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and should their stabs be ineffectual in rousing the unfrequent in England, Ireland, and the south of animal to the requisite fury, the poor beast is looted Scotland; and is found in most parts of Europe, by the crowd, and ultimately stabbed ingloriously from the south of Norway to the Mediterranean, in the spine. Whenever a horse is wounded, the extending eastward throughout Asia, even to Japan. ridler betakes himself to flight; and when either the It frequents woods and gardens, builds its best in above casualty happens, or a picador is thrown, the trees or bushes a fruw feet from the ground, feeds cinlos rush in, and attract the bull by their cloaks, chiefly on seeds and berries in winter, and in spring Saving themselves, if need be, by leaping over the is excessively destructive to the buds of fruit-trees palisade which encloses the circus. At the same in those localities in which it is abuudant, selecting time, another picador calls off the bull's attention to the flower-buds, and apparently finding them the himself by shouting. When the bull begins to tag, most palatable of all tood. Selby says: 'I have the pica lores are succeeded by the chulos, who bring known a pair of these birds to strip a considerable with them the banderillas-i. e., barbed darts about sized plum-tree of every bud in the space of two two feet long, ornamented with coloured paper-flags, days. On this account, gardeners are sometimes which they stick into the neck of the animal. Some- compelled to wage war against the bull-finch. times these darts have crackers attached to them, The song of this bird, in a wild state, is very the explosion of which makes the bull furious. The simple, and has no particular quality to recommend matador now enters alone to complete the tragic it; but it is remarkably susceptible of improvement business. As soon as the bull's eye catches the by education ; and trained bull-finches of superior muleta, he generally rushes blindly at it; and then acquirements are sold at a very considerable price. the matador, if he is well skilled, dexterously Some of these birds learn to whistle an air very plunges the sword between the left shoulder and accurarely, and with a power and variety of ionthe blade,' and the animal drops diad at his feet. ation far exceeding their natural song. The ability The victorio:is matırdor is greeted with acclamii- co whistle several airs well, is rare. The training of tious, and not less so the bull, should he wound these birds is it work both of time and trouble: it or even kill the matador, in woich case another is chiefly carried on in Germany. Not less than maaior steps forth into the arena; but hieman life vine months of training are requisite: it begins is rarely sacrificed. Eight or ten bulls are often when the bird is a mere nestling, and must be caredespitched in a single day; twenty minutes beins fully continued till after the first moulting; for it about the time usually taken to slay one.

is à curious circumstance, that all which has been In Madrid, in June 1833, 99 bulls were killed in previously acquired is very apt to be lost at that tie course of a single week. Bull-fighters are time, or is afterwards so imperfectly remembered reyard.d as the lowest class in Spain. They are that the bird is of little value. The B. is capable very ignorant and superstitions; and those who are of very strong attachment to those who feed and killed on the spot, and die without confession, are caress it, and often becomes so thoroughly domestidenieri burial rites.

cated as to exhibit 10 desire for liberty.--Curious BU'LL-FINCH (Pyrrhula vulgaris), a bird of the i

variations of plumaye are sometimes observed in great family of Fringillidi (q. v.), a little larger than

it.--Other species of the genus Pyrrhula are knowl,

natives of different parts of the world ; and in this the coinmɔn linnet, and of a genus closely allied to the Grosbeaks and Crossbills.

!! gems some ornithologists include Corythus of

The genus is partici- | Cuvier, of which one species, the Pine-finch (q. v.), larly characterised by the short, thick, rounded bill, Lor Pine Grosbeak, is a native of Britain. of which the sides are inflated and bulging, and the tip of the imper mandible overhangs that of the

BU'LL-FROG (Rana pipiens), a species of frog lower one. The B. is a bird of very soft and dense (q. 1.) found in most parts of the United States and

Canada, but cliefly abundant in the soutbern states, It is of a large size, eight to twelve inches long, of an olive-green colour, clouded with black. It receives its name from the remarkable loudness of its voice, which has been compared to the bellowing of a distant bull, and comes in as a hollow bass in the frog concerts which take place in the evening and all night long in marshy places in America. Its voice can be distinctly heard at a distance of forty or fifty yards. It sits for hours during the day, basking in the sun, near the margin of a stream, into which it plunges with a great leap on the least appearance of danger. It does not confine itself to insect and molluscous food, like smaller frogs, but is said to be partial to young ducks, and to swallow them entire. Audubon says its flesh is tender, white, and affords excellent eating,' the hind legs, however, being the only part used for food. He adds that these parts make excellent bait for the larger cat fish, and that he has generally

used the gun for procuring them, loading with very Bull finch.

small shot.

BU'LL HEAD, RIVER BULLHEAD, or plumage, of a delicate bluish-gray colour ahore, the MILLER'S THUMB (Uranidea gobio), a small' fishi, under parts of a bright tile-red, the crown of the abundant in clear rivers and streams, in some parts head and the beak jet black, which colour also of the British Islands, througlont the greater part appears in the greater wing and tail coverts, in the of Europe, and in the north of Asia. It seldom quills, and in the tail-feathers; the wings are crossed exceeds four or five inches in length; is of a dark by a conspicuous white bar. The colours of the brown colour on the upper parts, and white female are less bright than those of the male. The beneath ; has rather large fins, with rays slightly tail of the B. is almost even. This bird is not produced into spines and prettily spotted; and in

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BULLINGER-BULLION.

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general appearance is not unlike the gurnards(q. v.). 1 His writings are numerous. The most important It is, however, generally regarded as a disagreeable is a History of the Reformation, which was first pub. object to the sight, on account of the great size and lished at Zurich, 1838. His sermons (translated) depressed form of its head, from which it derives its have also been recently published at Cambridge by English names; the name, Miller's Thumb, alluding the Parker Society. to the broad rounded form which the last joint of BU'LLION usually means uncoined gold and

silver, in bars or other masses; but in discussions on the currency, the term is frequently employed to signify the precious metals coined and uncoined. The origin of the word B. in its present sense, as well as that of the French Billon (q. v.), and the corresponding Spanish vellon, seems to be as follows: B. originally meant the mint, where the alloy for the coinage was prepared, and the coin stamped (either from the Lat. bulla, a rowd boss or stud, or stamp; or from the verb bullare, to boil or bubble);

and hence it came in England to signify the standard Bull-head.

metal of which the coins were made. In France,

where the kings debased the currency much more the thumb of a miller used to acquire in times than ever took place in Eugland, billon, the mint, when machinery was ruder than now, by its con- I came to signify the base mixture issued therefrom. tinual employment in testing the quality of the

It is a question not yet satisfactorily settled, how four produced, and in turning it over on the fingers for any great increase in the supply of B. has that for inspection, that it miglit be known if the mill effect in lessening the value of money and con. was doing its work well. The appearance of the B.

sequently raising prices, which has always been is rendered still more unattractive by the entire ab

very naturally, attributed to it. It may indeed be sence of scales, a characteristic of the genus to

maintained with some plausibility, that if B. were 1 it belongs, the whole body and head being capable of being produced to such an extent covered with a soft skin. Yet it is said to be of a beyond the actual demand for it as to glut the very delicate flavour, ind in some countries is much market, it would cease to be that general standard sought after as an article of food. Its flesh, when of money value which it has become, just because boiled, is reddish, like that of the salmon. Izaak it is of all others the article which is steadiest Walton speaks of angling for the B., and in his in requiring a certain outlay of labour to propleasant quaint style describes the habits of the fish : 1 duce it. Rises in prices have also accompanied large 'He does usually dwell and hide himself in holes, supplies of gold, but they have also accompanied or amongst stones in clear water, and in very hot large supplies of other commodities indicative of days will lie a long time very still, and sun himself, a great increase in riches. It is certain that great and will be easy to be seen upon any flat stone, or increuses in the supply of B. do not as i an v gravel, at which time he will suffer an angler to case of other goods, glut the market. For some put a hook baited with a small worm very near into vears past, the supply of gold, owing to the new his mouth, and he never refuses to be caught with fields opened in America and Australia, has been the worst of anglers.' Numerous species of the genus quadrupled with certainly no more influence on occur in the rivers and streams of North America. | prices than what a general increase in prosperity The name B. is not usually given to any of them. muight cause. There is, it will be observed, this A sea-fish of a nearly allied genus (Aspidophorus) is

| great difference between gold and other commodisometimes called the ARMED BULLHEAD ; it is also ties, that besides what may be within the crust of kno'yn as the Pogge (q. v.).--The River B. differs

the earth, there is a great mass which has been from ihe marine species of the same genus, in having accumulating for thousands of years in the possession only one short spine on each side of the head, on the of mankind, which comes forth as it is wanted. A preoperculuin.

few millions of tons of iron, or bales of cotton, BULLINGER, HENRY, the friend of Zwingli, beyond the usual annual average, would perhaps and one of the chief reformers in Switzerland, was add a hundred per cent. to the available quantity for born at Bremgarten, in the canton of Aargau, July consumption ; but a few millions of pounds worth 18, 1504. He studied at Cologne, where he became of gold, having to be counted with all the gold in acquainted with the writings of Luther; and during existence in the world, makes a scarcely perceptible the year 1527, he attended the theological exposi- addition to the stock. tions of Zwingli, and went along with the latter to the term B, is in this country associated with the the religious conference held at Bern in 1528, the memorable Bullion REPORT of 1810. In the year result of which was the reformation of the canton. | 1797, by what was called the Restriction Act (see In 1529, he married Anna Adlischwyler, formerly a BANK), the Bank of England was restrained from nun, who bore him eleven children. By a powerful paying its notes in gold. There thus came to be sermon which he preached at Bremgarten, on Whit- two separate and independent currencies in sunday 1529, B. induced his whole congregation to country-one of B., the other of paper. They came make a profession of Protestantism. In 1531, he to differ from each other in value so much that in was compelled by the Catholic party to flee from the the year 1813, gold, of which the mint price was cantoni, and went to Zurich, where, in the following £3, 178. 10d. per ounce, was actually worth, in bank year, he was appointed pastor of the principal paper, £5, 10s., or, in other words, the one pound church. In the controversy on the eucharist and bank-note was worth 148. 2d. There were various the affairs of the Anabaptists, B. distinguished him- opinions on the cause of this difference. Some people self by his integrity and moderation; and in his simply said, that gold was dear, taking paper as the house at Zurich several Gerinan theologians, com- standard of value; others said, it was owing to our pelled to leave their country, were hospitably exports not balancing our imports; others, to sheltered. He took part in drawing up the first too great facilities in discounting, by which money Helvetic Confession at Basel, in 1536, and in was advanced on bad security; and in general, it establishing a close relation between the Swiss and was held, that there could be no over-issue of paperAnglican Churches. He died September 17, 1575. I money, if it was backed by good security, and gent and diuretic, and was formerly employed in is more bulky and inuscular; the tail fin is square

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employed only for genuine transactions, and not in Hucho), or salıon of the Danube, which somefictitious credits. In the meantime, the select com- times attains the size of 30, or, it is said, even of mittee on the high price of gold B., had been 60 lbs. wishing to get, not through theories or speculations BULOW, FRIED. Wilh. vor. a famous Prussian but through actual facts, at the truth. The work of generai in the war of liberation, was born in 1755, the committee was chiefly conducted by Mr. Horner, entered the army young, and soon distinguished aided by Sir Robert Peel, then a young man ; and himself. When Prussia declared war with France both of them entered on the task without any pre- in 1813, it was B. that commanded in the first possession, and the desire to find the truth. They successful encounter with the French at Möckeru. established a conclusion, among other important April 5, and revived the self-confidence of the army truths, that paper-money is always liable to be over- after the adverse battle of Lützen. His victories issued, and consequently depreciated, unless it be over Oudinot and Nev at Grossbeeren and Denneat all times immediately convertible into gold, and witz, saved Berlin, and inflicted severe loss on the the monetary policy of the empire was subse- enemy. He acted a conspicuous part in the battle quently established on this principle. A full analysis of Leinsic, and by taking possession of Montmartre. of the B. report will be found in Macleod's Dic- finished the campaign of 1814. The king acknowtionary of Political Economy.

ledged his services by an estate worth £30,000, and BULL'S EYE, among the rigging of a ship, is as the title of Count Dennewitz. In the campaign of sort of small pulley in the form of a ring, with a 1815, he joined Blucher by forced marches, and rope Spliced round the outer edge, and another headed the column that first came to the aid of sliding through a hole in the centre.-B. E., in rifle | Wellington at Waterloo. He died at Königsberg, practice, is the small black centre within the circle 11th January 1818. on the target. See RIFLE PRACTICE.

BU’LRUSH, an English popular name for large BULL TROUT (Salmo Eriox or S. griseus), a rush-like or reed-like plants growing in marshes, fish nearly allied to the salmon, and like it, migra- not very strictly limited tory in its habits, ascending rivers, in which it de- / to any particular kind. posits its spawn, but living chiefly in the sea. It Some authors employ it occurs in many of the rivers of Britain, but is in a restricted sense as • probably better known in the Tweed than else the designation of plants where,' being there as abundant as the salmon' of the genus Tupha, also (Yarrell). It is often called the GRAY TROUT, known as Cat's-tail or

Reed-mace. See TYPHA. It is perhaps more commonly restricted to large species of the genus Scirpus (q. v.), also called Club-rush, and particularly to S. lacustris, a common British plant, found also in all the northern parts of the world, growing about the muddy margins of lakes and ponds, with a creep

ing root and round stems Bull Trout.

varying from 2 to 8 feet

in height, which are alsometimes simply the GRAY, and is the SEWEN of most leafless, and bear

Velsh rivers. It sometimes attains the weicht their flowers in com- Bulrush (Scirpus lacustris): of 20 lbs., although it is more commonly under 15 pound

undan s pound umbels of small a, top of stem and flowers; lbs. weight. It is less elegant in form than the brown spikelets on their b, a single floret. salmon; the head and nape of the neck are thicker

side. The root is astrinin proportion; and the tail, beyond the adipose fin,

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medicine ; but the stems are the most useful part of e and in voung fish in some places called the plant, being much employed for making chairwhitlings), and in older ones, becomes convex by the

| bottoms, mats, &c.; also by coopers for filling up elongation of the central rays, whence the name spaces between the seams of casks, to which purpose roundtail sometimes given to this species. The their spongy nature particularly adapts them, and scales are rather smaller than those of a salmon of not unfrequently for thatching cottages. equal size, and the colour is less bright; the males / BULTI, or LITTLE TIBET, a territory lying in the spawning season being reddish brown, the l on the upper Indus beyond the Himalaya, and females blackish gray ; at other times the general forming a sort of debatable land between India colour is like that of the salmon trout. The B. T. and Tatary. It is immediately to the north of the agrees with the salmon in having only a few teeth Valley of Cashmere, with which it has been polition the most anterior part of the vorner (the bone cally connected by conquest. It occupies about which runs down the centre of the palate); while the 81100 square miles, extending in N. lat. between salmon trout, the common trout, and the great 34° 30' and 36°, and in E. long, between 75° and 77o. lake-trout, have a long line of teeth there: the With an average elevation of about 7000 feet above teeth are larger and stronger than those of the the sea, B. is surrounded by mountains of nearly salmon ; there are differences also in the form of the same height above its own level. Hence the the gill-covers. To anglers, the B. T. is next to the temperature is such that only snow falls in what salmon as a prize, and by many is mistaken for it. | ought to be the rainy season, though in summer the The flesh is paler in colour, coarser, with much less thermometer ranges at noon from 70° to 90° F. farour, and is much less esteemed. --The name European fruits are said to be plentiful. The B. T. has been also given to the Hucho (Salmo | inhabitants are of the Mongolian race, and chiefly

4.4

at the

BULWARK--BUNGALOW.

Mohammedans. Among the animals are the sha,, the other articles are included shirts, drawers, the large-horned goat, the sheep, the musk-deer, stockings, gloves, pipes, needles, thread, and a and the ibis. The only town of consequence is the variety of odds and ends. The less respectable of capital Iskardoh, which, in fact, sometimes gives its the B. traders try to smuggle spirits on board; name to the whole province.

but if this is discovered, it leads to instant punishBU'LWARK, in military matters, was the old ment. In fitting out and also in paying off ships name for a rampart or bastion. In a ship, the in 11.M. navy, the B. people are allowed on board bulwarks are the boarding above the level of the for a certain length of time daily; but when a ship upper deck, nailed to the ontside of the timber-is in active commission, they come alongside only heads and starchions. In ordinary vessels they at meal-hours. Among the class of B. people geneform a parapet. protecting the seamen from the rally, there is no little acuteness and enterprise. waves and prevent loose articles from being swept They learn all particulars about ships going and off the deck ; in men-of-war thev, in addition, serve coming, and will even write to far-distant ports to to protect the men from an enemy's shot. In an secure a vessel's patronage. In their dealings, they inquiry made a few years ago concerning the avail- of course prefer ready money, but in certain cases ability of merchant-steamers as ships of war iti they give credit, and it is understood Jose little was found that the bulwarks would not afford suffi- by their liberality; for any attempt at evasion cient protection to the men from musket-shot: but of payment by any of the crew, meets the disthat if hammock-stanchions were fixed all round pleasure of commanding officers. From Hong-kong the bulwarks, and the men's hamınocks placed in up to the Bogue Forts, and in other Chinese a netting upheld thereby, a very good protection waters, bumboats frequently accompany vessels, might be obtained.

and are apt to become troublesome. From Malta, BULWER LYTTON, SIR EDWARD. See

and some other places in the Mediterranean, the LYTTON.

bumboats also haunt vessels in short cruises, in

the hope of doing a little trade. BULWER, Sir HENRY Lytton, G.C.B., the

BU'MKIN, or BOO'MKIN (diminutive of boom), Right Hox., diplomatist and author, an elder

on shipboard, is a short boom which projects over brother of Sir E. Bulwer Lytton, was born in 1804, 1) entered the diplomatic service in 1827, and was

each-bow of the ship, to aid in extending the lower attached successively to the British Embassy at

edge or clue of the foresail to windward-in nautical Berlin, Brussels, and the Hague. In 1830, he entered

phrase, “to board the fore tack to.' In a boat, the parliament, and during the following seven years he

B. is a small outrigger over the stern, used for represented in order, the constituencies of Wilton Textending the mizzen. Coventry, and Marylebone. In 1837, he became

BUMMALOTI (Saurus ophiodon), a fish of the Secretary of Embassy at Constantinople, where he family Scopelidee or Sauridae, often regarded as it negotiated and concladed a treaty which is the subdivision of the great family Salmonidæ. It is foundation of our present commercial system in the a marine fish, a native of the coasts of India, parEast. In 1813, he was made Minister Pleninoten-| ticularly of the Bombay and Malabar coasts, from tiary to the court of Madrid, and concluded the which it is exported in large quantities, salted and peace between Spain and Morocco in the following dried, to other parts of India, being highly esteemed year. Whilst in Spain, his firmness and candour for its rich flavour, and often used as a relish. In proved a source of great inconvenience to Narvaez. I commerce, it is known not only by the name B., the Spanish soldier-diplomatist of that day, and but by the singular appellation of Bombay Duck. who, pretending to have discovered the complicity | It is a fish of elongated form, with large fins and a of the British plenipotentiary in certain plot's very large mouth, the gape of which extends far against the Spanish government. ordered him to behind the eyes, and which is furnished with a leave Madrid. Both parties in the House of Com- great number of long, slender teeth, barbed at the mons approved of the whole course of B.'s conduct points. It is extremely voracious. while at the court of Madrid, and her Majesty BUNDELCU'ND, a territory of Hindustan, awarded to him the highest decorations of the between Gwalior, on the west, and the Jumna, order of the Bith. He afterwards proceeded to which separates it from the Doab, on the northWashington, where he evinced equal art in conciliat- east. It extends in N. lat. from 23° 52' to 26° 26', ing the temper of the people and maintaining the and in E. long. from 77° 53' to 81° 39', containing interests of his own country. In 1852, he was sent rather niore than 18,000 square miles, and about to Tuscany as envoy extraordinary; and in 1856 was 2,500,000 inhabitants. Studded, as B. is, with nominated by Lord Palmerston commissioner, at isolated rocks rising precipitously from its surfaceBucharest for investigating the state of the Danubian each of them a nucleus, as it were, of independencePrincipalities. As British commissioner, he called it has generally been very much subdivided. Besides forth from every minister and from every govern- five or six sections belonging to the North west ment concerned the warmest expressions of approval, Provinces of British India, it embraces nine rajahand all concurred in recommending him for the post ships, and numerous principalities of inferior name, of ambassador to the Ottoman Porte, on the return known as jaghires. The country, notwithstanding of Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, in the spring of that it is well watered, has a climate which renders 18.58. He has published An Autumn in Greece ; irrigation indispensable ; and it is accordingly interFrance, Social and Literary; The Monarchy of the spersed, at the cost of great labour and considerMiddle Classes; and a Life of Byron. Sir Henry able ingenuity, with artificial dams. B., though not Lytton B. married a sister of Eari Cowley, British destitute of woodlands, presents rather jungle and ambassador at Paris.

copes than heavy timber. It is said to possess BU'MBOAT, a boat emplored to carry provisions inexhaustible deposits of iron-ore, and to have and other articles from harbours and ports to vessels given indications also of coal. The principal towns lving at some distance from the shore. Boats of | are Calpee, Jhansi, Callinger, Banda, Jalun, and this kind belong to a class of petty traders, who | Chaturpur. The first three will be noticed in in England are for the most part, women. The their places, Callinger being famous for its careprovisions commonly offered for sale are soft bread, temples, and Jhansi and Calpee having acquired butter, fruit, vegetables, fish, and fresh meat-the celebrity in the mutiny of 1857-1858. fish fried, and the meat roasted, if wanted. Among BU'NGALOW, a species of rural villa or house,

BUNIAS-BUNSEN.

so called in India. Bungalows which form the , baggage and servants, at the rate of a stage a day, residence of Europeans, are of all sizes and styles, 1 is almost inconceivable. according 10 the taste and wealth of the owner. BU NIAS, a genus of plants of the natural order Some are of two stories, but more usually they | Cruciferce, distinguished by incumbent linear spirally consist of only a ground floor, and are invariably |

twisted cotyledons (q. v.), and a nut-like silicule (or surrounded with a verandah, the roof of which

round pod) with 2-4 cells. Only a few species are affords a shelter from the sun. In the chief cities known. vatives of the Levant. One of these, B. of Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay, some of the Orientalis is cultivated in some countries-particubungalows are really palatial residences, while in larly in France-as a field-cron, for the sake of its the mofussil they are of more moderate pretensions. I leaves, which are used for feeding cattle. It was In general, they are provided with exterior offices, introduced into Britain more than 100 years since. to accommodate the large retinue of domestics and is quite hardy: but its cultivation has never common in Indian life. Besides these private buna become general, the amount of herbage which it galows, there are military bungalows on a large vields being regarded as comparatively small. It scale for act'omniodating soldiers in cantonments; is a perennial plant, with an upright brancbing stem. likewise public bungalows, Daintained by govern- linear leaves, and vellow flowers, and is sometimes ment for the accommodation of travellers, and in

called Hul MUSTARD. It seems to succeed best in which seem to be blended the characters of an

| a rich, dry, and rather light soil. English road-side inn and an eastern cara anserai.

BU”NION is a painful condition met with in the These bungalows, though they vary greatly in actual comfort, are all on the same plan. They are

joints of the feet, most commonly at the junction quadrangular in shape, one story high, with high

of the great toe with its metatarsal bone. It is peaked roofs, thatched or tiled, projecting so as to

caused by a gradual displacement of the bones, the form porticos and verandals. The B. is divided

toe itself turning outwards, and leavir g the head ito suits' of two, three or four rooms. provided or Iurther extremity of the metatarsal bone prowith bedsteads, tables, and chairs; windows of |

Tjectiug inwards. Over the latter, the skin is geneglass, and framed glass-doors. Off each room is a

rally thin, and occasionally a bursa (q. v.) is present

between the skin and bone. The pressure of a boot bath-room, and earthen jars of cool water. Travel

causes this bursa to inflame, and this may go on to lers are expected to carry their servants, cooking

suppuration or painful ulceration. Rest, poulticing, apparatus, wine, beer, bedding, &c., with them ;

and such remedies are generally sufficient to subdue but the klitmutgar of the better class of bungalow's

any inflammatary attack, and wearing a shoe so supplies table-ware, condiments, and even some

constructed as to save the B. from pressure, will times food and liquors, and he is usually skilled

probably prevent a recurrence of painful sympin cooking. Government charges one rupee, or two

toms; but amputation and excision of the ends of shillir g» a day, to each traveller for the use of the bui giow. A book is kept, in which travellers

the bones have been l'esorted to for the cure of the enter their names, the time of their arrival and

troublesome distortion. departure, with the amount paid, and any remarks

BUNKER'S HILI. See CHARLESTOWY. regarding the state of the B. and its attendance BU'SKUM, a phrase used in the United States he may think proper. Natives seldom stop in these to signify an oratorical display in favour of a sham public bungalows, for though legally open to all, proposal, in order, to catch popular applause. A they are almost exclusively resorted to by Euro-member, of the legislature, for example, desirous of peans; and natives even of good condition are fain standing well with his constituents, makes a flaming to seek 'the squalid desolation of a tottering speech in favour of a measure in which they are caravanserai,' or village dhurrumtala. At every interested ; but with the knowledge that the measure travellers' B. is stationed a government peon, who is impracticable, and will not be carried. In fact, acts as watchiman, and is bound to assist travellers' | the speaker, does not want to carry it; his sole servants in procuring supplies of fuel and food in object is to impose on his supporters, and acquire the nearest village. The distance between each B. on the character of a meritorious public leader. Such

is speaking for hunkum. The origin of the phrase, • talking for Bunkun, or, more properly, ‘Buncombe,' is thus explained. A member of Congress from that district of N. Carolina addressed the house

at great length, without interesting his auditors, E

many of whom left the hall. The remainder he proposed to dismiss, remarking that he was 'only

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BUNSEN, CHRISTIAN KARL Josias, Barox, one of the most distinguished statesmen and scholars of Germany, was born, 25th August 1791, at Korbach, in the principality of Waldeck, and studied philology at Göttingen (1809-1813) under lleyne. He had been appointed teacher in the Gymasiun of Göttingen in 1811, but quitted the position in 1813; and in pursuance of a course of study of Old and Middle lligh German, begin in company with Lachmann, and to extend his knowledge of the Germanic

tongues, went to Holland, and afterwards to CopenBungalow.

hagen, where he learned Icelandic from Finn

Magnussen, The historical works of Niebuhr and a unk-road is generally about 12 or 15 miles-an his character as a politician had filled B. with Indian dar's jonrney. The annexed cut represents enthusiasm, and he spent some months of 1815 in a B. in tlie jungle. The introduction of railways | Berlin, in order to become personally acquainted will very soon put an end to the present system of with the historian. In 1816, he went to Paris, and travelling in India--a fact greatly to be desired, as studied Persian and Arabic under Sylvestre de Sary, the annoyance experienced moving slowly on with and in the same year to liome, where he married.

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