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BURDOCK-BUREN.

Burdock.

Esq., the wealthy London banker, and in 1796 was inulin, bitter extractive, mucilage sugar, and a little elected M. P. for Boroughbridge, Yorkshire. In tannin. In many countries, the roots, young shoots, 1797, on the death of his grandfather, he succeeded and young leaves of B. are used in soups; and the to the buronetcy.

In the House of Commons, he made himself conspicuous by his opposition to government and the war, and his advocacy of parliamentary reform, Catholic emancipation, and other liberal measures, most of which were afterwards carried. One of the most effective political speakers of that excited period, he for many years prominently occupied public attention, and was the idol of the London populace. Having succeeded in obtaining a parliamentary inquiry into the abuses of the me: ro volitan prisons, he became, in 1802, a candidate :o: Middle-ex. He was first returned, then unseated, and after a second contest, defeated. At the general election of 1806, B. again became a candidate for Middlesex, but was defeated. Iu May 1807, he fought a duel with Mr. James Paull, one of the candidates for Westminster the previous year. Soon after, he was returned, with Lord Cochrane, for Westminster, which he represented for nearly thirty years. B. having in 1810 published, in Cobbett's Political Register, a Letter to his Constituents, declaring the conduct of the House of Commons illegal in imprisoning John Gale Jones, the plant is cultivated for this use in Japan. The roots Speaker's warrant was issued for his apprehension, are said to resemble artichokes in taste. The leaves as being guilty of a breach of privilege. Refusing and their expressed juice are sometimes applied to to surrender, he for two days barricaded his house; burns and suppurations. the populace supported him in his resistance, and in a street contest between them and the military Bengal, on the Grand Trunk Road from the

BURDWA'N, a city in the sub-presidency of some lives were lost; but on April 9, the sergeant-at-arms, aided by the police and military, Hoogly to the North-West Provinces, in lat. 23° obtained an entrance, and conveved him to the 12' N., and long. 87° 56' E., being 74 miles from Tower. The prorogation of parliament restored Calcutta, with which it is connected by railway, him to liberty. Prosecuted in 1819 for a libel and 346 from Benares. In point of architecture, contained in å Letter to his Constituents, strongly it is a miserable place—an aggregate, as it were, of animadverting on the proceedings of the magistrates

second-rate suburbs. Pop. 54,000. and yeomanry at the memorable Manchester meet- BURDWAN, the territory of the last-mentioned ing, he was sentenced to three months' imprison- city, lying between Beerbhoom on the north, and ment in the King's Bench, and to pay a five of Hoogly on the south. It stretches in N. lat. 'from £1000. Some time after the appointment of the 22° 52' to 23° 41', and in E. long. from 87° 21' to Melbourne ministry in 1835, he deserted the Liberal | 88° 23'. With a length of 70 miles, and a breadth party, and joined the Conservatives. In July 1837, of 60, it is said to contain only 2224 square miles, he was returned for Wiltshire. His death took with 1,854,152 inhabitants, or about 840 to the place January 23, 1844.

square mile—a proportion which certainly seems BU'RDOCK (Arctium), a genus of plants of the to justify a name that signifies productire. The great vatural order Compositæ (q. v.), tribe Cynaro. It exports also iron and coal; chiefly, however

,

district is largely engaged in the refining of sugar. cephale. The heads of flowers are globose, or nearly brought from the mines of Bancoorall, the district so; and each of the scales of the involucre runs

on the west. Next to the capital, Cutwa and Culna out into a long rigid prickle, which is hooked at

are the chief towns. the point. By means of these hooks, the flowerhead, popularly called a bur, readily lays hold of

BUREAU, a French word signifying a writingthe clothes of a passer-by, the wool of a sheep, table or desk; also an office for transacting busior the like, and thus the seeds are transported ness, a department of goverment, or the officials from one place to another, the short hairy pap

it on. BUREAUCRACY is popularly applied pus being insufficient to waft them far on the to signify the kind of government, exemplified in wind. The common B. (A. Lappa), of which many continental states, where a host of governvarieties very slightly distinguished have some- ment officials, regularly organized and subordinated, times been described as species (A. Bardana, and responsible only to their chiefs, interfere with &c.), is aburdant in waste and bushy places, by and control every detail of public and private lifewavsides, &c., in Britain and throughout Europe, the evil which the Germans call.much-government' scarcely, however, growing except in rich land. (vielregieren). Its root is biennial, large, and fleshy, somewhat BUREN, MARTIN

a president of the carrot-shaped; the root-leaves large, stalked, beart- United States of America (1837-1841), was born shaped; the stem stiff, upright, somewhat branched at Kinderhook, in Columbia co., New York, December and leafy, three feet or more high. The whole 5, 1782. Educated for the bar, he was elected, in aspect of the plant is coarse, and it is somewhat 1812, senator in the legislative assembly of New clammy to the touch. The root is sometimes York, and in 1821 took his seat in Congress, used in medicine, being diaphoretic and diuretic, where he supported democratic measures. In 1829 and acting upon the cutaneous system and the he was made Secretary of State, and in 1837 he kidneys. It is capable of being made a substitute succeeded General Jackson in the presidency, being for sarsaparilla. When fresh, it has a disagree- elected by a majority of twenty-four votes over his able smell, but when dry, it is inodorous ; it has a rivals, Clay, Webster, and Harrison. On beginning sweetish mucilaginous taste, becoming afterwards the duties of his office, he found himself involved bitterish, and rather acrid, and contains chiefly in such financial perplexities, that he immediately

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BURG-BURGESS.

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summoned Congress to an extraordinary session, for hard study, and was particularly averse and proposed an entire separation of state-finance Latin; but lie at the same time showed a relish from the banks of the Union, a proposition which for verse, though destitute of any other model than was decisively rejected, and B.'s popularity was the Psalm-book. in 1764, he went to Halle, and greatly damaged. In 1840, he had to yield his place applied himself to theology. In 1768, he abanto General Harrison, the Whig candidate; and in doned this science for jurisprudence, 'which he 1844, when he again stood for the presidency, he was studied at Göttingen. Here his conduct was caredefeated by Polk. The result of this vote divided less and immoral, and he would probably have the Democrats into two parties, one of which, at a sunk into obscurity, if the intimacy which he convention at Utica, unanimously declared fór Van happily formed with Voss, the two Stolbergs, and B. as president for 1848; but his election was pre- other young poets, had not stirred up his better vented by the military renown of General Taylor, nature, and inspired him with an earnest ambition vho left both Van B. and Cass with minorities. In to excel. He labored hard at the classics of 1856, he was again named for the presidency; but ancient and modern times, but the study of Shakthe majority of the Democratic party preferred Mr. speare and Percy's Reliques had the greatest influBuchanan. He died July 24, 1862.

ence in deciding the style of poetry which he was BURG, a town of Prussia, in the province of to adopt. With regard to the intrinsic merits of Saxony, situated on the Ihle, about 13 miles north- his poems, which consist chiefly of ballads and east of Magdeburg. It is walled, and has long been songs, even German critics such as Schiller, Gerfamous for its extensive woollen manufactures. It vinus, and Vilmar-differ widely in their opinions ; has also manufactures of linen, yarn, steel, pottery, but all agree in praising the popular style, and and leather; dve-works, distilleries, foundries, &c., fluent, spirited versification of his ballads, Leonora, and a large trade in agricultural produce. Pop. Lenardo and Blandine, the Parson's Daughter of 11,570).

Taubenhayn, the Wild Huntsman, &c. B.'s life BURGAGE TENURE is a species of holding was spent in great poverty and misery, partly the in the law of real property which prevailed both in result of misfortune, and partly induced by his England and Scotland; although somewhat differ- own errors. He married thrice, in two instances ently regarded in these two countries. In England, very unhappily; lost his property by an unforit is a species of free socage (q. v.) holding, and tunate speculation; and, though the favourite it prevails where the king or other person is lord poet of the German people, was left to earn his of an ancient borough in which the tenements are bread by translations and similar literary labours. held by a certain and determinate rent, and subject He died June 8, 1794. Though a popular writer, to a variety of customs, the principal and most re. B. was very careful as to style, and was one of markable of which is that called Borough English the first who wrote good hexameter verse in Ger(q. v.). Among the other custoins was a law that man. His collected works were first published by the wife shall be endowed with all her husband's Karl von Rheinhard, 1796–1798 ; latest edition, tenements, and not with the third part only, as at common law.

BÜ’RGERMEISTER, the German title of the chief In Scotland, by this tenure is meant a peculiar magistrate of a city' or town, analogous to the sort of military holding affecting property in royal French maire, the English mayor, and the Scotch. burghis, the sovereign being superior or over-lord,

provost. and each individual proprietor or burgess holding direct of the crown, for the reddendo or service of BU'RGESS, or BU'RGHER, from the same origin watching and warding (q. v.). This service is other- as borough, means, when taken in a general sense, wise termed service of burgh used and wont,' and much the same thing as the word citizen, but has is now merely nominal. Although the burgesses a variety of special meanings, according to local hold immediately of the crown, they do not receive institutions. In French literature, the word bourgeois their formal entry directly from the sovereign, but is generally used to personify the excess of plebeian from the magistrates of the burghi, as the crown's vulgarity; while, on the other hand, in England, commissioners. If the burgh, as such, ceases to ex- the aristocratic member of Parliament for the city ist, the crown does not thereby lose its rights over is technically called a burgess. In almost all parts the proprietors, for they continue as crown vassals (q. of Europe, when used in a technical sense, the word v.). By the 10 and 11 Vict. c. 49, facilities are given means a person who holds some peculiar privilege for the transference of land in Scotland held under in a town or municipal corporation. The burgesses this tenure.

of the European towns, indeed, were, and still BURGA'S, or BURGH A'Z, a town of European institutions, existing in context and rivalry with the

nominally are, an interesting relic of ancient Roman Turkey, in the province of Rumelia, on a promontory institutions, existing in contest and rivalry with the in the Black S-a, about 76 miles north-east of Adri-institutions of feudality. The B., with a different anople. B., which is well built and clean, has manu- name, is virtually the civis or citizen of the Roman

a rank always of some factures of pottery of a superior_kind, and a good municipality, trade in agricultural produce. Pop. about 6,000, moment, but especially valuable when the citizenThe Gulf of Burges, at the head of which the town is ship was of Rome, the metropolis. St. Paul, when situated, is about 14 miles in length, and has a depth he was to be scourged, raised the alarm of the chief varying from 5 to 12 fathoms.

captain by stating that he was a Roman. Such BU'RGEO ISLANDS, belonging to England, and ages, when a B., bronght before the court of a feudal

an event might often have happened in the middle lying between Newfoundland and Cape Breton, in lord, claimed the privilege of pleading in his own lat. 47° 33' N., and long. 57° 44' W. Besides being burgal court, or the king's tribunal. The European valuable as a fishing-station, they occupy a com- monarchs found it their interest to support the burmanding position with respect to British North America in general, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence in gesses, as a check on the influence of the feudal arisAmerica in general, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence in tocracy; and thus was nourished the great system of particular. The group has 700 inhabitants.

city communities, which have exercised so important BÜRGER, GOTTFRIED August, one of the most an influence on the fate of the world. See Municipopular German poets, was born, January 1, 1748, PAL INSTITUTIONS. at Molmerswende, near Halberstadt, in Prussian In the law of England, a B. is a member of the Saxony. In his boyhood, he displayed no capacity corporation of a corporate town, or he may be

See TENURE.

it was

8:)

BURGESS LIST-BURGH.

described as a freeman duly admitted as a member completed on or before the 22d of October in erery of the corporate body. This privilege was, and, to year; every such book being the burgess roll of the some extent, still is, acquired by birth or servitude burgesses entitled to vote for councillors, assessors,

that is, by being born of a freeman, or by ap- and auditors of the borough. Copies of such burgess prenticeship for seven years within the borough roll, so completed, shall be made in writing, or to a freeman. It might also be obtained by gift | printed, for delivery and sale to all persons applying or purchase; and the Municipal Corporation Act, for the same, on payment of a reasonable price for the 5 and 6 Will. IV. c. 76—with the exception of each copy. There are other regulations respecting abolishing the last-mentioned mode of admission these lists, and with respect to neglect and informa!by gift or purchase-expressly reserves the rights ity in making up the burgess roll; and there is an of such freemen and their families; and it also enactment to the effect, that burgess rolls shall not provides for the making up and preservation of a be called in question by reason of the defect or list of burgesses so admitted, to be called the Free-want of title in the mayor or assessors, it being man's Roll (q. v.); but that act, for the purpose of sufficient that these latter were, when the lists were its own enactment, defines a B. to be a male person, revised, in actual possession and exercise of their who, on the last day of August in any year, shall | office. have occupied any house, warehouse, counting-house, In regard to Scotland, it has been already exor shop within the borough, during that year and plained (see BURGESS), that persons entitled to the the whole of the two preceding years; and during privileges of burgesses must be admitted according such occupation shall also have been an inhabitant to the old form, and councillors, before induction, householder within the borough, or within seven must be entered burgesses, such burgesses, of course, miles thereof; and shall during such time have paid being fully privileged in all other respects. But the all poor-rates and all borongh-rates in respect of the list, which corresponds to the English burgess roll, same premises, except those payable for the last six is the list of municipal electors qualified according calendar months; and shall be duly enrolled in that to the provisions of the 3 and 4 Will. IV. c. 76, year as a B. on the B. Roll (q. v.). Such burgess, passed for amending the laws for the election of however, must be of full age, not an alien, nor one magistrates and councils in the royal burghs in who has received within the last twelve months pa- Scotland. rochial relief or other charity. This definition, how

BURGII is a descriptive name of towns and ever, is subject to the following rule, that where the cities in Scotland, corresponding to the English premises come by descent, marriage, marriage-settle- / word Borough (q. v.). There were burghs of burony, ment, devise, or promotion to any benefice or office, free burghs, burghs of regality, and royal burghs. the B, shall be entitled to reckon in the occupancy | Since 1832, there have been what are called parliaand rating of the former party from whom they were mentary burghs—that is, towns or burghs not being so derived.

royal burghs, but sending or contributing to send In the Scotch law, the old definition of B. is still representatives to parliament, under the Act 1 and 2 maintained. This is very similar to the old English Will. IV. c. 65. * By the General Police Act for .one above mentioned, with the addition of admission Scotland, the word B. is declared to mean also any to the privilege by election of the magistrates of the populous place, the boundaries of which are fixed .burghthe burgesses taking, on the ocassion of their

by the act. Among parliamentary burghs are admission, a quaint form of oath, in which they Paisley, Greenock, Leith, Kilmarnock, Falkirk, .confess the religion of the country, loyalty to the Hamilton, Peterbead, &c.; and by the 3 and 4 Queen, to the provost and bailies of the burgh and Will. IV. c. 77, amended by the 4 and 5 Will. IV. their officers, and declaring, inter alia, that they c. 86, and the 16 Vict. c. 26, a new constitution will make concord where discord is, to the utmost has been conferred on them for the election of of their power. By the Scotch Municipal Reform their magistrates and councillors, and for the apAct, 3 and 4 Will. IV. c. 76, s. 14, it is enacted that pointment of other officers; the election being with councillors must be entered burgesses of the burgh the persons qualified to vote for a menber of before their induction--that is, wherever there is parliament-to be concluded in Paisley, Greenock, : any body of burgesses in any such burgh; but it | Leith, and Kilmarnock, by open poll in one day,

is provided that no merely honorary B. shall be the polling-books to be summed up, and the result entitled to be so inducted. One of the peculiar declared by the prorost: in Falkirk, Hamilton, privileges of a B. in Scotland is, that his heir has Musselburghi, Airdrie, l'ort-Glasgow, Peterhead, à right to heirship movables--that is, that peculiar Portobello, Cromarty, and Oban, to be by signed portion of the personal property which, besides the lists: a third of the council to go out, and others real estate, goes to the heir-at-law. See HEIRSHIP

to be elected every year; and the provost and MOVABLE.

magistrates to be chosen by the council from their BURGESS LIST AND BURGESS ROLL are lists own number: made under the provisions of the Municipal Cor- The police of burghs, and their paving, draining, poration Act, 5 and 6 Will. IV. c. 76, amended cleansing, lighting, and improvement are regulated in this respect by the 20 and 21 Vict. c. 50. The by the 13 and 14 Vict. c. 33, passed in 1850. overseers of the poor of every parish wholly or in BURGIS OF BARONY are corporations consisting part within any borough, are directed to make out an of the inhabitants of determinate tracts of growd alphabetical list, called the burgess list, of all persons within the Barony (q. v.), and municipally governed who may be entitled or qualified to be enrolled on by magistrates, whose election is either dependent the burgess roll of that year, such list to be open for on the baron or lord of the district, or rested in the perusal by any person, without the payment of any inhabitants themselves. Sometimes their charter of fee, at all reasonable hours, between the 1st (when incorporation gave them power to create subordinate the list must be signed and delivered) and 15th corporations and crafts, as in royal burghs; but days of September in every year. This list is after all exclusive privileges of trading in burghs are wards revised by the mayor and his assessors, and abolished loy the 9 and 10 Vict. c. 17. In other the names of those persons allowed, on revision, to respects, the general corporate law of the country remain, are then transferred to the Burgess Roll, applies to burghs of barony, as to which see below, which is copied into a general alphabetical list in a BURGIIS, ROYAL. They have power to administer book provided for that purpose by the town-clerk | their common good, to elect their burgh-officers, to or clerk of the peace, and which book must be make bye-laws, and their burgesses are entitled to

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BURGH-BURGH ACRES.

challenge the sale or other disposition of the burgh's, of burgesses in the burgh, each councillor, before his property.

induction, must be entered a burgess--a requisite Burgus, Free, were burghs of barony enfran- clearly unnecessary for the purpose of the municipal chised by crown charter with rights of trade, both administration contemplated by the act, and which, home and foreign, but subjected, at the same time, it is expected, will be done away. The number of to the same class of public burdens and taxation councillors in each burgh is such as, by the sett which royal burghs had to bear as the price of their or constitution existing at the passing of the act, peculiar privileges. Since the gradual decay and formed the common council, or, where this was ultimate suppression of commercial monopoly, this variable, the smallest number making a full council. class of burghs has become extinct, or rather all The electors of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, burghis may now be said to be free.

Dundee, Perth, Dunfermline, Dumfries, and InverBURGHS OF REGALITY were burghs of baronies, (ness, are divided into wards or districts. At the spiritual or temporal, enfranchised by crown charter, election immediately succeeding the passing of the with regal or exclusive criminal jurisdiction within act, each ward elected six councillors; but as every their own territories, and thence called regalities year the third part of the council goes out of office, (q. v.) Some of these burghs of regality, especially in the order prescribed by the act, two councillors those which were dependent on the greater bishops are now annually chosen by each ward, there being and abbots, were of high antiquity, and possessed no bar, however, to the re-election of an ontgoing jurisdiction and privilege of trade only distinguish- councillor. The electors in other burghs choose the able from those of royal burghs, by being more cir- whole council exactly as these wards do their procumscribed in their limits. Since the abolition of portion of it, and consequently elect each year i hereditary jurisdictions, by the Act 20 Geo. II. c. 43, third part in place of that which has retired. Upon the distinction between burghs of regality and the third lawful day after the election succeeding the burghs of barony has ceased to be of any practical passing of the act, the councillors meet and choose, iniportance.

by a plurality of voices, a provost, bailies, treasurer, BURGHS, ROYAL. A royal burgh is a corporate and other office-bearers, as existing in the council body deriving its existence, constitution, and rights, by the sett or usage of the burgh; and vacancies from a royal charter-such charter being either occurring among such office-bearers, in consequence actual and express, or presumed to have existed, of the annual retirement of the third part of the and by the accident of war and time, to have council, are directed to be supplied from the counperished. By a Scotch act passed in 1469, a con- ciliors in like manner, as soon as the election of the stitution was given to royal burghs, by which new third has taken place, the first attending magisthe right of appointing their successors belonged strate having a casting vote in cases of equality. to the old councils, the aut also containing the Vacancies taking place during the year hy death or singular provision, that when the new council resignation are supplied, ad interim, by the remainwas chosen, the members of it, along with those ing members of the council, and the persons so of the old council, should choose all the office- elected by the councillors retire at the succeeding bearers of the burgh, each craft or trade corporation election. The rights of the guildry, trades, &c., to being represented at the election by one of them- elect their own dean of guild, &c., are still preselves. But this simple plan was not univer- served; but they are

not univer- served; but they are now no longer recognised as sally adopted, and the election gradually lost its official or constituent members of the council, their for:ner free and popular form-a close and exclu- functions being performed by a member of the sive proceeding being ultimately established in its council, elected by a majority of the councillors. In place. This close system,' as it has been called, Aberdeen, Dundee, and Perth, however, the dean of notwithstanding its repugnancy to the spirit of the guild, and in Edinburgh and Glasgow, the convener times, and modern ideas of public administration, of trades and the dean of guild are, ex officio, memcontinued in force until the year 1833, when an act bers of council; and the electors in all the above of parliament was passed, the 3 and 4 Will. IV. named burghs choose such a number of councillors c. 76, amended by the 4 and 5 Will. IV. c. 87, and as, together with these officers, makes up the the 16 Vict. c. 26, by which it was abolished, and proper number. No magistrate or councillor can be an entirely new constitution given to royal burghs, town-clerk. The magistrates and council possess with the exception of nine of them, which, on account the same powers of administration and jurisdiction of the smallness of their population, are excepted as were enjoyed by the magistrates and townfrom the provisions of the act, the election in these council before the passing of the act; and none of being conducted as it was before the act was passed. them is responsible for the debts of the burgh, or These nine burghis are: Dornoch, New Galloway, the acts of his predecessors, otherwise than as a Culross, Lochmaben, Bervie, Wester Anstruther, Kil- citizen or burgess. The existing council in all renny, Kinghorn, and Kintore. Of the other royal burghis royal must every year make up, burghs, being those to which the reforming acts before the 15th of October, a state of their apply, the princinal -EDINBURGH, Glasgow, affairs, to be kept in the town-clerk's or treasurer's Aberileen, Dundee, Perth, Dunfermline, Dumfries, and office. The act 16 and 17 Vict. c. 26 provides for Inverness. The leading provisions of these acts are the supplying of vacancies in town councils of burgh, as follow: All persons within the burgh, qualified consequent on void and irregular elections. under the Parliamentary Reform Act, 2 and 3 Will. The police of burghs and other populous places, IV. c. 65, in respect of property or occupancy of and the paving, draining, cleansing, lighting, and premises, and who have resided for six months next | improving the same, are regulated by the 13 and previous to the last day of June, within the royalty, 14 Vict. c. 33; and the 16 and 17 Vict. c. 93, or within seven miles of it, are entitled to vote in enables burghs to improve and maintain their harthe election of councillors. In such burghs as do bours. not now send members to pirliament, property of The exclusive privilege of trading in burghs is the same value is required for the qualification, and abolished by the 9 and 10 Vict. c. 17. claims for this privilege must be lodged with the BURGHERS, a name popularly given to a religious town-clerk on or before the 21st of July, in a parti- denomination in Scotland. See UNITED PRESBYTEcular form. The councillors are chosen from among RIANS. the electors residing, or personally carrying on busi- BURGH ACRES are acres or small patches of ness, within the royalty; and where there is a body I land lying in the neighbourhood of Roya! L'urghs

on or

are

BURGHS--BURGOS.

or

(q. v.), usually foued or leased out to burgesses or breaking and an entry to complete it. There must, persons resident within the burgh. A Scotch act in general, be an actual breaking, a substantial and of parliament, passed in 1695, relating to the divi- forcible irruption-as, at least, by breaking, or sion or partition of lands lying runrig, excepts burgh taking out the glass of, or otherwise opening a acres, or, as the act calls them, burrow and incor- window ; picking a lock, or opening it with a key; porat acres,' from ts provisions; but this is to be nay, by listing up the latch of a door, or unloosening understood only of royal burghs, and not of burghs any other fastening. But if a person leaves his of barony or others.

doors or windows open, it is his own folly and BURGHS, CONVENTION OF. See CONTENTION of negligence, and if a man enters therein, it is no B.; ROYAL BURGHS.

vet if he afterwards unlocks an inner or chamber

door, it is so. To come down a chimney is held a BURGKMAIR, HANS, a noted old German burglarious entry, for that is as much closed as the painter and wood-engraver, was born at Augsburg, nature of things will admit; so also to knock at 1473. He was the father-in-law of the elder llolbein, a door, and upon its being opened, to rush in with and the friend of Albert Dürer, whose influence is a felonious intent; or, under pretence of taking manifest in B.'s works. Several excellent paintings lodgings, to fall upon the landlord, and rob him. by B. are preserved in the galleries of Munich, if the servant conspires with a robber, and lets him Berlin, Augsburg, and Vienna. But he is best into the house by night, this is B. in both. known as a wood-engraver; his cuts amounting in The intent must also appear, otherwise the offence all to nearly 710. Among the most celebrated of will amount only to a trespass; and it must be an these is his Triumph of the Emperor Maximilian,' intent to commit felony, which may be inferred from in 135 cuts, with a description by the emperor him- the conduct of the offender while in the house. self. Another fine series of 237 cuts, called "The

The punishment for this crime is now regulated Wise King,' represents the deeds of Maximilian. B. by the act 7 Will. IV. and 1 Viet. c. 86, amended is supposed to have died about the year 1559.

by the 16 and 17 Vict. c. 99, and the 20 and BU'RGLARY (through the old Fr. from Lat. 21 Vict. c. 3. The provisions are to the effect burgi latro, a robber of a burg or enclosure), in the that any one convicted of B. shall be liable to criminal law of England, is defined to be a breaking penal servitude for life, or any term not less than and entering the mansion-house of another in the ten years, to be imprisoned for any term night, with intent to commit some: felony within not more than three years; and in the case of the same, whether such intent be executed or not. imprisonment, hard labour and solitary confineIt is peculiar to this crime, that it can only be ment may be superadded. It is further enacted, committed in the night-time, which, by the 7 Will. that whosoever shall burglariously break and enter IV., and Vict. c. 86, s. 4, is considered as com- into any dwelling-house, and shall assault with mencing at nine in the evening, and concluding intent to murder any person being therein; or at six in the morning of the next day. The next shall stab, cut, wound, beat, or strike any such requisite of the crinie, according to the definition person, shall be guilty of felony, and suffer death. we have given, relates to the place of its commission. By another statute, the 14 and 15 Vict. c. 19, also It must be in a monsion-house, for such is the amended by the 16 and 17 Vict. c. 99, and the 20 and technical expression; but this is construed to mean 21 Vict. c. 3, it is enacted that any person found any private dwelling, or any building temporarily by night, armed with any dangerous or offensive or permanently used for that purpose. It cannot weapon or instrument, or with housebreaking implebe committed in a distant barn, warehouse, or the ments, or with face blackened or disguised, with like, unless there be a communication with the intent to enter any buildings, and to commit felony dwelling-house, nor in a house where no one resides. therein; or if he be found by night in any building But it is B. to break into a house which is used as with intent to commit a felony therein--is guilty an occasional residence, and which the owner is in of a misdemeanour, punishable with imprisonment, the habit of leaving for a short period, with the not exceeding three rears; and in case of a second intention of returning, even although no one be in conviction, is liable either to such imprisonment or the house at the time of the offence. A chamber to penal servitude for not less than three, and not in a college, or an inn of court, is also within the exceeding ten years. meaning of a mansion-house; so likewise is a room Blackstone observes, that this offence was anciently or lodging in any private house, if the owner and called Hamesecken, as, he adds, it is in Scotland to the lodger enter by different outer doors; but if this day. But the Scotch law on this subject has they both enter by one outer door, then the offence some points of difference—hamesecken, or hamecan only be committed against the owner. For the sucken, as it is spelled in the Scotch books, not same reason, a building belonging to a corporation, being quite identical with B. : thus, the former is and separately inhabited by the officers of the body an offence exclusively against the person, and it corporate, is the mansion-house of the corporation, may be committed in the daytime as well as at and not of the officers. Again, a shop which is night; and there are other points of dissimilarity. part of another man's house, and hired merely for The Scotch law relating to housebreaking and the purpose of work or trade, is not a dwelling- stouthrief affords analogies. See HAMESUCKEN, house, and B. cannot be committed in it, neither HOUSEBREAKING, STOUTHRIEF, LARCENY, ROBIERY, as against the shopkeeper, nor against the person Assault. who occupies the other portion of the house. This

BÜ'RGLEN, a village of Switzerland, in the offence cannot be committed in a tent or booth erected in a market or fair, though the owner may celebrated as the birthplace of William Tell. The

canton of Uri, about two miles from Altorf. It is lodge therein, for his doing so makes it no more B. to break open such an erection, than it would supposed site of the patriot's house is now occupied

by a chapel, upon the walls of which are represented be to uncover tilted waggon under the same circumstances. But it may be committed by break- certain well known scenes from his history.

BU'RGOMASTER. See GULL. ing open a church, which, according to Sir Edward Coke, is domus mansionalis Dei, the mansion-house BU'RGOS, a city of Spain, capital of the new of God.

province of the same name, and of the former kingAs to the manner of committing B., it is laid dom of Old Castile, is situated in a fertile valley at down by Blackstone that there must be both a the foot of the Sierra d'Oca, and on the right bank

a

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