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BUSSEY-BUST.

Niebuhr, then Prusian ambassador, took the greatest court of England, and retired to Heidelberg. In 1857 interest in the scientific pursuits of B., and procured he was restored to the favour of the king, and in 1858 (1818) his appointment as secretary to the embassy. was made a Peer with the title of Freiherr (Baron). The residence of the king of Prussia, Friedrich He removed to Bonn in 1860, where the labours of Wilhelm III., in Rome in 182, had a decided his wonderful mind closed in death Nov. 28th, 1860. influence on his subsequent career. In the course It must also be acknowledged that he has done of i conversation in which B. had disagreed with service to the cause of enlightened Christianity, for, the king, the latter asked his views on the l’russian while in England, he was regarded by those who ritual ( Agende) and hymn-book question, then niuch knew him both as the most philosophical and most agitated. Thongh these views were very different reverent of lay-theologians. His chief works are: from what the king had been accustomed to hear, De Jure Atheniensium Hereditario (Gött. 1913); he took them in good part, and with expression of Die Kirche der Zukunft (The Church of the Futurehis personal regard, requested B. to continue in translated into Englishi, and published by Longman), the state service. On Niebuhr's departure from Hamb. 1815; Ignatius von Antiochiei und seine Rome (1824), B. conducted the embassy provision- Zcit (Ignatius of Antioch and his Time), Hamb). ally for a time, and was then appointed resident 1847; Die drei echten und die vier unechten Briefe minister (1827). Living in intimate intercourse with des Ignatius von Antiochien (The Three Genuine Niebuhr, B. had emploved the time in deepening and the Four Spurious Epistles of Ignatius of his investigation into the philosophy of language Antioch), llamb. 1847 ; Ægyptens Stelle in der and religion; and had made, on the one hand, Wcligeschichte (Egypt's Place in the World's the philosophy of Plato and the constitutions of History-translated into English by Cottrell), antiquity; on the other, biblical inquiries, church Hamb. 1845-1857; Die Basiiiken des Christlichen history, and liturgies--objects of special attention. Roms (The Basilicas of Christian Ronie), Mun. Though not within the scope of the great plan of his 1843 ; Hippolytus und seine Zeit (Hippolvius and life, he contributed largely to the Beschreibung der his Time), Lond. 1851; Christianity and Mankind, Stadt Rom (Description of Rome), 3 vols. (Stutt. Jena, 1854; Gott in der Geschichte (God in History), 1830—1843); the greater part of ihe topographical Leip. 1857; and Vollständiges Bibelwerk für die communications on ancient Rome, and all the Gemeinde, in 18 parts, of which 16 had been pubinvestigations into the early history of Christian lished by Brockhaus of Leipzig in 1869. Rome, are by him.-The first visit of Champollion BUNT, it disease of wheat and other grains, or to Rome formed an epoch in B.'s antiquarian studies. the parasitic fungus which causes that dise:se. The He was a zealous hearer of Champollion himself, name B. is supposed to be a corruption of burnt, arid also encouraged Lepsius (q. v.) to the study or at least derived from the same root, a derivation of hieroglyphics. The Archæological Institute, perhaps suggested by the analogy of Brand (q. v.). established in 1829, found in B. its most active B. is also called Pepper Brand, and sometimes Smut supporter. When he founded the Protestant hospital Ball. It is one of the most common and injurious on the Tarpeian Rock (1835), he also built, adjoining diseases of wheat, ofien affecting great part of a his own house, a place of meeting for the Insti- crop, althongh its prevalence bas been greatly tute ; and laboured earnestly for the cause of Pro- diminished by care on the part of farmers, and testantism. The king of Prussia had often asked particularly by the selection of clean seed, and the his advice in the matter of the ritual, but had dressing of the seed, before sowing, with some subnot adopted it. B. then, along with the chaplain, stance, which, without injuring its vitality, destroys introduced (1825) into the chapel of the embassy at that of the spores or granules of the fungus. Even Rome a liturgy modelled after his own views, and washing with water bas a good effect, but greater sent a report (1828) to the king of the result. The benefit is derived from dressing with salt, quickking had this liturgy printed, and wrote the preface lime, chloride of lime, Glauber's salt (sulphate of with his own hand. This work never came into soda), and quicklime, or blue vitriol (sulphate of the hands of the trade; but the most part of it was copper). Even arsenic and corrosive sublimate are embollied in the Allgemeine evang. Gesang- und- used for this purpose. Gebetbuch, printed (1816) without the author's name, The parasitic fungus which causes B., or which in the Rauhe Haus, Hamburg, which may be con- itself bears the name of B., is Credo caries (see sidered as the second edition of the Versuch eines UREDO), also known as l'. fætida and U. sitophiia, allgemeinen evang. Gesang- und-Gebetbuchs (Attempt and which it has been recently proposed to constiat a General Evangelical Hymn and Prayer Book), tute into a separate genus under the name Tilletia, Hamb. 18:33.

on account of the want of filaments in the fully In 1811, he was sent on a special mission to developed fungus, which consists of a mere mass of London, to negotiate the erection of an Anglovery small blackish grains or spores. This powdery Prussian bishopric in Jerusalem, and was shortly mass is very soft and almost greasy to the touch, afterwards appointed ambassador at the English and when rubbed between the fingers, gives forth court. It is understood that, on occasion of a visit a very disagreeable smell, to Berlin in 1844, he was asked to write down his which has been comviews on the question of granting a constitution to pared to that of decayed Prussia; and that in consequence he presented a fish. In their earlier () series of memorials representing the urgency for a stages, the spores are deliberative assembly, and also made a complete attached in great num- @ a plan of a constitution closely resembling the English. bers by short stalks to In the Schleswig-Holstein question, B. strongly common trunks or filaadvocated the German view, in opposition to Den- ments, which are colourmark, and protested against the London Protocol | less, slender, and brittle, Bunt (mononified): of 1850. But in the midst of all his political duties, and disappear as

We a, spores in various stages ;

the q. B. continued unabated his literary and philosophical spores attain maturity. 6, spores, and branching stalks. pursuits, the results of which have from time to Sometimes all the grains time appeared. His views regarding the part that in an ear are infected, sometimes part of them Prussia should act in the Eastern question not being, only. The infected plants are generally of more it is understood, in accordance with those of his than usual luxuriance. The parasite appears before court, he ceased, in 1854, to represent Prussia at the the car is free from the sheath, and is supposed to

06

the

BUNTER SANDSTEIN-BUNTING.

enter the plant from the infected seed on its first ger- brown on the under parts, and with a slightly forked mination, and to be propagated not only by its own tailmis frequent, particularly in low cultivated seeds or spores, but by still smaller granules from its myceliui. See Fungi. The old votion that B.

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situations, is in a great measure exploded, it being found to appear in all situations and circumstances; and it is now believed to be propagated by any contact of sound with unsound grain; by thrashing, which causes the B. dust to fly about; or by manure, in which the straw of infected grain has been mixed. Upon this knowledge, the means now adopted for its prevention are founded.

A considerable mixture of B. is not supposed to render flour absolutely unwholesome, at least when made into fermented bread, but the bread is of a peculiar flavour, and a very dark colour. It is said that such flour is used to no small extent in the manufacture of gingerbread, the treacle disguising both the colour and the flavour.

BU'NTER SA'NDSTEIN, or "variegated sandstone,' is the lowest member of the Triassic Period. As the triass is niore perfectly developed in Germany than in Britain, the German beds are

Common Bunting (Emberiza miliaria considered the typical group of this period. The B. S. consists of various coloured sandstones, inter-groun

grounds in Britain, and in most parts of Europe, stratified with red marls and thin beds of limestone, extending also into Asia, living in pall's during which occasionally, as in the Harz. are politic, but spring and summer, buit in flocks in winter, and in other places dolomitic. They attain a maximum

often visiting barn-yards at that seasori, along with thickness of 1500 feet. The English representa

chaffinches and sparrows. It is the largest of the tives of the B. S. are chiefly developed in Lancashire

lira British buntings. It is supposed that the winter and Cheshire, and consist of red and mottled sand

di flocks in Britain are much increased by migration stones with beds of marl, and thick rather irregular

ecular from more northerly regions. This B. often passes bands of partially consolidated conglomerate called

ed the night on the ground in stubble-fields, and is ' pebble beds.' Thirty species of fossil plants have

taken in the nets emploved for catching larks, and been found in the B. S. near Strasburg, consisting

brought with them to market. It usually builds chiefly of ferns, cycads, and conifers. But the

its nest on or very near the ground. Its notes most remarkable fossils in this formation are the

are harsh and unmusical. The REED B., or BLACKremains of huge batrachians. Originally the foot.

HEADED B. (E. Shoeniclus), is a species common in prints which had been left by the animals on the

the marshy situations, both in Britain and on the conti. moist sand were alone observed. From their resem

nent of Europe; a very pretty little bird, with blance to the impression made by a human hand,

black head and throat, strikingly contrasted with the animal producing them was provisionally named

the white nape and sides of the neck.--The Cirl Cheirotherium (q. v.). The subsequent discovery

B. (E. Cirlus), of which the head is olive-green, and examination of the remains of teeth and bones

with black streaks, and with patches of bright in the same beds, have afforded sufficient materials

lemon-yellow on the cheeks and over the eyes, is a to enable Owen to reconstruct an animal named by

rare British bird, and belongs chiefly to the south of him Labyrinthodon (q. v.), which undoubtedly pro

Europe and the north of Africa. To this genus duced the footprints. These remains have been

belong also the ORTOLAN (q. v.) and the YELLOWdetected in Lancashire and Cheshire, as well as in

HAMMER (q. v.).--The Srow B. (q. v.), or SNOWFLAKE Germany.

(E. nivalis of many authors), has been placed in the BUNTINE, or BUNTING, is a thin woollen often very vaguely used, and many species have been

new genus Plectrophanes. The name B. bas been material, of which the flags and signals of ships are almost indiscriminately called buntings or finches. usually made.

The palatal knob affords the best distinctive charBU'NTING (Emberiza), a genus of birds closely acter. North America has a number of species of allied to finches and sparrows, and included with bunting:--The BLA('K-THROATED B. (E. Americana) them by some ornithologists in the great family is extremely plentiful on the prairies of Texas and Fringillido (q. v.), but by others made the type of other south-western parts of the United States; a distinct family, Emberizidve, of which the most extending, however, as far as to Ohio, and even to marked characteristics are a short straight. conical Massachusetts. In the middle and northern states, bill; a curved form of the gape, produced by a it occurs only as a summer bird of passage. Many narrowing of the sides of the upper mandible, and species of sparrows and finches are known as bunta corresponding enlargement of the under one, and ings in various localities of the United States. a hard rounded knob on the palate or inner surface BUNTING, JABEZ, an eminent Weslerar: of the upper mandible. This knob probably aids minister, was born at Manchester in 1779. At the in crushing the seeds, which are a principal part of age of 20, he devoted himself to ministerial work, the food of these birds. The species of the B. in which he was very successful. He was elected family are numerous, and are arranged in several president of the annual conference in 1820, and genera. The true buntings (forming the restricted again in 1828, 1836, 1844. In 1834, he was chosen genus Emberiza) have the hind claw moderately president of the theological institution belonging short, curved, and strong, and the palatal knob to the Wesleyan Methodist body, and he acted as large and bony. The Common B. or Corn B. (E. one of the secretaries to the Missionary Society miliaria)-a bird considerably larger than a house- in connection with his denomination, for a period sparrow, brown, with darker streaks on the upper of more than twenty years. He was the chief parts, whitish brown, with spots and lines of dark authority in all matters relating to the government BUNYAN-BUOY.

and polity of Wesleyan Methodism. On his retire., It is said to owe its origin to King Boleslaf, who ment from official life in 1857, his friends presented founded it in the 10th century. Pop. 5200. him with an annuity of £200, in consideration of Į BUOL-SCHALENSTEIN, KARL FERD., Coust. the great services he had rendered to Methodism. Austrian statesman, was born 17th May 1797. After He did not live, however, to profit by their filling subordinate diplomatic posts, he became kindness and forethought, having died in June ambassador at Carlsruhe in 1828, afterwards at 1858.

Stuttgart (1838) and at Turin (1844). Leaving BUNYAN, Joun, one of the most popular Turin on the outbreak of the war in 1648, he went religious writers of any age, was born at Elstow, as ambassador to St. Petersburg, and it fell to him near Bedford, in 1628. He was brought up to his to uphold the interest and dignity of his country, on father's trade of tinker, and spent his youth in the occasion of the aid given by Russia in the Hungarian practice of that humble craft, of which his name war. A not less difficult task was assigned him alone now serves to lessen somewhat the disrepute. when, in 1851, he was sent to represent Austria It has generally been taken for granted that his in London; his address and conciliatory bearing early life was very loose and profligate, on the sole contribuied not a little to bring about a more ground of his terrible self-accusations in after-years, friendly feeling between the two governments. On when, from the height of religious fervour and Schwarzenberg's death, B. was recalled to Vienna, Puritan strictness, he looked back on dancing and and became foreign minister. In this position, he bell-ringing as deadly sins. This point is satisfac- carried out the new politics of Austria no less firmly torily disposed of by Macaulay (Encycl. Britann., and successfully, though more moderately and art. - Bunyan '). In his 16th or 17th year, he enlisted | quietly, than his predecessor. In the negotiations in the Parliamentary army, and in 1615, was present during and after the termination of the Crimean at the siege of Leicester, where he escaped death by war, B. shewed himself a skilful and able statesman. the substitution of a comrade in his place as sentry. | After defending with zeal and ingenuity, in diploNothing further is known of his wilitary career. matic notes and circulars, the position which Austria After leaving the army, he married, and soon after had taken up with reference to Sardinia, B. sudbegan to be visited by those terrible compunctions denly, on the actual commencement of the Italian of conscience, and fits of doubt, sometimes passing campaign of 1859, resigned his place, which was into despair, which, with some quieter intervals, I immediately filled by Count Rechberg. Failing made his life, for several years, a journey through health was the cause officially assigned for the that Valley of Humiliation of which he afterwards step, but the general belief was, that it indicated it gare so vivid a picture. Hope and peace came at triumph of the war-party in the council of Francis last, and in 1655, B. became a member of the Baptist Joseph. congregation at Bedford. Soon after, he was chosen BUOY is a floating body, intended as a mark for its pastor, and for five years ministered with ex- the guidance of mariners. It is made either of wood traordinary diligence and success, his preaching or metal, and is mostly hollow, to make it float generally attracting great crowds. The act against better. Buors are generally moored by chains to conventicles, passed on the Restoration, put a stop the bed of the river or channel. They are of to his labours ; he was convicted, and sentenced to various shapes and sizes, and are painted of various perpetual banishment. In the meantime, he was colours, partly to render them conspicuous, and committed to Bedford Jail, where he spent the next partly to distinguish them one from another. Some12 years of his life, supporting the wants of his times floating buous mark out the best channel for wife and children by making tagged laces, and entering a dock ; sometimes they warn the mariner ministering to all posterity by writing the Pilgrim's away from sands, spits, and shoals ; sometimes they Progress. His library cousisted of a Bible and Fox's mark out a continuous double line, as at Spithead. Martyrs. The kindly interposition of a High Church bishop, Dr. Barlow of Lincoln, at length released him, and he at once resumed his work as a preacher, itinerating throughout the country. After the issuing of James II.'s declaration of liberty of conscience, he again suttled at Bedford, and ministered to the Baptist congregation in Mill-lane till his death, at London, of fever, in 1688. B.'s whole works were published in 1736, in 2 vols. folio. The most popular of them, after the Pilgrim's Progress, are the Holy War-another allegory, much less successful—and Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners, an autobiographical narrative. It is sup

Various shapes of Buoys. posed that no other book, except the Bible, has gone through so many editions, and attained to so

between which ships can alone with safety enter wide a popularity, in all languages, as the Pilgrim's

a harbour. The Trinity House has lately adopted a Progress.

form of B., invented by Mr. Herbert, in which, by BU'NZLAU, a town of Prussia, in the province due attention to the centre of flotation, and to the of Silesia, is situated on the Bober, about 25 miles point where the mooring-chain is fixed, the tendency west-north-west of Liegnitz. B. is surrounded by to pitch and roll is much lessened, and the B. kept a ditch and a double line of walls, and has manu- nearly upright in all weathers. Messrs. Brown and factures of woollens, linens, hosierr, and earthen- Lenox's bell-buow. of recent invention is an inveniors ware, the latter forming a considerable article of | contrivance for rendering a B. audible, whether it export. An obelisk to the Russian general, is visible or not; so long as any stream of water, Kutusow, who died here in 1813, adorns the whether caused by a tide or a current, passes through market-place. Pop. about 7000.

the lower part of the B., it moves an undersact BU’NZLAU, Jung, a town of Bohemia, on the water-wheel, which rings a bell. left bank of the Iser, about 32 miles north-east of A buoy-rope, on shipboard, is the rope which Prague. B. is well built, has an old castle, and connects the anchor with a B. floating above it. manufactures of cotton, woollen, soap, leather, &c. It is simply intended to point out the locality of

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BUOYANCY-BURCKHARDT.

the anchor; but if it be strong, it is useful in morning, as with gorgeous flowers. The golden elytra assisting to raise the anchor, at times when the (wing-cases, see ELYTRA) of some species are used proper cable is out or injured.

to enrich the embroidery of the Indian zenana; BUOY'ANCY, of ships, is the amount of weight and the lustrous joints of the legs are string on which can be buoved un' by the hull. The B. of silken threads, and form necklaces and bracelets a vessel is proportionate to the weight of water of singular brilliancy. The species of Buprestidce displaced by its presence (see HYDROSTATICS), and found in England are fev; none have yet been is found in this way. The cubic feet of the part found in Scotland. The larvæ seem sometimes of a vessel to be immersed being known, inultiply to be transported from one country to another in it by the weight of a cubic foot of water (62.5 timber. lbs.), and the product will be the weight of water! BUR, in an engraving, is a slight ridge of metal displaced. From this subtract the weight of the raised on the edges of a line by the graver or the dry vessel, and the result will be the B. or the weight a point. As the bur produces an effect like a smear, vessel will carry without sinking lower than the it is usually regarded as a defect, and scraped off. given line. It is admitteil, however, by naval archi- Some etchers, however, take advantage of it to tects, that all the old rules concerning B., displace- deepen their shadows, and Rembrandt made use of ment, and flotation, must undergo modification by it in this way with telling effect. the introduction of iron ships, paddle and screw! BURANHEM, or BURUNIIEM. See MONESIA propulsion, and the increased weight of broadside. | BARK.

BUOY'-DUES. Buoys are under very stringent BURAXO, an island and town of Northern Italy, regulations, on account of their importance to the in the Adriatic, about 5 miles north-east of Venice. safety of ships. The public buoys, for guiding into The island supplies a large proportion of the vegechannels, and warning from shoals and rocks, are tables cousunied in Venice. B. has some lace manuusually marked on the best charts relating to that factures boit-building and an exteusive ropeu

ular water-wav. The corporation of the but the inhabitants are chiefly emplored in fishing. Trinity House has a peculiar jurisdiction over the

Pop. 8000. buoys and beacons in the Thames, and along the

BU'RBOT (Lota vulgaris), a fish of the same Essex and Suffolk coasts; as well as on other coasts in England and Wales. All ships which enter the 8

genus with the Ling (q. V.), and of the same family ports within this jurisdiction pay a small sum as

with the Cod, Haddock, &c., being the only British buoy-dnes. The payment is sometimes a tonnage

fresh-water species of that family, Gadido. It is rate, varying from 0 d. to 2d. per ton ; sometimes a

found in the Can, the Trent, and other rivers of the rate per vessel, varying from 4d. to 3s. ; sometimes a

| eastern and midland counties of England, but is one

1 of the most local of British fresh-water fishes. It is payment on entering only, at others on departure as well as on entering; while some kinds of coasting

found also in various parts of the north of Europe,

and at least as far south as Switzerland; in Siberia vessels pay 5s. per annum, whatever may be the number of voyages. From the Thames buoys alone,

and other parts of Asia, even, it is said, in India.

In English rivers, it often reaches 2 or 3 lbs, in the Trinity House receives £14,000 per annum as

weight, but has been taken of 8 lbs. weight; dues.

and in some parts of Europe it is said to reach BU'PHAGA. See BEEFEATER.

10 or 12 lbs. weight. In appearance the B. very BUPREÄSTIS, a Linnæan genus of Coleopterous (q. v.) insects, now divided into a number of genera, and forining a tribe or family, Buprestidie, of which some hundreds of species are known, most of them belonging to tropical countries, and remarkable for the splen lour of their colours. The colours are generally metallic in their lustre, have frequently a burnished appearance, and are often beautifully iridescent. One of the largest species, B. giyas, is a native of Cayenne : it is about 2 inches long. The

Burbot.

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much resembles the ling, but is rather thicker at the neck, and tapers rather more rapidly, although still of a somewhat elongated form. It has tuo dorsal fins, the first short, the second very long, anil a very long anal fin. It differs from the ling in the form of the tail-fin, which is oval and slightly pointed; but agrees with it in having a single barbule on the lower jaw. It is of a yellowisłebrown colour, couded and spotted with darker brown on the upper parts, the under parts lighter; the scales are small; and the whole body is covered with a mucous secretion. The flesh is white, firm, and of good flavour; and as the B. is in its nature extremely hardv, few difficulties present themselves in the way of their increase in quantity, while the

value of the fish would amply repay the trouble or Buprestis Bicolor. Larva of Buprestis gigas. the cost of the xperiment.'-- Yarrell. The B. is

capable of living for a long time out of water. It is English and other European species are all compara-commonly taken hr trimmers and night-lines, as it tively small. Most of the species spend the night feeds principally during the night. Its food consists on trees, shrubs, and other plants, flying about

of small fishes, worms, mollusca, &c. Its liver during the hoitest part of the dr. Some of them / yields an oil similar to cod-liver oil. are popularly known as GOLDEN BEETLFS. Plants BURCKHARDT, JOHN LEWIS, an enterprisare sometimes seen studded with them in the ling African traveller, was born at Lausanne, in

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BURDEN-BURDE.

Switzerland, Norenber 24, 1784. In 1806, he came which case, they may be referred to in the termis, to London, and was introduced by Sir Joseph Banks or as nearly as may be in the terms, set forth in to the African Association, which accepted his schedule C annexed to the act. A similar provision services to explore the route of Hornemann into is made in regard to lands held in burgage tenure, the interior of Africa, and he embarked for Malta, by the 10 and 11 Vict. c. 49. February 14, 1809. He had previously qualified . BU'RDEN or BU'RTHEN, of a ship. See himself for the undertaking by a study of Arabic, TONNAGE. and also by inuring himself to hunger, thirst, and exposure. From Malta he proceeded, under the .

| BURDEN OF PROOF, in legal procedure, sig. disguise of an oriental dress and name, to Aleppo,

nifies the obligation to establish by evidence certain where he studied about two years, at the end of

e disputed facts; and, as a general rule, this burden which time he had become so proficient in the

not in the lies on the party asserting the affirmative of the issue vulgar Arabic, that lie could safely travel in tlie

Is to be tried or question in dispute, according to disguise of an oriental merchant. lle

Licited the maxim ei incumbit probatio qui dicit non qui visited thi

who Palmyra. Damascus. Lebanon, and other remarkia negat--that is, proof is inclimbent on him able places, and then went to Cairo, his object being |

cinc asserts, not on him who denies. The principle of

El the law is, that the B. of P. is on the party who to proceed from thence to Fezzan, and then across the Sahara to Sudan. No opportunity offering itself

would fail if no evidence were adduced on either at the time for that journey, he went into Nubia.

1 side. Accordingly, it almost always rests on the No European traveller had before passed the Derr.

| plaintiff in an action, or on the party asserting the In 1814, he travelled through the Nubian desert to

facts on which the result of the litigation must the shore of the Red Sea and to Jeddah, whence he

depend. In one case tried before the late Baron proceeded to Mecca, to study Islamism at its source.

Alderson, that learned judge laid down that the After staying four months in Mecca, he departed on

proper test was, which party would be successful, if

1 200 evidence at all ucre gizen? the B. of P., of course, a pilgrimage to Mount Arafat. So completely had he acquired the language and ideas of his fellow

falling on the party not in that position. This test pilgrims, that, when some doubt arose respecting

has since been generally adopted and applied; but his Mohammedan orthodoxy, he was thoroughly

18 Mr. Best, in his learned work on the Principles of examined in the Koran, and was not only accepted

|| Evidence, improves on it by the suggestion, that in as a true believer, but also highly commended as a

strict accuracy the test ought to be, which party great Moslem scholar. In 1815, be returned to

would be successful, if no evidence at all, or no more Cairo, and in the following year ascended Mount

evidence, as the case may be, were given ?' a conSinai. The Fezzan caravan, for which he had waited

sideration on which the discretion and judgment of so long, was at last about to depart, and B. had

counsel frequently depend. But although such, in made all his preparations for accompanying it, when

| general, is the position of the plaintiff, it sometimes he was seized with dysentery at Cairo, which

happens that the B. of P. is imposed on the defendterminated his life in a few days, October 15,

| ant, in consequence of his having the affirmative of 1817, at the eariy age of 33. As a holy sheik, he

the material issue to be tried.

It is this rule as to the B. of P. that demonstrates was interred with all funereal lionours liv the Turks in the Moslem burial-ground. Ilis collection of

? | the real nature of the plea of not guilty in a criminal oriental MSS., in 350 volumes, was left to the

prosecution, and which dirests that plea of the university of Cambridge. His journals of travel,

í objections to it which are frequently heard expressed remarkable alike for their interest and evident truth

by over-scrupulous sentimentalists; for the meanfulness, were published by the African Association.

|ing of tliat plea is not necessarily an assertion by B. was a man born to be a traveller and discoverer;

the prisoner that he is absolutely guiltless or innobis inherent love of adventure was accompanied

cent, but that he wishes to be tried, and that as the by an observant power of the highest order. Ilis

B. of P. is on the prosecutor, while he has meanpersonal character recommended him to all with

while the presumption of innocence in his favour.vrhom he came in contact, and his loss was greatly

Besides the work referred to, see on the subject deplored, not only in England, but in Europe. His

of this article Starkie on the Law of Evidence in works are-Travels in Nubia, 1819; Travels in

England, and Dickson on the same subject in Syria and the Holy Land, 1822 ; Travels in Arabia,

Scotland. 1829; Notes on the Bedouins and Wahabis, 18:30;

BURDENS, PUBLIC. See Public BURDENS. and Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians, BURDER, REV. GEORGE, an active and influen1830.

tial minister of the Congregational body, was born BU'RDEN, a term of law in Scotland, used to

in London, June 1752. After studying some time as signify any restriction, limitation, or encimbrance

an artist, he devoted himself to the ministry, and in affecting either person or property. Burdens are

1778 was appointed pastor of an Independent Church said to be either personal or real. Where a party

at Lancaster. He afterwards removed to Coventry, is taken bound by acceptance of a right to pay à and

and in 1803 to London. Here he became secretary certain sum to another, but where there is no

no to the London Missionary Society, and editor of the clause charging the suljret conveyed with the

Evangelical Magazine, the duties of which offices he sum, the burden is said to be personal ; that is,

discharged with great zeal, until failing health comit will be binding upon the receiver and his

pelled him to resign. B. took a prominent part in representatives, but will constitute no real encum

all the religious niovements of his time. He died brance on the lands, or other suloject conveyed, nor

May 1832. Ilis Village Sermons have been transamount, indeed, to anything more than it mere |

lated into several European languages; and he was personal obligaticn on the granter. But where the the author of other series of sermons and p right is expressly granted under the burden of a tions which have had an immense (irculation. specific sum, which is declared a burden or charge BURDETT, SIR FRANCIS, Bart., the most popuon the lands themselves, or where the right is lar English politician of his time, born January declared null if the sum bé not paid, the burden is 25, 1770. Educated at Westminster School and said to be real.

Oxford University, he spent some years on the By the 10 and 11 Vict. c. 48, real burdens nerd continent, and was a witness to the progress of not be inserted in full in conrevances, if they have the first French Revolution. In 1793 he married already been set forth in an instrument of title, in 'Sophia, youngest daughter of Thomas Coutts.

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