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BUILDING SOCIETIES_BULB.

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be added-demise by deed the corporate lands or here and there throughout the mass, and such become houses for any term not exceeding ninty-nine years, I discoloured from the pyrites being decomposed by to take effect in possession and not in reversion, to atmospheric influence, and the brownish-red oxide any person willing to improve or repair the same ; of iron (rust) is left as a stain on the surface of the provided, that on the grant of such leases, a small block. The liability to decay or to discoloration in rent may be reserved during the six first years, with a B. S. may be arrested to a great extent by coatan increased rent afterwards ; but no such lease is ing the outer surface with boiled linseed-oil, which to comprise the usual house of residence, its out. I communicates a dark appearance to the stone, but buildings or pleasure-grounds. The act contains prevents oxygen or moisture from gaining access other regulations, and it declares generally that it to the block. Ordinary oil-paint is employed for is made without prejudice to any right that eccle- the same purpose. For the preservation of B. S. siastical persons have under the former law to grant from decay by means of various solutions, see STONE, or lease, whether by renewal or otherwise.

PRESERVATION OF. In the Scotch law, the term building lease is BUJALANCÉ, a city of Andalusia, Spain, about applied to the case of proprietors of entailed ( 20 miles east of Cordova. It is surrounded by a estates, who, in order to encourage the building of moat and a wall flanked with old towers, has an old villages and houses upon property so settled, are Arab castle, and manufactures of woollens, glass, to have it in their power to grant leases of land for and pottery, exports of agricultural produce, and an the purpose of building, for any number of years important anual cattle-fair. Pon about 9000. not exceeding ninety-nine years. See this natter | BU'KKUM WOOD. See BRAZIL Wood and SAPregulated by the 10 Geo. III. c. 51. By the 3 and 4 | Pan Wood. Vict. c. 48, proprietors of entailed estates in Scot- BU’KKUR, a fortified island of the Indus, in land may feu or lease on long leases ground for Sinde, in lat. 27° 39' N., and long. 68° 56' E. It is the building of churches and schools, and for the 400 yards from Roree on the left bank, and 100 dwelling-houses and gardens for the ministers and

from Sukkur on the right. In the ordinary state masters of the same, and also for burying-ground of low water, the western and eastern arms of the and play-ground attached to such churches and river are respectively 15 feet and 30 feet deep. In schools. See LEASES and LEASEHOLD.

particularly dry seasons, however, the former has BUILDING SOCI'ETIES. See BENEFIT Socie- been known to disappear altogether, and even the TIES.

latter is said to have occasionally been fordable. In

1839, a British force, on its march to Afghanistan, BUI'LDING STOVE. The chemical composition made a stepping-stone, as it were, of B. in crossing of B. S. raries. The majority of kinds are more or the Indus, having joined it to either mainland by a less silicious, and are designated sandstones. These bridge of boats. B. is no longer of any military consist of particles of sand, united together by the value against a civilised assailant, commanded, as it force of cohesion, and by a small proportion of a is, on both sides by higher grounds. It is composed natural cement; in some cases, ferruginous, consist- of limestone, being 800 yards long, and 300 broad, ing of a compound of iron; and in other instances, and rising 30 feet from the average level of the calcareous, composed of carbonate of lime. Igneons / stream. rocks furnish very durable B. S., though in general

BUKOWI'NA, formerly the south-eastern division the hardness of the materials renders them so difficult to work, that they are seldoin resorted to where

of Galicia, now a distinct crown-land of the Austrian softer stones can be procured. Thus, granite is

empire, on the Russian frontier, occupies an area largely employed in the construction of the houses

of 3981 square miles, with a population in 1857 of in Aberdeen, in the erection of bridges, in the paving

462,242. it is traversed by offsets of the Carof streets, and wherever great durability is required.

pathians, gives rise to many rivers, and abounds Greenstone and basalt are also occasionally used.

in wood, along with considerable inineral riches.

Wood-cutting and mining afford occupation for a The B. S. employed in the new Houses of Parlia

great number of the inhabitants. Large numbers of ment is a magnesian limestone, or a double carbonate of lime and nagnesia, which is very close and com

cattle are reared, and also excellent horses. B., till

the end of the 15th c., belonged to Transylvania, pact in texture, is soft enough to be easily cut with the chisel, but durable enough to resist weathering,

when it came under the dominion of the Turks, by and retain the sharp outline of the carving. The

whom it was cedei to Austria in 1777. Czernowitz other forms of carbonate of line exhibit considerable

is the chief town. durability. In the vicinity of Bath, as also in the

BULACAN, a town of Luzon, Philippines, at the Isle of Portland, an oolitic limestone is quarried,

head of the Bay of Manilla, about twenty miles which is easily cut, and stands well.

north-west of the city of that name. B. is chiefly A very convenient and accurate way of deter-composed of wooden houses, but has spacious streets, mining the durability of a B. S. -in other words, its manufactures of silken mats and other fabrics, and power of resisting the effects of frost and other large sugar-boiling establishments. Pop. betwee atmospheric agencies--is to place a small block in a 9000 and 10,000. cold saturated solution of sulphate of soda; raise to BULB, in Botany, a subterranean bud covered the boiling-point, so as to expel air from cavities in with imbricated scales, having at their base a flatthe stone, which then become filled with the solu- tened disc, which represents the proper stem of the tion; then allow to cool, and suspend the block of plant, and from which the roots proceed downwards, B. S. in air. Every now and then, it is dipped whilst from the midst of the scales an annual herinto the solution, and subsequently air-dried. The baceous stem and leaves are sent up. The scales result is, that the sulphate of soda crystallises on are regarded as modified leaves, and sometimes are the outside, and partially in the interior of the all fleshy, as in the lily; sometimes the outer ones block, and in this respect acts as water does when are membranous, as in the onion, in which case the it is frozen during winter; and if the B. S. be B. is said to be tunicated. The B. is popularly but porous, and liable to decay by natural agencies, it erroneously regarded as the root or part of the root gradually breaks up, and particles scale of. The of the plant, and plants in which it is found are amount of this corrosion can be determined by very generally described as bulbous-rooted. New weighing the detached portions. Some building buds are formed in the axils of its scales, which stones contain iron pyrites in little nodules diffused grow at the expense of the parent B., and gradually

ween

BULBUL-BULKHEADS.

destroy it. In some plants, as the tiger-lily and/ The earliest known inhabitants of B. were the some species of allium, leaf-buds (bulbils or bułblets) Mosians, who contended long against the Romans, are developed on the stem above ground, which and allied themselves with Gothic and Slavonic spontaneously separate and serve for the propaga- tribes against the Greek empire. Anastasius, the tion of the plant, and which are entirely of the Greek emperor, in 507, built an extensive wall to nature of bulbs, being formed of thickened scales, defend his territories from Mæsian invaders. In sometimes so closely united as to form a solid mass. the 7th c., the Bulgarians, a people of Finnish The Corn (q. v.) was formerly regarded as a kind origin, whose original seat was the banks of the of B., and described as a solid B., but its structure Volga, conquered the Moesians, and established the is essentially different, although both it and the kingdom of Bulgaria ; they soon lost their own TULER (q. v.) may be included in the description language and customs, and became assimilated to which Linnæus has given of the B. with reference the other Slavonic inhabitants. After being tibuto the purpose which it serves as the winter-quar- tary to the Greek emperors, and contending for ters of the plaut.' Many bulbs, if removed from some time against Hungary, B. became subiect to the ground during the period when the vegetation the Porte in 1392; but the frightful oppression of of the plant is most dormant, may be kept in a dry despotic and sanguinary pashis has not, even to place without injury for a considerable time, even the present day, robbed the inhabitants of a disfor years. Bulbs serve also for the preservation of tinctively national life and love of freedom. Since plants in periods of drought, and are particularly 866, the Bulgarians have chiefly belonged to the frequent in those which delight in sandy soils. The Greek Catholic Church. abundance of 'bulbous-rooted' plants is a remark- The BULGARIAN LANGUAGE is divided into two able characteristic of the flora of the Cape of Good dialects-Old Bulgarian and New Bulgarian ; the Hope. “Bulbous-rooted' plants are very often dis- former, the richest and best of the Slavonic dialects; tinguished by the beauty of their flowers, and many the latter, very inferior, and chiefly remarkable for of them are among the most esteemed ornaments its store of popular songs. of gardens, green-louses, and stoves. The bulbs of! BULGARIN. THADDEUS, one of the best known tulips, hyacinths, and other favourite flowers are Russian authors, was born in Lithuania. 1789: important articles of trade. Some bulbs, as that of received a military education in St. Petersburg: the onion, are valuable as articles of food; others, and, in 1805. served in the campaign against France. as that of the squill, upon account of medicinal Later, however, he forsook the Russian army for properti.s.

the French, and after sundry reverses was, in BU'LBUL, an Armenian nanie for the night-1814, appointed by Napoleon to the command of ingale, which has found its way into English poetry a division of volunteers. After Napoleon's fall, chiefly through the patronage of Lord Byron. But B. went to Warsaw, wiiere he contributed several the same name is given in India to a very different poetical and humorous works to Polish literature. bird. Pycnonotus licemorrhous, belonging to the great | But, ultimately, he settled in St. Petersburg, and tribe of Dentiroxtrcs, and formerly ranked anong devoting himself to the study of Russ, soon became the thrushes. to which it is pretty nearly allied. a popular author. In 1825, together with his It is a little bird of brilliant plumage, and the

friend Gretsch, he began the Northern Bre, and male has a crest or tuft on its head. It is remark-since then he has written several romalices-of iable for its pugnacity : the Singhalese consider it which Demetrius or Mazeppa are the best-and the most game of all birds, and the training of it published different periodicals. B. is humorous and to fight wis one of the duties intrusted by the graphic as a writer, judicious as an editor, as a : king of Kandy to the Kooroowa or Bird Headman. critic, severe, and by no means dispassionate. His When vitted against an antagonist, such is the large work, Russia in its Historical, Statistical, obstinate courage of this little creature, that it will | Geographical, and Litcrary Aspect, has been with sink from exhaustivn rather than release its hold.- his sanction translated into German, and published Sir J. E. Tennent's Ceylon.

at Riga, 1839—1841. BULGARIA, an extensive province of European

BU'LGEWAYS are timbers so placed as to Turkey, in lat. 42° 8'-15° 20 N., and long. 22° 15' facilitate the launching of a ship; for which, see .-29° 35' E. The Danube flows along the whole of LAUNCHING. its northern boundary; on the E. it has the Black BU'LKHEADS, in a ship, are the partitions Sea ; and on the S. the Balkan range divides it from between the several portions of the interior ; Rumelia and Macedonia. It has an area of about whether to separate it into rooms, or as a safeguard .38,000 square miles, with a population, in 1844 (the in case of wreck. In ships of war, the B. or parti

latest return), of 3,000,000. The country slopes tions between the several cabins or storerooms 'terrace-like from south to north, and from the west are chiefly of wood; and most or many of these to the east, acquiring a plain-like character before are removed when preparing for action, in order reaching the Black Sea. The rivers are rapid, and to obtain clear space for working the guns. In i tributary to the Danube. The soil in some parts is emigrant ships, the B. between the cabins are frevery fertile, producing great abundance of corn ; in quently mere lattice-work. others, it does not yield sufficient for the consump: Water-tight B. are among the improvements tion. There is excellent pasture-land, and the in modern ship-building; they are iron walls runlower terraces are richly wooded. The exports ning athwart tiie hold, as a means of dividing it include horned cattle, sheep, corn, wine, iron, wood, I into several pontions; the interior is thus cut off honey, wax; and otto of roses is an important into cells, each water-tight in reference to its : article. The governinent is in the hands of the neighbours. When such a slip is leaking in any Mohammedan Beglerbeg of Rumelia ; ard for one of the compartments, there is thus a chance tlat administrative purposes, B. is divided into four the others may be kept dry until the damage is sanjaks-viz., Silistria, Widdin, Nissa, and Sophia, repaired. Most of the large passenger-steamers are with the city of Sophia for a capital. In a military to some extent provided with these bulk he: ds. Tlie point of view, B. holds a position of great import- Great Eastern has no less than ten of them, extendance, and has been, in consequence, often an arena ing nearly up to the level of the upper deck. The :of warfare, from the time of the Roman and Byzan presence of these B. greatly lessened the amount tine to that of the Turko-Russian campaign of 1854. of injury occasioned by the explosion on board that

BULL—BULLA.

ship, on the 9th of September 1859 ; seeing that, Germany, to study under Spohr. After several the disruption was thereby wholly confined to the, vicissitudes, he came to Paris in 1831, and aftercompartment in which it occurred.

wards travelled through Switzerland and Italy. BULL (Lat. bulla, primarily, anything round or

During this period, he developed his peculiar style

of plaving, which was essentially that of the school swelling) was originally the name of the capsule

of Paganini. B., however, wished to excel his of the seal appended to letters from emperors or

model in originality, and in triumphing over the from the pope. Afterwards, the word was applied

most extraordinary difficulties; but it was impossible to the seal, and next to the document itself, as in

for him to follow the flight of the great Italian, in the case of the celebrated Golden Bull of the Emperor Charles IV., which was so named froin the golden to lurk. Nevertheless, lie was received in Italy

whose brain some capricious musical demon seemed capsule appended to imperial letters and other

with prodigious enthusiasm-Malibran herself eniiniportant documents by the Byzantine and Frank

bracing him on the stage at Naples. In 1836, lie emperors as early as the 9th century. They are

visited England, Scotland, and Ireland, and subseissued by the apostolic chancellor, and are dated • from the day of incarnation,' whereas briefs are

quently travelled in a professional capacity through always dated from the day of the nativity.' The

Belgium, Ilolland, Russia, and Germany. After name is now applied exclusively to letters or docu

La long repose, lie sailed for America, whence he

returned in 1850; but he again went out, and was so ments issued in the name of the pope. In cases of

successful, that he thought of retiring from public granting favours, &c., the seal is appended to the open letter by a yellow or red band of silk: but in

ife. He purchased in l'emusylvania 125,000 acres of

inferior ground, and founded il colony of Scandi. the administration of justice, a gray hempen band is

naviaus. This turned out a complete failure, and used. All bulls, excepting those addressed to the United Greek Christians, are written in Latin with

| B. lias been again compelled to resume his violin.

He has once more visited Europe, and in the early Gothic letters, and on the rough side of the parchmeut. See BRIEF. All bear the name and title of

part of 1860 was giving concerts to enthusiastic

audiences in Stockholm. the pope-for example, Gregorius Episcopus Servus Servorum Dei, &c., is prefixell; then follows al BULL, GEORGE, D.D., a learned prelate and general introduction, of which the initial words are theological writer, born at Wells, Gloucestershire, used to give a distinct name to the B., as in the Eugland, March 25, 1634; studied at Oxford, whence examples: the B. Exsurge Domine, issued by Pope he retired in 1619, having refused to take the Leo X. against Luther in 1520; the B. In Cana commonwealth oath imposed by the parliament. Domini, the celebrated B, against heretics, often Receiving holy orders, his first charge was the parish re-issued since 15:30; the famous Unigenitus, or of St. George's, Bristol. In 1058, he obtained the B. against Quesnel's writings, 1713; the Dominus rectory of Suddington St. Mirys, near that city; ac Redemptor Noster, or B. for the abolition of the and in 1902, was presented to the vicarage of order of Jesuits; the Ecclesia Christi, or the B. Suddington St. Peter's. In 1669, he published his which completed the concordat with France in Harmonia Apostolica, the object of which was to 1801; the De Salute Animarum, or the B. for the reconcile the apostles Paul and James on the regulation of the Catholic Church in Prussia. To subject of justification. This work occasioned conevery B., the leaden seal of the Church is appended, siderable controversy among divines, and in answer, bearing on the obverse the arms of the pope, B. published his Examen Censure, and Apologia and on the reverse his name. Bulls issued dur- pro Harmonia. In 1678, he was presented to a ing the interim between the election and consecra- prebend in Gloucester Cathedral, and made Rector tion of a pope have no armorial bearings on the of Avening, Gloucestershire. In 1679, he wils scal. A bullariuin is a collection of papal bulls, installed Archdeacon of Llandaff, and received the as the Bullarium Magnum Romanui a Leone degree of D.D. from Oxford University. In 1685, Magno ad Benedictum XIII. (19 vols., Luxembourg, he published his Defensio fidei Nicene, against the 1727—1758), the B. Romanum (28 vols., Rome, 1737 Arians and Socinians, Tritheists and Sabellians; --1744), and the B. Benedicti XIV. (Mechlin, 1826– and in 1694, his Judicium Ecclesice Catholicæ, for 1827), and more recently, the continuation of the which the thanks of the whole French clergy were Bullarium Romanum Magnum by Barberini (Vienna, sent to him through the celebrated Bossuet. His 1835).–From tue same medieval Latin word bulla last work was bis Primitive and Apostolical Trais derived the word bulletin (Italian, bulletino), dition, &c. He was consecrated Bishop of S. Davids commonly applied to dispatches from generals, in 1705, and died February 17, 1709. reports of the health of royal personages, and on

BU'LLA, a genius of Mollusca, which in the older the continent, at least, to other brief authenticated documents, such as those of scientific societies, the

systems, founded upon characters taken from the best known of which are the bulletins of the St.

shell alone, contained a heterogeneous assemblage Petersburg and Belgic academies. It is, moreover,

of species essentially very different. Some of those

| laving been removed to other orders, according to used as a title for periodicals, and, in France, also

their organisation, the genus designates the slips of paper on which electors write their votes.

Bulla, and the family Bullidæ,

of which it is the type, are BULL, OLE BORNEMANN, a fimous violinist, was placed in the order Tectibranborn 5th February 1810), at Bergen, in Norway. chiata of Cuvier, an order of No very authentic account of him is obtainable. His the class Gasteropoda (q. V.), and father, it is said, attempted to coerce him into the of that section of it called Bulla. Aperta study of theology, and would not permit a musical | Monacia, having the male and instrument about the house. This foolish treatnient female organs of sex combined in the same indiri. only gave a more decisive character to the peculiar dual. The Bulidie hare a convoluted and generally genius of the boy. Having gone to the university th:n shell, which serves as a covering and protection of Christiana in 1828, he found an opportunity to for the gills, and which in some of them is large play at a concert, where his skill excited such enough to form a retreat for the entire animal, in enthusiasm, that he shortly after was offered the others, is itself enveloped in the mantle. This shell situation of music-director in the city. He accepted forms a sort of transition link between the flat calit, but in the following year went to Cassei, in careous plaie enclosed in the mantles of the Anlusive

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BULLACE-BULLER.

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or Sea-hares--to which B. is nearly allied and the sprung up, as a variety of the mastiff, or a cross spiral shell of snails and other such conchiferous between the mastiff and some other breed. Buffon, mollusks. The mouth of the shell is lirge, extending indeed, represents the B. as the parent race, and the whole length of the shell, widening towards one the mastiff as derived from it, but this opinion is end, the lip acute. The gizzard of the Bullidue is generally rejected ils erroneous. The B. has been very muscular; and among its thick coats, in many regarded as a distinct species by some naturalists, species, are found calcareous bony plates, which being and named Canis Anglicus, C. laniarius, &c. It is mored against each other by its muscles, serve to much smaller than the mastiff, but is very strong grind down the food. All the species are marine, some are found on the British coast. Some, from their form and fragility, are popularly called BUBBLE SHELLS, as the British Bulla Hydatis.

BU'LLACE (Prunus insititia), a shrub or small tree, larger and much less spiny than the sloe, but very closely allied to it, as it is also to the plum, so that many botanists regard them all as one species, an opinion much coufirnied by the circumstance that the varieties pass into each other by imperceptible gradations. The B. may be regarded as a form intermediate between the plum and the sloe. Its leaves, however, are generally broader in proportion to their length than those of either of these, and its fruit-stalks more frequently in pairs; it differs also from bo:h of them in its downy fruitstalks, and in having the under side of its leaves permanently downy. The flowers are rather larger than even those of the plum; the fruit is larger

Bull-dog. than the sloe, generally globose, and, although it partakes in some degree both of the acidity and the

ana muscular. The breadth of muzzle is greater roughness of the sloe, it is not upleasant, especially

than in the mastiff, and the head is very large, after having been mellowed by frosts, and makes

I almost appearing as of disproportionate size to the excellent pies or tarts. “A bullace-pie is a standing

body. "The forehead sinks between the eyes, and

nie the line of the nose rises again at a considerable dish at the harvest-home supper in the south of England, only it requires rather more sugar than

angle; the lower jaw projects beyond the upper,

| often shewing the teeth, which altogether, with the the housewife is always willing to allow.' The B.

| frequent redness about the eyelids, produces a most is common in hedges, coppices, and banks in Eng-|

forbidding aspect; the ears are partially drooping, land, and in many parts of Europe. It is rare in

unless the terrier blood is crossed in the arimal, Scotland.

and the tail is carried high. The hair is short, and BU'LL-BAITING, a barbarous sport, once very the tail taper, and not bushy. The present breed is popular in England, and in which all classes of commonly ochry or reddish buff, with the nose and society equally delighted, but now, throngh the pro. chops alone black; but a brindled breed formerly gress of civilisation, almost entirely confined to the prevailed, which was often exported to tlie contilowest, aud rare even among them. It consists innent for strengthening the packs of wolf and boar causing a bull to be attacked by dogs; and in hounds. The B. is seldom to be seen except in order that the bull might be made as furious as the company of persons who delight in dog-fighting possible, his nose was sometimes blown full of and other barbarous sports. It was formerly much beaten pepper before he was turned loose. Another employed in bull-haiting, from which it dorives its form of this sport was to fasten the bull to a stake, wame. It is chiefly remarkable for its savage feroby a rope of some vards long, and to send bull-dogs city, and the pertinacitr with which it retains its against him, one at a time, which were trained to hold, as if its jaws were locked, and it could not lot seize him by the nose, and when this was accom-go. It will hang to the jaw or nose of a bull, plished, it was called pinning the bull. But no small alth:ongh lifted from the ground. Colonel Hamilton part of the enjoyment of the spectators was derived Smith says he has seen one 'pinning an American from the success with which the attacks of the dogs bison, and holding his nose down, till the animal were met by the bull lowering his head to the gradually brought forward its hind feet, and, crushground, and receiving them on his horns, often ing the dog to death, tore his muzzle out of 10 tossing them to a great distance. In some places, fangs, most dreadfully mangled.' The B. is also lioli B. took place regularly as a sort of annual festival, enough to attack any animal, however superior il and funds were sometimes left to provide for it. size and strength. King James I. of England greatly delighted in The BULL-TERRIER is probably a mere rariety of this sport. When the late Emperor Nicholas of the B., or a cross between the B. and the terrier, Russia visited England, before his accession to the It is smaller than the B., more lively, and, if posempire, he was present at a boxing-inatch and a sible, still more ferocious.' The ears are always B., which were got up to shew him Englislı tastes. pointed; the colour is very commonly white, with

An equally barbarous sport, termed Bull-running, some black about the head. It is unrivalled in ratwas formerly practised at Stamford and Tutbury, catching. where men and women took the place of dogs, BULLER, CHARLES, born in Calcutta in 1806, maddened the bull with hideous noise, and then I was a geutleman whose name falls to be recorded pursued it with “bull-clubs,' till the infortunate

more on account of the hopes which his death in animal expired beneath the blows of its brutal | 1848 disappointed, than for the performances of his assailants.

| life. He was educated at Harrow and Cambridge, BU'LL-DOG, a kind of dog which is regarded at both of which he distinguished himself, and as peculiarly English, but concerning which it is for a time studied in Edinburgh, where he had doubted whether it has existed as a distinct race, Mr. Thomas Carlyle for one of his tutors. He was at least from the Roman cra, or has more recently called to the English bar in 1830, and entering BULLET-BULL-FIGHT.

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parliament before the Reform Bill, continued a / bullets with steel dies, drops them into boxes, member of the Lower House till his death. He was and conveys thein away. Each machine, with still but a rising man when he died. In politics, a its four dies, makes 7000 bullets per hour; and philosophical radical, he occupied successively the four such machines, in an easy day's work, turn posts of Judge-advocate-general and President of out 300,000 bullets. So nearly are the machines the Poor-law Commission linder Whig governments. automnatic, that one man can attend them all. The intcrest taken in his career, and his popijtv, Other machines, attended by children, produce were, it would seem, largely owing to his amiability an equal nuniber of little boxwood plugs for filling and accomplishments for society.

the cavity at the hinder end of the bullet. To BU'LLET is the leaden projectile discharged

what degree the Minié, Enfield, and other bullets from a musket, fowling-piece, pistol, or similar

differ, will be briefly noticed in connection with the weapon. When the smooth-bore muskets alone

accounts of the rifles to which they belong were used by British infantry, the bullets were BULLET-TREE, or BULLY-TREE, a tree made by casting. Molteu lead was poured into found in Guiana, and valued for its wood, which moulds; and the moulds were dipped in collis solid, heavy, close-grained, and durable, and also water, to hasten the solidification of the lead. for its fruit, which is a drupe about tlie size of a The moulds were cooled after every few times cherry, and very delicious. It is supposed to belong of using; and the lead was heated only just to to the genus Mimusops (natural order Sapotaceæ, the degree for maintaining fluidity. At present, i q. v.). however, bullets are made more expeditiously, and BU'LLETIN. See Bull. niore truly spherical in form, by a compressing

BU'LL-FIGHT. Combats of men with bulls, machine, invented by Mr. George Napier. The

for the entertainment of the public, were common lead is first fashioned into a rod about a yard

in Greece, particularly in Thessaly, and in Rome long by five or six eighths of an inch thick ; this

under the enperors, though in later times they rod is passed between rollers to condense it; then between other rollers to press it into

were forbidden both by emperors and popes. They a row

are still a favourite pastime in Spain and Mexico. of nearly globular pieces; then a spherical die gives the proper form to each of these pieces ; |

| In Spain they were abolished by Charles IV.; but

Si Joseph, Napoleon's brother, re-established them, ont and, lastly, a treadle-worked punch separates them into bullets. With one of these machines, and

of policy, the mass of the Spanish population being two dies, nine boys can make 40,000 bullets in

| passionately fond of the sport. The most inagnifi

cent bull-fights were at one time instituted by the a day. Spherical bullets for the old muskets, carbines,

monarchs themselves; at present, both in the capital and pistols varied from 1.1 to 20 to the pound, and |

and in the larger towns of Spain, they are held either from 0.60) to 0.68 of an inch in diameier. There

as private speculations, or for the benefit of public

institutions. In Madrid, the bull-fighting season is a particular ratio, depending on the specific gravity of lead, by which the number to the pound

commences in April, and lasts until November. Dur.

ing that time, there is at least one afternoon in will give the diameter, or vice versâ.

every weck deroted to the sport. The proceeds go to Such bullets are, however, becoming every year

the funds of the General Hospital. The fights take less and less used in the army, being superseded by

place in a kind of circus, called the Plaza de Toros, other forms better suited for rifles. These forms

lound which the seats rise one above another, like the are singularly numerous. Robins's B. was egg

steps of a stair, with a tier of boxes over them. The shaped, with the centre of gravity at the larger end;

Plaza is capable of containing from 10,000 to 12,000 people, who pay a high price of admission, considering the rate of wages in Spain; and all go attired in their best to the spectacle. The besi Andalusian bulls are bred at Utera, the best Castilian ones on the Jarama, near Aranjuez. The latter are the breed usually chosen for fight in Madrid. They are fiercer and more active, but inferior in strength to British animals. The horses engaged in the conHiets are worthless brutes, fit only for the knacker. Tue men employed in the fight are generally those who have been bred to it as a profession, but occia

sionally amateurs may take part in it. The B. Minié and Enfield Bullets.

has been described as a tragedy in three acts.

The principal performers in the first are the picuBeaufor's was ovoid, with a hemispherical cavity at dores ; in the second, the chulos are the only aciors; one end; Manton's was a spherical ball put into the third and last act devolves solely on the matua wooden cup, with projections on the exterior ; dor. The picadores are all mounted, dressed like Greener's was oval, with a plug of mixed metal | Spanish knights of the olden time, and armed with driven into a hole barely large enough for it; Nor- ( a lance; they take up their position in the middle tou's, Delvigne's, Minié's, and others, are, or were, 1 of the circus, opposite the bull-stalls. The chulos, of various elongated shapes, mostly with some kind who are on foot, are gay with ribbons, and wear of plug, which, driven into the lead by the force of very bright-coloured cloaks; they distribute thenthe explosion, causes it to fill up the grooves in the selves in the space between the barriers. The rifling of the barrel. This expanding or dilating matador, or chief combatant, is also on foot. He is action has been claimed by many inventors; but handsomely dressed, and holds in the right hand a the government, in 1857, awarded Mr. Greener naked sword, in the left the muleta, a small stick, £1000, as the person who had practically solved with a piece of scarlet-coloured silk attached. On a the difficulty as far back as 1836. The bullets for sign given by the chief magistrate, a bull is let out the Enfield rifles are now made with extraordinary from the stalls; the picadores stand ready in the speed, by machinery of beautiful construction. The arena waiting his charge. With a brave bull, they machine draws in a coil of leaden rod, unwinds it, find all their skill requisite in acting on the defencuts it to the required length, stamps out the 'sive; with a cowardly one, they act on the offensive;

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