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BURGOYNE-BURGUNDY.

of the river Arlanzon, in lat. 42° 20' N., and long. that sent to Portugal. In 1830 he was appointed 3° 45' W. Pop. 15,924. B. is a very ancient place, chairman of the Board of Public Works in Ireland; having been founded in 844. Many of the gloomy 'and in 1845, Inspector-General of Fortifications in old houses of its early history still remain. In the England. In 1851, he obtained the rank of Lieutencastle of B., Edward I. of England was married to ant-general, and in 1854 was made D. C. L. of Oxford Eleanor of Castile. The cathedral of B., founded University. During the same year he was sent to in 1221, is one of the noblest specimens of Gothic : Turkey, to devise measures against the advance of architecture in Spain. Its various chapels are rich the Russians; and in the Crimean war he was chief in fine sculpture and tombs. It was the birth of the engineering department of the British army place of the Cid (q. v.). B. has manufactures of till recalled in 1855. For his services at Sebaswoollens, linens, and hats, but it depends chiefly topol, he received from the Sultan the order of on the traffic which its position on the great road the Medjidie, and from the French emperor that of from France and the northern Spanish provinces to grand officer of the Legion of Honour. He was Madrid secures it. B. has several charitable and made general in 1855, and created a baronet in educational institutions. It formerly had a much 1856. larger population--as many as 50,000—but on the

BU'RGUNDY (Fr. Bourgogne), an ancient proremoval of the court to Madrid in the 16th c., B. vince of France, now forming the departments of Côte begin to decline in population and importance. It d'Or, Saone-et-Loire, Ain, and part of Yonne. Dijon was further greatly injured in November 1808 by was 'the capital of Burgundy. The ancient Burthe French who sacked it. In 1812, the castle was gundians (Burgundi or Burgundiones), originally a four times unsuccessfully besieged by Wellington, German tribe, were at first settled on the banks of who, however, took it in the following year, when the Oder and the Vistula, and afterwards extended the French blew it up, as well as the fortifications. themselves to the Rhine and the Neckar, and, in -The

an miles, and a population in 1864, of 349,714. The 107, penetrated into Roman Gaul. Their conversion surface is elevated, the soil fertile, yielding grain They adopted a brief Arian confession of faith, and

to Christianity took place in the course of eight days! and fruits. The hills afford rich pasturage; and

were baptized. From 407 to 531, the kingdom of the minerals gold, silver, iron, lead, and copper are B. was several times divided; and in 451, Gundicar, found.

king of B., with 10,000 men, confronted Attillin, BURGOYNE, John, a British general and but was defeated and slain. The tradition of this dramatist, natural son of Lord Bingley, early entered overthrow of the old Burgundians is preserved in a the army, and in August 1759 was appointed confused form in the Nibelungen Lied. lieutenant-colonel commandant of the 16th Light In 534, B. passed under the rule of the Franks; but Dragoons. In 1761 lie served at Belle Isle, and the weak government of the later Carlovingiau kings in 1762 commanded a force sent into Portugal for allowed it to become once more independent, and the defence of that kingdom against the Spaniards, it was named the kingdom of Arles, from the resiwhen he surprised and captured Alcantara. In dence of its first king, Boso, who died 887. He 1776 he served in North America, and in the sum- was succeeded by his son Louis; and after a time of mer of 1777 he was appointed to the command of contention and division of the French territories, a large force ordered to penetrate from Canada Duke Rudolf, nephew of King Ilugo of France, into the rebellious districts. The early part of the made himself ruler of Upper B., and was followed expedition was marked by his capture of Ticon- by Rudolf II. (912), who was crowned king of Italy deroga; but neglectirg to preserve his communica- in 921, and united Lower B., or Arles, to his owil tions with Canadi, he encountered the greatest kingdom in 928. Conrad the Peaceable succeeded, difficulties, and was at last obliged to surrender and after him, Rudolf III., who dying without mole with his army to General Gates, at Saratoga. issue in 1032, bequeathed iis kingdom to the EmpeSoon after his return to England, having been ror Conrad II. of Germany, whose son, Ilenry III., denied an audience of the king, and refused a court- made it a duchy of the German empire. martial, he went over to the opposition party, With Philip the Bold, the founder of the new and voluntarily resigned all his appointments

. On ducal dynasty of B., a new and splendid era was coma change of ministry, at the close of the American menced, in 1363, and was continued to the death of

was appointed commander-in-chief in Charles the Bold (q. 1.), in 1477, who left no male Ireland. This office he resigned two years after, issue. B. was then incorporated with France. and subsequently seems to have devoted his time

BURGUNDY, Louis, DUKE OF, the grandson to light literature. He was the author of some of Louis XIV. of France, and Dauphin of France pamphlets in defence of his conduct, and of The after the death of his father, was born at Versailles Murid of the Oaks (1780), The Heiress (1786), The in 1682. . Even in childhood he was ungovernable, Lord of the Manor, and other stock dramatic pieces. and became excessively violent and haughty, B. was one of the managers for conducting the and abandoned to all gross and sensual passions. impeachment of Warren Hastings. He died June 4, Although educated under the care of the Abbé

Fénélon, he used, when 30 years of age to divert BURGOYNE, Sir John Fox, Bart., an eminent himself with drowning flies in oil, and blowing up engineer-officer, born in 1782, entered the Royal living frogs with gunpowder. He had the misfortune Engineers in 1798. From 1800 to 1807, he served to be deformed; his deportment and manners were in the Mediterranean and the Levant; proceeded undignified, and his mind was imbued with bigotry. with Sir John Moore's force to Sweden, and sub- When only about 15 rears of age, he was married sequently to Portugal, and was at Corunna in 1809. to the Princess Adelaide of Savos, and spent his The same year, he became attached to the Third time wholly in amusements in the company of his Division of the army under Sir Arthur Wellesley spouse and of the ladies of the court. Neverthein the Peninsula, and till the conclusion of the war less, in 1701, he was nominally appointed generalisin 1814, was present at all its sieges, distinguishing simo of the army, really under the command of himself in those of San Sebastian and Burgos, and the Duke de Vendôme, and is said to have shewn wis twice wounded. He became Lieutenant-colonel some spirit in a cavalry-fight at Nimeguen; but he April 27, 1812 ; in 1814, was commanding engineer quarrelled with Vendôme, chiefly because he had of the expedition to New Orleans, and in 1826, of once been compelled to establish his head-quarters

war, he

1792.

BURGUNDY PITCIIBURIAL.

It has

a

an

in a nunnery. He lost the respect of the army, and and ferocity towards the living. People of a low was exposed to many humiliations, partly proceed- and barbarous type carelessly permit the remains of ing from intrigues set on foot against him out of the dead to lie in the way of the living, and there envy by his father. He returned to the court more

He returned to the court more are a few instances in which the object of artificial eccentric, gloomy, and insociable than before. But arrangements has been to preserve a decorated porwhen he became, on ha father's death, the second tion of the body is for instance, a gilded skulle person in the kingdom, all his defects vanished from among survivors. The general tendency of manihe sight of the courtiers, and flattery bestowed on kind, however, has always been to bury the dead him the title of the Great Dauphin. He died out of sight of the living; and various as the methods suddenly in the year 1712. A few days previously, of accomplishing this end have been, they have rehis wife and lier son, the Duke of Bretagne, häd solved themselves into three great classifications: died, and the same hearse carried father, mother, 1. The simple closing up of the body in earth or stone; and child to St. Denis. The Duke of Orleans, 2. The burning of the body, and the entombing of subsequently regent, and his daughter, the Duchess the cinders; and, 3. The embalming of the body. of Berri, were accused, but without reason, of hav- The first of these seems to be the earliest form of ing caused tliem to be poisoned.

which we have any record, and it is the form most BURGUNDY PITCH, a

resinous substance amply sanctioned by the existing practice of the prepared from common frankincense (q. v.), the civilised world. It is the method referred to in the spontaneous exudation of the Norway spruce-fir earliest Seriptures; and all are familiar with the (Abies excelsa ; see Fin) by melting it in hot water, touching scene in which Abraham buries Sarah by which means it is freed from a considerable in the cave in the land of Canaan which belonged part of the volatile oil which it contains. By to Ephron, but was, after a solemn and courteous straining it through a coarse cloth, impurities are negotiation, secured to Abraham for a possession also removed. B. P. is of a yellowish-white colour, to bury his dead in (Gen. c. 23). The horrible fate hard and brittle when cold, but softening by the of being left unburied, either from scorn or neglect, heat of the hand, and readily adhering to the skin. is powerfully told in the prophecy of Jeremiah against

not unpleasant resinous odour, and Jehoiakim: “He shall be buried with the burial of a slightly bitter taste. It is used in medicine as an

an ass, drawn and cast forth beyond the gates of external application only, and generally acts as a Jerusalem.' There is frequent allusion in the later mild irritant. A very common application of it Scriptures, and especially in the New Testament, to is as a plaster in complaints of the chest, and the embalming of the body in antisepties and fragrant in rheumatic complaints. It enters also as

substances; and the burning of the bodies of Saul ingredient with resin, oils, &c., into a compound and his sons is accounted for by commentators on plaster of similar use. The B. P. of commerce is the supposition that they were too far decayed now principally brought from Hamburg; but the to be enbalmed. The Israelites may have learned greater part of what is sold under that name is the practice of embalming from the Egyptians, really manufactured of common rosin and palm- among whom it was an art so greatly cultivated oil, or from American turpentine. It has a fuller and extensively practised, that Egyptian corpses, yellow colour than the genuine B. P., and a less as inoffensive as any article of wood or stone, are

scattered over Europe in museums, and are even agreeable odour. BURGUNDY WINES are chiefly the produce soil and climate of Upper Egypt seem to have

to be found as curiosities in private houses. The of vineyards cultivated on the hilly lands form- afforded facilities for embalming unmatched in ing the Côte d'Or, between Dijon and Chalons. These hills average about from 800 to 1000 feet the vestiges of the practice are coniparatively

any part the world; and other in height; the vineyards ascend

end up the slopes

rare, though it is usual even yet to embalm roval in terraces, and spread along the table-land on the summit. “In richness of flavour and in per- of mummies, as in the vault of the monastery of

corpses, and in some places to preserve a series fume, and all the more delicate qualities of the Kreuzberg, at Bonn, where the monks have been sucjuice of the grape, the wines grown here unques. cessively preserved in their costume for centuries. tionably rank as the finest in the world. The most The practice of incremation, or of the burning of celebrated of the red wines of Burgundy are the the body, and the entombing of the ashes, deserves Closvougeot (near Beaune), Nuits, Chambertin (the favourite wine of Louis XIV. as well as of Napoleou) in Etruria—both before and after it came under

more inquiry than it has yet obtained. In Greece, the Romané-Conti, Richebourg, Volnay, and Po- the Romans--and in the north of Europe, the simple

Of other red wines of Burgundy not grown burial of the body, and its prior reduction to on the Côte d'Or, those of Pitoy, Perrière Preaux, ashes, were both practised, and sometimes contemand Auxerne, are held in most repute. The white wines of Burgundy are also the finest in France, poraneously. The tombs of Etruria are rich in art

, but being produced in less quantity, they have less baked clay in which the ashes of the dead are kept.

the urns celebrity. The quantity of wine annually produced | Vessels of terra-cotta, or cooked earth, containing in Burgundy averages 3,500,000 hectolitres (77,000, human remains, have been found, often so large that 000 gallons), of which only about about a fifth is they appear to have served as coffins for containing consumed in the district.

the whole body. Vessels of this kind were found in BURIAL, a word of Teut. origin (Ang.-Sax. birgan, the valley of the Scamander by some British officers to conceal), is applied to the prevalent method among while spending their leisure time after the siege of civilised nations of disposing of the dead, by hiding Sebastopol, upon the ground supposed to have been them in the earth. As there is almost nothing else occupied by the besiegers of Troy. Smaller cinerary so deeply interesting to the living as the disposal of urns have been found over so extensive a portion of those whom they have loved and lost, so there is the world, that it is difficult to define the limits to perhaps nothing else so distinctive of the condition which they belong. The Danish antiquaries say, and character of a people as the method in which that in their stone period, when the use of metals they treat their dead. Hence, funeral customs asso- was unknown, the dead were all buried unburned in ciate themselves with a wide variety of sentiments, stone chambers, and that the burning of the bodies from gentle and rational sorrow, up to deification of and the preservation of the ashes in urns came in the departed, accompanied sometimes with cruelty with the age of bronze. These antiquaries associate

mard.

BURIAL-BURIAL ACTS.

It

ܪ

with the older system those amorphous mounds of was given to the Privy Council to close the city earth or stone called barrows or tumuli, which are graveyards. The act was modified two years after. to be found all over the north of Europe. Mr. wards, by transferring the duties of managing cemeBremner, in travelling among the steppes of the teries to local boards appointed by the vestries. Ukraine, saw multitudes of these small mounds, was in London that the danger was most urgent which reminded hin at once of what he had seen on and the remedy immediate. It was extended to the plain of Troy, at Upsala in Sweden, in Scotland, the English provinces in 1853, and to Scotland in and in Ireland. The Irish tumulus of New Grange i 1855. is perhaps the most remarkable of all, forming a In England, burial in some part of the parish connecting link between the simple barrow on the churchyard is a common law right, without even moor and the pyramids of Egypt, which are the paying for breaking the soil, and that right will perfection of the same kind of structure applied to be enforced by mandamus. But the body of a the same purpose—the burial of the distinguished parishioner cannot be interred in an iron coffin or dead. These structures open up a large field of vault, or even in any particular part of a churchcurious inquiry. The simple theory, that they were yard, as, for instance, the family vault, without raised over the dead, has lately been disturbed by the sanction of the incumbent. To acquire a right the discovery that many of them are not artificial, to be buried in a particular vault or place, a faculty but relics of sheets of alluvial matter, the mass must be obtained from the ordinary, as in the case of which has been carried away; and even in these, of a pew in the church. But this right is at an human remains have been found, the natural end when the family cease to be parishioners. All mounds having been used as monuments. Even such rights, by faculty or otherwise, are expressly when human remains are connected with barrows, saved by the Burial Acts (q. v.). cromlechs, or the large shapeless pillars commonly By the canons of the Church of England, clergycalled Druidical, it is often questionable whether men cannot refuse or delay to bury any corpse that the monument was made to receive such remains. is brought to the church or churchyard; on the It is certainly ascertained to have been a practice other hand, a conspiracy to prevent a B. is an in ancient times to bury bodies in tombs which indictable offence, and so is the wilfully obstructing were themselves ancient when they received their a clergyman in reading the B. service in a parish inmates.

church. It is a popular error, that a creditor can Some of the grandest buildings in the world have arrest or detain the body of a deceased debtor; and been tombs; such are the pyramids, the castle of the doing such an act is indictable as a misdeSt. Angelo, the tomb of Cæcilia Metella, and many meanour. It is also an error, that permitting a temples scattered over Hindustan and other eastern funeral procession to pass over private grounds countries. Thus, the respect paid by the living to creates a public right of way. By the 3 Geo. IV. the dead has preserved for the world many magnifi- c. 126, s. 32, the inhabitants of any parish, town. cent fruits of architectural genius and labour. A ship, or place, when going to or returning from notion that the dead may require the things they attending funerals of persons in England who have have been fond of in life, has also preserved to the died and are to be buried there, are exempted from existing world many relics of the customs of past any toll within these limits. And by the 4 Geo. IV. ages. The tombs of Egypt have supplied an immense c. 49, s. 36, the same regulation is extended to quantity of them, which have taught the present age Scotland ; the only difference being, that in the latter more of the manners of ancient nations than all the case the limitation of the district is described by the learned books that have been written. It is an word parish alone.

The 6 and 7 Will. IV. c. 86 awful remembrance, at the same time, that inanimate regulates the registry of deaths. The 4 Geo. IV. c. things were not all that the dead were expected to 52 abolished the barbarous mode of burying persons take with them. Herodotus tells us of favourite found felo de se, and directs that their B. shall take horses and slaves sacrificed at the holocaust of the place, without any marks of ignominy, privately dead chief. The same thing has been done in our in the parish churchyard, between the honrs of nine own day in Ashantee. In many countries, the wives and twelve at night, under the direction of the had the doom, or privilege, as it was thought, of

The B. of dead bodies cast on shore is departing with their husbands; and down to the enforced by 48. Geo. III. c. 75. See Wharton's present generation the practice has lived in full | Law Lexicon. vigor in the Hindu sutti. Among the Jews, the In Scotland, the right of B. in a churchyard is an Greeks, the Romans, and many ancient nations, the incident of property in the parish ; but it is a mere dead were buried beyond the towns. The 'stop, right of B., and there is not necessarily any corretraveller!' was a usual memorandum on Roman tombs. sponding ownership in the solum or ground of the In Christian countries, if the remains of the saint to churchyard. In Edinburgh, however, the right to whom a church was dedicated could be obtained--or special B. places in churchyards is recognised.--For anything passing for the remains--they were buried B. in cemeteries in England and Scotland, see CEMEnear the altar in the choir. It became a prevalent TERY. desire to be buried near these saintis, and the bodies

BURIAL ACTS. These are the 15 and 16 of men eminent for their piety, or high in rank, Vict. c. 85, for London ; the 16 and 17 Vict. c. 134, came thus to be buried in churches. The extension the 17 and 18 Vict. c. 87, and the 18 and 19 Vict. of the practice was the origin of churchyards. These, cc. 79* and 128, for places in England beyond the in crowded towns, became offensive and unhealthy limits of the metropolis--all as amended by the It can scarcely be said that this practice, so detri- 20 and 21 Vict. c. 81, and the 22 Vict. c. 1. mental to the public health, as the burial within the regulations relate to the appointment of churches, was checked in this country until the whole system of intramural interment, as it was called, was attacked, about the year 1841, by Mr. * By some clerical error or inadvertence, this act is Chadwick and other sanitary reformers. Measures erroneously described in the preamble of the 20 and 21 were afterwards carried for shutting graveyards in Vict. c. $1, which professes to amend it. It is there

described as the 15 and 19 Vict. c. 78, and it is also crowded cities, and placing interments in open ceme- erroneously entitled. The effect of this mistake may teries under sanitary control. The first great measure be serious, for it is plain that the act intended to be was passed in 1850, when the Board of Health was amended by the 20 and 21 Vict. cannot strictly be said made a Burial Board for the Metropolis, and power to be affected by the provisions of the latter.

coroner.

BURIAL SOCIETIES-BURKE.

see

c. 42.

mons

burial-boards for parishes—the authorising new master is frequently described by the expression burial-places, proper sanitary regulations, the con- soft B., graphic B., brilliant B., or whatever other trol by the government, and by order in council, and character may belong to it. many other details too numerous to specify here.

BURITI PALM Our readers must be content with our referring them

(Mauritia

vinifera ;

MiCRITIA), a beautiful palm, which grows in great to the acts themselves, i to their lawyers.

The corresponding acts for Scotland are the 18 abundance in the swamps of some parts of the and 19 Vict. c. 68, amended by the 20 and 21 Vict. north of Brazil

. It is one of the loftiest of palms. Its leaves are fan-shaped, and form a large globular

head at the top of the stem. It produces a great BU'RIAL SOCI'ETIES are friendly societies number of nuts about the size of a small hen's ege', constituted in the usual manner, and with the covered with rhomboidal scales arranged in a spiral express object of supplying a fund for paying the manner. Between these scales and the albuminous funeral expenses of the members on their death. substances of the nut, there is an oily reddish pulp, See FRIENDLY SOCIETIES. It became customary to which is boiled with sugar, and made into a sweetenter the names not only of adults, but of children, meat. An emulsion is also prepared from it, whichi, in such societies. The proceedings of the criminal | wlien sweetened with sugar, is a very palatable courts have shewn that, in some instances, chil. beverage, but if much used, is said to tinge the dren on whose lives such an insurance was effected skin of a yellow colour. The juice of the stem also have been killed or allowed to die of neglect, and makes a very agreeable drink; but to obtain it, the the alarmi created by such instances, was enhanced tree must be cut down, when several holes about by the discovery that children were frequently 6 inches square, 3 inches deep, and 6 feet apart, are insured in more than one society. To obviate this cut in the trunk with a small axe; and these in it calamitous use of a beneficial arrangenient, it was short time are filled with a reddish-coloured liquid, provided that no insurance of a child under six having much the flavour of sweet wine. years of age in a burial society should be legal. It

BURKE, EDMUND, a philosopher and politician, was attested to the Select Committee of the Com

on Friendly Societies in 1849, that the distinguished over all the men of his times for practice of such insurances continued in uncertified eloquence and political foresight, was born in 1730,

in Dublin, where his father had an extensive pracsocieties; and at the same time it was stated on behalf of the friendly societies: 'In our long tice as an attorney. As a school-boy, he displayed experience with these societies in Liverpool, in which those traits of character and the germs of those are nearly 100,000 members, approximating to nearly 1744, B. entered the university of Dublin, of which

powers which ultimately gave him greatness. In one-third of the population of this great town, we

His undergraduate cour:e have not had one instance of death by violence for he became a scholar. the sake of the burial money. In the Friendly

was not unmarked by the ordinary distinctions Societies Act of 1850, and in subsequent enactments that he mainly devoted linself to his favourite

of successful application : but it would appear stringent arrangements for certifying the cause of death have been adopted as a sufficient protection In February 1748, he graduated B. A., and in

studies of poetry, oratory, history, and metaphysics. from this crime.

1751 took his degree as Master of Arts. In the BURIDAN, JEAN, a scholastic metaphrsician interval (1750), being destined for the English bar, of the nominalist party, was born at Bethune, he proceeded to London, to keep his terms at the in Artois, in the 14th c., and studied at Paris Middle Temple. To legal studies, however, he under Occam, where he also became a teacher of never took kindly, and ultimately he abandoned philosophy. The events of his life, as well as the the idea of becoming a barrister. During the years manner of his death, are very obscure. One account 1750–1756 he would appear to have occupied himstates, that he was thrown into the Seine, by self in travelling through England, enjoying the command of Marguerite de Bourgogne, daughter- society of literary men, in study, and finally in writin-law of Philippe le Bel, whose infidelities. he ing för various periodicals. had rebuked. Another, later, but less mythical

B., when vet at the university, had achiered a looking account, states that B. was driven from local reputation for literary talent and eloquence. France as a disciple of Occam, and fled to Austria, Among the compositions of his undergraduate life, where he founded a school. His elucidations of the most noticeable perhaps is his translation of the Aristotle are among his most useful writings. In conclusion of the second Georgic of Virgil, which his Logic, his great endeavour was to facilitate the shews poetic talent of no mean order. liis first discovery of middle terms for all kinds of syllogisms. important publication, however, was the celebrated The celebrated sophism known to the schoolmen Vindication of Natural Society, written in imitation under the name of BURIDAN'S Ass, has been dis- ard ridicule of the style and reasoning of Lord cussed at superfluous length, and with needless Bolingbroke, in which, with well-concealed irony, he ingenuity, by Bayle. It is not at all likely that it confutes his lordship's views of society by a reductio was ever adduced by B., but more probably by his ad absurdum. This work, published anonymously adversaries, who wished to ridicule his metaphysical in 1756, at the age of 26, attracted considerable doctrine of Determinism—viz., that in every mental attention. Soon after, in the same year, appeared and bodily action the will must be determined by his well-known essay, A Philosophical Inquiry into something out of itself. The sophism referred to is, the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful that if a hungry ass be placed exactly between two bundles of hay of equal size and attractiveness, it the various sources of the ideas referred to, but which

ma work containing a comprehensive induction of must starve, as there is nothing to determine the must be pronounced a failure, so far as it pretends will of the animal towards either bundle. chief works are-( -Summula Dialectica (Paris, 1487), of the sublime and beautiful.

to analyse into their primary elements the emotions Compendium Logicce (Venice, 1489; Oxford, 1637), In Aristotelis Metaphysica (Paris, 1518).

The essay on the Sublime and Beautiful attained

a rapid popularity, and its author soon found BU'RIN, or GRAVER, the principal instrument himself courted by all the eminent men of his used in copper-engraving, is made of tempered steel, time. Garrick was already one of his friends; and is of prismatic form, the graving end being among them he soon could count Reynolds, Soame ground off obliquely to a sharp point. The style of a l Jenyns, Lord Lyttelton, Warburton, Ilume, and Dr.

His

BURKE.

Johnson. Notwithstanding this popularity, how- , for patient research that was unlimited, and an ever, his progress continued slow ; for three years eloquence that has never been transcended. yet, he had to occupy himself with periodical Before proceeding to remark on the character aná writing, devoting his leisure principally to politi- powers of B., a very brief notice must be taken of cal subjects. What is considered a joint work of his leading literary efforts connected with his poliB. and his cousin, William Bourke, appeared in tical labours. Little more than a catalogue can here 1757 ---viz., An Account of the European Settle- be given of them. Omitting a variety of valuable ments in America—nd sliews how carefully at letters-several on the condition of Ireland-notice this date he had studied the condition of the must be taken of his Observations on a Pamphlet on colonies. In 1761, Mr. W. G. Hamilton ("Single- the Present State of the Nation, being his first polispeech Hamilton '), then Secretary for Ireland, hav- tical pamphlet, published in 1769, in answer to one ing appointed him his private secretary, he returned variously ascribed to Fox or Grenville.

In 1770, to Dublin, where, during two years' service, he he published a pamphlet On the Cause of the Present demonstrated his aptitude for political business, Discontents. On the 13th February 1788, he com-. receiving in 1763, in reward of his services, a pen- menced his celebrated speech opening the trial sion on the Irish establishment of £300, which, of Warren Hastings (q. v.), the most remarkable however, he did not long enjoy.

trial, perhaps, in the history of the world. This Returning to London, B., in 1764, along with Rev. speech lasted over four days, and has been characnolds, founded the Literary Club, the history of terized as 'a tempest of invective and eloquence.' which is associated with almost every considerable No idea can be conveyed of the effect which it name in the literature of the period. But literary produced. The trial lasted seven years, and closed society did not call off his attention from the with another great and splendid oration from B., chances of a political career. He became private | lasting over nine days. Hastings, it is well known, secretary to the Marquis of Rockingham, on his was acquitted. While this trial was advancing, B. becoming premier, and at the same time entered found time to take part in all the current busiparliament as member for Wen:lover. Here his ness. In 1790 appeared his Reflections on the Revoeloquence at once made him the reputation of being lution of France, which sold in tens of thousands, the first man in the Commons.' The Rockingham and is said to have produced an effect lever proadministration, however, lived only a few months, duced before nor since by any political essay. Hereand with it terininated this his second political after, the world showered honours on B., of which employment. To trace his subsequent career in space forbids even the enuineration. Having, in parliament is more than the limits of this article 1791, withdrawn from the Whigs on the French will allow; it must suffice to state briefly that his question, he offered for the consideration of govern. parliamentary life extended from 1766 to 1794 with- ment, Thoughts on French Affairs, which, however, out intermission ; that he was successively member was not published till after his death. Heads for for Wendover, Bristol, and Malton; twice held Consideration on the Present State of Affairs, and the post of Paymaster of the Forces, once under Reply to a Noble Lord, next followed, the latter Rocking!ium, and again under Lord North, with the being relative to himself personally. His last work, standing of a privy councillor; that after a career Thoughts on a Regicide Peace, showed that he

retained to the end of his life lis whole power's un. earnestness, and brilliancy with which every duty impaired. was discharged, and extending over nearly 30 Few men have been the subject of higher paneyears, he retired at last, receiving the thanks of gyric than B., and, on the whole, few have better the Commons for his numerous public services, and deserved praise. lle was noble-minded, pure in his rewardeil by government, on the express request of life, and a purist in politics. Intellectually, he was his sovereign, with pensions amounting in all to most richly endowed; with much imagination, £3700. It would be wrong, however, to omit that rare powers of observation, and indefatigable inas Paymaster of the Forces he, with a scrupulous dustry, there was no subject which he could 1100 regard to public economy, sacrificed all the per- | master, and none which, having mastered, he could quisites of his office, exhibiting a severe integrity not expound with unparalleled richness of language. unexampled among public men; and that in his But with these virtues and powers were conjoined relation with the constituency of Bristol, which was detects, which, without bating their greatness, alienated from him by his advocacy of the claims of largely neutralised their influence. He was, it may the Roman Catholics and of the opening up of the be said, too literary to be a philosopher, and too trade of Ireland, he was the first to maintain the philosophic to be a politician. His career would doctrine of the independence of parliamentary seem illustrate this position. His representatives—that they are not machines to vote astounded by its brilliancy rather than persuaded for measures approved by their constituencies by its tone and argument; and in the long-run, the simply for that reason, but men and thinkers cloquence which failed to conmand the reason, chosen by them to calmly consider and legislate for ceased to captivate the ear. The man who at the yoo of the commonwealth. It must also be first evoked the enthusiasm of the House by the mentioned, that during his career he rendered more brilliancy and power of his eloquence, did actually important service to the cause of humanity than at last empty it by persistence in the monotonous any man of his time: he prepared the way for the splendours of his speeches. Passionate, and ir. abolition of the slave-trade, a measure which was a great degree untractable, he was unsuited for destined to ripen to success in the hands of Wilber- party politics, and drifted from all his connections, force; he advo«ated the cause of humanity in India breaking up slowly all party ties, and even the ties against the voracious greed of stockholders, who of friendship, till he reached at last a state of almost regarded its millions simply as materials for plunder, political isolation. At the same time, it must not and largely contributed to improve the government be forgotten how great an influence he, half phi. of that country. Towards America he advocated a losopher half politician, exercised on the counsels policy of justice and conciliation, which, had it been of the state ; many of his views on politics and adopted, would have averted the horrors of the War public econoniy were anticipations of science, as of Independence, and retained the colonies in amity many of his previsions of the course of events were with the mother-country. And to the advocacy of prophecies. every cause which he espoused, he brought a capacity B, died on the 9th July 1797, in his 68th year,

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