as the Zouaves, and in a few antenne-very bighly magpified.

years the French arms were everywhere triumphant The body is very flat, of a somewhat oval form; over the Arab tribes. The cruelty of some of B.'s the whole insect is of a dirty rust colour, emits proceedings excited strong feelings of reprobation at an offensive odour, and is about three-sixteenths the time, as well in France as in Europe generally. of an inch in length; the legs are moderately long, In 1844, he gained a victory over the Emperor of and capable of being employed for pretty rapid Marocco's forces at Isly, for which he was created motion; the antennæ are thread-like and

Duc d'Isly. In the revolution of February 1848, slender, about half the length of the body; the Marshal B. had the command of the army in Paris, mouth is formed for suction alone, and is furnished and would have dissuaded the king from signing with a sort of proboscis, which' is three-jointed, the act of abdication ; but panic made such counsel forms a sheath for the true sucker, and when not useless. Among all the friends of Louis-Philippe, in use is recurved under the head and thorax. The Marshal B. seems to have been the only man who B. lurks during the day in crevices of walls, of preserved firmness and presence of mind. When bedsteads, and of other furniture, but is sufficiently Louis Napoleon became president, he intrusted the active during the night; and when it finds oppor- chief command of the army of the Alps to B., who tunity, sucks blood until it distends itself.

9, scems, however, to be capable of subsisting long BUGENHAGEN, JOHANN, surnamed Pomerwithout food. Young bugs resemble their parents anus, or Dr. Pommer, one of Luther's chief helpers in most things, except size and the want of elytra in the Reformation, was born at Wollin, near (q. v.), insects of this order not undergoing such Stettin, in Pomerania, 1485; studied at Greifsmarvellous transformations as those of some other wald, and as early as 1503 became rector of the orders. The best preventive of bugs in a house is Treptow Academy. There he lived quietly, fulfilscrupulous attention to cleanliness ; but where the ling the duties of his office until 1520, when his nuisance exists, it is not easily removed, and various religious views were changed by reading Luther's means are employed for this purpose, of which little book, De Captivitate Babylonicâ. B. was now one of the best and safest is thorough washing seized, as it were, by the zealous spirit of the with spirit of turpentine, although recourse is even Reformation, and, to avoid the persecution of the had to washing with a solution of corrosive sub- Catholic party, he betook himself to Wittenberg, limate.--Other species of B. (Cimex) suck the blood | where his talents procured for him in succession

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BUGLE-BUILDING.

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several high positions. B.'s remarkable philologi. | The stone is found in beds or in detached masses, cal and exegetical powers were of great service to and the mode of quarrying is peculiar. When the Luther in his translation of the Bible. In 1525, mass is large, it is cut out into the form of a huge he opened the controversy between Luther and cylinder; around this, grooves are cut, at distances Zwingli by a treatise against the latter, to which of about 18 inches, the intended thickness of the Zwingli ably replied. He possessed a superior millstones; into these grooves, wooden wedges are talent for organisation, establishing churches in driven, and water is thrown upon the wedges, which, Brunswick, Hamburg, Lubeck, and Pomerania. causing the wood to swell, splits the cylinder into In 1537, he was called to Denmark by Christian III. the slices required. The most important substitute to reform the ecclesiastical establishments of that for the French B. in the United States is the B. rock country. He accomplished this so admirably, that of the bituminous coal measures of North-westeru the Danes to this day consider him their reformer. Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio. In 1542, he returned to Wittenberg, and continued BUILDING, the art of erecting or building his energetic efforts to extend the new theology houses and other edifices, in which several distinct throughout his native land. He died 20th April, professions are usually and more immediately con1558. His best work is his Interpretatio in Librum cerned. At the head of the building-trade is the Psalmorum (Nürnberg, 1523).

architect, who is employed to draw plans and make BU'GLE (Ajuga), a genus of plants of the natu- out specifications of the work to be performed. ral order Labiatæ, having an irregular corolla, with The builder acts ministerially; his duty consists very short upper lip and trifid lower lip, the stamens in carrying out the plans put into his hands, protruding. The species are mostly natives of the according to certain stipulated terms. colder parts of the Old World, and several are fession of the architect demands not only much British." The Common B. (A. reptans) is abundant imaginative power, but great artistic skill

, along in most pastures and woods. Its flowers are gene- with a practical knowledge of details. Endeavourrally blue, but varieties occur with white and purplish ing to realise the wishes of his employer, the flowers, which are often introduced into flower-bor architect devises what shall be the external effect ders. The Alpine B. (A. alpina) is one of the beau- and interior accommodation of a building, and portiful flowers of the Swiss Alps.

trays the whole on paper with rigorous accuracy. BU'GLOSS, a name popularly applied to many ture and its interior arrangements, he furnishes the

Besides general designs to give an idea of the strucplants of the natural order Boragineæ (q. V.), as to the species of Anchusa or Alkanet (q. v.), '&c. working plans or drawings, which are to guide the In some botanical works it is confined to the genus several operations. These services of the architect,

different mechanics--masons, joiners, &c. in their Lycopsis, a genus differing from Anchusa in little but the curiously curved tube of the corolla, and of of course, involve much thought and labour, and which one species, L. arvensis, is a common weed in staff of assistants, by whom the plans are executed

he is therefore under the necessity of employing a cornfields in Britain. The beautiful genus Echium under his orders. The making out of the specificabears the English name of Viper's Brgloss.

tions is a matter of careful study. To perform BUHL-WORK, or BOOL-WORK, is the name this part of his duty properly, the architect needs applied to a sort of inlaying of brass scrolls to be acquainted with the qualities of different and other ornamental patterns in wood. The kinds of materials; such as stone, lime, sand, bricks, name is derived from its inventor, Boule, an wood, iron, &c. A knowledge of the strength of Italian cabinet-maker, who settled in France ind timber is particularly desirable. When the specifithe reign of Louis XIV. He employed veneers cations are made out, they and the contract are of dark-coloured tortoise-shell, inlaid with brass. subscribed by the builder. To insure as far as Cabinets of his manufacture are highly prized, possible a faithful adherence to the specifications, as are also those of his contemporary Reisner, a the architect appoints a “clerk of works' to keep German, who used a ground of tulip-wood, inlaid watch over the whole operations, and who is with flowers, &c., in darker woods, and varied with authorised to check any seeming fault. During margins and bands of light wood, with the grain the whole proceedings, the architect is paramount. crossed for contrast. This modification of B. W. For the due execution of his plans, he feels that is correctly called Reisner work. For details his professional reputation is at stake; and, acof the methods of working, see INLAYING and cordingly, having involved his responsibilty, the MOSAIC.

employer cannot with propriety interfere to make BU'HRSTONE, a variety of quartz (q. v.) contain- alterations while the work is in progress. Such ing many small empty cells, which give it a peculiar is the etiquette of the profession. Should alteraroughness of surface, particularly adapting it for tions be desirable, they become matter for a millstones. The name is given without reference fresh agreement among the parties. When the to geological relations, but it is vein quartz rather works are finished, the builder hands his account than true quartz rock, which ordinarily assumes to the architect to be examined and checked. If the character of buhrstone. There are different satisfied of its correctness, he grants a certificate varieties of B., some of which are more compact, of the fact, and this is the warrant for payment or have smaller cells than others; and those in by the employer. The builder having been settled which the cells are small and very regularly dis- with, the employer. now pays the architect's fee, tributed, about equal in diameter to the spaces which closes the transaction. This fee may be one, between them, the stone being also as hard as two, or more per cent, on the entire cost of the B., rock-crystal, are

Good B. is according to local usage or terms agreed on; whatfound at Conway in Wales, and ai several places ever it is, it covers all charges for advice, plans, and in Scotland; but the finest millstones are obtained other professional trouble. from the quarries of La Ferté-sous-Jouarre, in the Builders undertake work by contract,' or by department of Seine-et-Marne, near Paris. A single schedule of prices. If by contract, they engage to millstone in one piece of 6 feet diameter, sells for execute the whole work for a stipulated sum. If about £50, and one formed of several pieces for by schedule of prices, they agree to abide by the about £33. It is not unusual to form millstones measurements of valuators appointed by the archiof pieces of B. cut into parallelopipeds, like great tect. These valuators go over the works when wedges of soap, and bound together by iron hoops. I finished, and, taking an exact account of everything,

most

esteemed.

BUILDING ACT FOR LONDON-BUILDING LEASES.

compare it with the account rendered by the builder ; , built in this systematic way partakes a good deal in the architect being the ultimate referee. It is the nature of a large machine, in which all the parts exceedingly important, for the sake of an amicable fit together with very great accuracy. There can adjustment of accounts, that the builder should be little doubt that if skill and capital be judiciously adhere scrupulously to the letter of the speci- applied in this way, a house ought to be better built fications--i. e., the covenant under which he has and to cost less than if built in the ordinary unbecome bound. He can justify no departure from systematic manner. It may also be mentioned here, the specifications, on the plea that something as that Mr. Cubitt was the owner of a very large good has been given or done, or that he was not brick-making establishment on the banks of the checked at the time by the clerk of works. Being Medway, between Rochester and Maidstone, where explicitly a person employed to do a certain piece steam-power was employed in all the operations of of work, in a certain way, he is in no respect making bricks. Some of the great railway conentitled to substitute his own notions for those of tractors, who have become millionaires, were originhis employers.

ally house-builders, alive to the grand results It may happen that a proprietor acts as his own producible by the combination of steam-worked architect, and employs a builder to execute his machinery with the labour of well-organised bodies designs, on the understanding that he is to pay for of men. everything according to a schedule of prices. In As an art, B. is of vast antiquity, and has assumed many instances, the builder is proprietor as well as different forms, according to the necessities of manarchitect, and merely carries out his own plans. kind and the materials readily at their disposal. In Such is generally the case in the neighbourhood of ancient Egypt, Greece, and Italy, B. in stone rose to London, where builders speculate in leasing land a high state of perfection, and till the present day it and erecting rows of dwellings for sale. This plan may be said that the greatest progress in the art is greatly facilitated by the opportunity of buying is made only where stone of a manageable kind is every article required in house-building ready for conveniently at command. Rome, and other Italian use; such as bricks, door-steps, hearthstones, joists, cities ; Paris, Lyon, Bordeaux, and most cities in flooring, doors, windows, marble mantel-pieces, slates, France; Brussels, Berlin, Leipsic, Munich, Geneva, &c. In fact, house-building in the metropolitan Vienna, Edinburgh, and Glasgow are noble specimens district is very much reduced to a system of pur- of what may be achieved in stone workable with chasing and putting together certain articles from the chisel. On the other hand, London, the greatest manufactories and depôts. For this kind of business, city within the bounds of civilisation, is built of there may be said to be establishments for the sale brick; so likewise are Manchester and Liverpool; of doors and windows, as there are shops for the sale also Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and other towns in of nails, locks, and hinges.

Holland; and, as a general fact, it would appear The application of a comprehensive manufac- that wherever brick has to be resorted to, there the turing system in the preparation of various parts allied arts of architecture and building, as regards of a building is observable most particularly in cer- domestic accommodation and elegance of style, are tain establishments of great magnitude. The test on a poor scale. B. with stone of a superior kind is is this—whether the builder conducts so gigantic a now becoming common in New York, Philadelphia, trade as to warrant him in setting up a steam- and some other American cities. It is not necesengine of great power, and in providing highly sary to trace in this article the various processes wrought machines for cutting and otherwise treat- embraced in the comprehensive term Building ; ing wood, stone, &c. When once this degree of seeing that all the materials used, and all the magnitude is reached, the operations are conducted operations conducted, are noticed under the proper under very great advantage. The Crystal Palace headings in the Encyclopædia. in Hyde Park could never have been built at the

BUILDING ACT FOR LONDON AND stipulated cost, nor in the required space of time,

ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD. See METROPOLITAN but by the application of steam-power to work the

BUILDING ACT. machines which shaped and grooved the two hundred miles of sash-bars; by the resources of the largest BUILDING LEASES. In the law of England English establishment in the glass-trade, in making a building lease is a demise of land for a long term one million square feet of sheet-glass ; and by the of years, the lessee covenanting to erect certain skill and capital of our great iron manufactures, in houses or edifices thereon, according to specification. rapidly producing three thousand iron columns, and | By the 19 and 20 Vict. c. 120, amended by the 21 and more than that number of iron girders. When the 22 Vict. c. 77, and which acts also apply to Ireland, late Mr. Thomas Cubitt was engaged in the vast the Court of Chancery is empowered to authorise building operations at Belgravia (a district in the leases of settled estates and B. L., which shall west of London owned by the Marquis of West- take effect in possession within one year next minster), his factory on the banks of the Thames after the making of the same; the term for such was the most complete ever known in the trade. It building lease being ninety-nine years; or where exemplified both the principles adrerted to above the court shall be satisfied that it is the usual custhe manufacture of various articles by steam-worked tom of the district, and beneficial to the inheritmachinery; and the collecting of large stores of ance to grant B. L. for longer terms, then for such other articles made in a similar way by other firms. term as the court shall direct. By a subsequent There was a store of drawing-room and parlour enactment, it is declared that the term building doors, a store of window-sashes, a store of street- lease shall include a repairing lease, but such repairdoors, and stores of mantel-pieces, stone and marble ing lease to be for a term not exceeding sixty steps, balusters, slates, knockers, bells, and all the years. materials for house-building from the coarsest to the By the 5 and 6 Vict. c. 108-passed to enable finest. There was also observed that systematic ecclesiastical persons to grant long leases for buildgradation of kinds and dimensions which is so much ing, repairs, or other improvements it is enacted at:ended to in the higher kinds of machinery, and that any ecclesiastical corporations, aggregate or which so much expedites all operations; seeing that sole, excepting as mentioned in the act, may, with one particular piece would not only fit into or consent of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners for Eng. against another, but into or against any one of a land (q. v.)-to which, where the lessor is incumbent whole class to which that other belonged. A house of a benefice, the consent of a patron also must

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