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A quarto edition of his writings was published 1797 three well-marked divisions: 1. Northern B., inha1827. Octavo editions appeared in 1834, 1842, 1852, bited chiefly by Singphos, Shans, and other tribes; 1858, &c. His life has been written by Dr. Bissett; 2. B. Proper; 3. The Eastern Shan tributary states. Matthew Prior, in 1826 ; Dr. G. Croly, Political Life, The area of B. proper, from lat. 24° N. to the frontier 1840 ; Peter Burke, Public and Domestic Life, 1853, of Pegu, is 41,450 square miles, with a population of and by T. Macknight, 1858.

about 1,200,000. BURKING. See ANATOMY (in Law).

Physical features.—From the eastern extremity of BURLEIGH, William Cecil, Lord. See

| the great transverse mountain-barrier of Northern

India, longitudinal ranges strike away southwards, Cecil.

1 and between two of these the Burman territories BURLE'SQUE (from Ital. burla, jest, mockery), are situated. The country slopes from the highdenoting a style of speaking, acting, writing, draw-land regions of the north towards the coast, and ing, is a low and rude grade of the comic. The has been fitly described as “a varied surface of legitimate comic brings together contrasts with a rolling upland, interspersed with alluvial basins final view to harmonizing and reconciling them; and sudden ridges of hill.' . the B. distorts and caricatures, and brings the The principal river, the Irrawaddy (q. v.), having incongruities into stronger relief. The firce is its source amid the snowy mountains from which the B. of comedy. Deformities and monstrosities descends the Brahmaputra, is the great commercial that excite disgust do not belong to the bur-highway of the country, through the heart of lesque. The lofty and the abject, the great and which it takes its course. Passing Amarapura, Ava, the little are conjoined, with the sole view of and other towns, it enters Pegu, and, 90 miles exciting a langh. Nor does the truie B. turn real below Prome, divides into an eastern and western greatness and nobility into laughter, but only branch, the former flowing past Rangoon, the latter sham greatness-false pathos, and all hollow pre- forming the Bassein river. The Kven-dwen is its tension and affectation. The B. style appears to principal tributary. To the east of the Irrawaddy, have been unknown to the ancients; it originated the Salween, after an almost parallel course, enters among the Italians, more particularly with the poet the British territories in nearly the same latitude. Berni (q. V.). The genuinely national buifone of the Climate. On the coast, only two seasons are Italiaus personates the burlesque. Carlo Gozzi, in known--the dry and the rainy, which are regulated liis tragi-comedies, is perhaps the greatest in the by the north-east and the south-west monsoons; B. vein. Scarron among the French, and ludibras | but in B. proper, less rain falls, and there are three in Englishı, are examples. Parody or travesty (q. v.) seasons-ihe cold, the hot, and the rainy. Some is a species of burlesque.

showers fall in May or June, but the great rains BURLE'TTA, a comic operetta or musical farce. last from the middle of August to the end of BURLINGTON, a port of entry and seat of jus

October. The cool season is from the middle of tice of Chittenden co., Vermont, is situated on the E.

October till the beginning of April, and from this side of Lake Champlain, 40 miles by railroad W.N.W.

W NW month till the great rains is the hot part of the of Montpelier, and by steamboat 82 miles N of White / year, the thermometer ranging from 85 to 101. hall. Lat. 44° 27' N.; lon. 73° 10' W.

the Ini
The Uni-

The climate is, on the whole, healthy, but the versity of Vermont located here was founded in 1791. jungles are

stiferous. There are 7375 tons of shipping owned here. The

Minerals.-B. has vast fields of mineral wealth, town contains 4 banks, 3 newspaper offices, and a

but little enterprise and capital are brought to bear nuniber of churches. Burlington has direct commu

upon them. There are gold mines at Bamo, near nication by railroad with Boston, Whitehall, Ogdens

the Chinese frontier. Auriferous sand is found in bure, and Montreal. Settled in 1783. Pop. 1870. 14.387, | many of the streams. Silver is obtained at Bau-dwen,

likewise on the confines of China, and also in the BURLINGTON, a city and port of entry of Burlington co., New Jersey, on the Delaware, 20 miles

Shan country, from whence comes the chief supply above Philadelphia, and 12 miles S. W. of Trenton.

of lead. Iron is quarried at Poukpa, a lofty mounLat. 40° 5' N.; lon. 74° 50' W. The Camden and | tam

tain a few miles east of Pagan The celebrated Amboy Railroad connects it with New York and

ruby mines of B. are situated 60 or 70 miles northPhiladelphia, and the Mount Holly Railroad with east from the capital, and are jealously guarded. Pemberton. The city contains 11 churches, 2 banks,

Sapphires of great size are found in the same 1 newspaper, and a public library. There are two

stratum, but are more rare. The annual value of large and flourishing boarding-schools. Burlington

the gems is estimated at from £12,000 to £15,000 Colleve, of this place, was founded by the Episcopa- sterling, and they are the property of the king. lians in 1846, and had, in 1863, 72 students, with a Wells of the mineral oil, petroleum, are worked at library of 2000 vols. The tonnage of the district in Ye-nan-gyoung, on the Irrawaddy, above Pronie. 1854 was 13,219. Settled in 1667, and was originally Marble, noble serpentine, and amber are likewise alled New Beverly. Pop. 7000.

found in large quantities. BURLINGTON. See BridlingTON.

Vegetable productions.--A few only of the most

striking of these can be noticed. Of the graceful BU'RMA H, EMPIRE OF, called also the palm-tribe (Palmacere), the cocoa-nut, the betel, the EMPIRE OF AVA, an important kingdom of the palmyra, and the nipa, or water-palm, are the most Indo-Chinese peninsula, formerly of great extent ; I prized. The useful bamboo is widely diffused. but ly two contests with the British power in India, The teak, of which B. possesses inexhaustible forests, it lost several provinces, and is now, in its widest and the hopæa, are amongst the most valuable of sense and including tributary states, comprehended the timber-trees. Forests of pine grow to the eastbetween 19° 29' and 28° N. lat., and 939 and 100° E. ward of Amarapura. The woud oil tree is found long., having an area of 190,000 square miles, and on the higher Salween, one trunk of which will a scanty population estimated at about 4,000,000. produce from 30 to 40 gallons of oil every season. It is bounded on the N. by lofty mountains, sepa- The staple fruit of the country is the plantain or rating it from Assam and Tibet; on the E., by banana. The jack is prized by the natives. The China; on the S., by the British province of Pegu ; mango reaches the height of 100 feet, and produces and on the W., by Munnipore and mountain- | a delicious fruit. Rice, wheat, tobacco, indigo, and ranges dividing it from Tipperah, Chittagong, and cotton are cultivated. Aracan. The Burman empire, as it now exists, has Animals.-The Felidæ, or cat family, abound.

442

TINYA

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BURMAH.

tigers, leopards, and tiger-cats being met with in | kyoungs are thus converted into national schools. every part of the country. Of the Pachydermata, The vows of a pon-gyee include celibacy, poverty, the elephant and rhinoceros are the most note- and the renunciation of the world ; but from these worthy. The elephant, buffalo, and Indian ox have he may at any time be released, and return to it been domesticated.

secular life. Hence, nearly every youth assumes the Ethnology.-The Burmans belong to that branch yellow robe for a time, as a meritorious act, or for of tlie Mongolidæ characterised by a monosyllabic the purpose of study, and the ceremony of making language; they are short-headed, broad-skulled, and a pon-gyee is one of great importance. The ostenflat-faced. The hair is black, and the skin of a deep sible object of the brotherhood is the more perfect brown colour. Their dress is simple, but peculiar. | observance of the laws of Buddha. The order is The in-gie, a white linen jacket, is common to both composed of five classes-viz., young men who wear sexes. Wrapped roud the lower part of the body, the yellow robe and live in the kyoungs, but aro the men wear the put-so, which is several yards not professed members; those on whom the title in length; the women, the te-mine, a scant gar- and character of pon-gyees have been solemnly ment of cotton or silk. Silks, muislins, and valuable conferred with the usual ceremonies; the heads or gold ornaments are worn on especial occasions. Betel governors of the several communities ; provincials, nut chewing and cigar-smoking are greatly practised whose jurisdiction extends over their respective by both men and women. The Burmans are, gen-provinces; and, lastly, a superior general, or great erally speaking, fine, well-made men, and excel in master, who directs the affairs of the order throughwrestliny, boxing, rowing, foot-ball, and other ath- out the empire. letic exercises; they are clever as carpenters | No provision is made for religion by the governand smiths. Burman houses are made of a frame- ment, but it meets with liberal support from the work of bamboo, thatched with the leaf of the people. A pon-gree is held in profound veneration; water-palm, and are invariably raised on posts sev- his person is sacred, and he is addressed by the eral feet from the ground. The women are more lordly title of pra or phra ; nor does this reverence industrious than the men; they buy, sell, weave, and terminate with his death. On the decease of a disattend to the domestic concerns. Both sexes destinguished meniber, his body is embalmed, while light in merry-making, feasting, buffoonery, and the limbs are swathed in linen, varnished, and even sight-seeing. A pooay, or theatrical representation, gilded. The mummy is then placed on a highly is a very favourite amusement, and a buffalo-fight decorated cenotaph, and preserved, sometimes for attracts crowds of spectators. The Burman has lit- months, until the grand day of funeral. The Burtle pitriotism, but is attached to his home. Without man rites of cremation are very remarkable, but individual cruelty, he is indifferent to the shedding we cannot here enlarge upon them. On the whole, of blood by his rulers. Though temperate and hardy, a favourable opinion may be passed on the monastic he dislikes discipline and continued employment; fraternity of B.; although abuses have crept in, and when in power, is too often arrogant, arbitrary, discipline is more lax than formerly, and many and corrupt.

doubtless assume the yellow robe froin unworthy Besides the true Burman, a great variety of motives. races inhabit the Burman territories. The Telaings, In B., the last Buddha is worshipped under the or Moans, descendants of the ancient Peguans, name of Gautama. Ilis images crowd the temples, are pretty well amalgamated with the Burmins. and many are of a gigantic size. The days of The Shans, or Tai, perhaps the most numerous worship are at the new and full moon, and seven and widely diffused of the Indo-Chinese peoples, 1 days after each ; but the whole time, from the full are scattered over the peninsula, from Munnipore moon af July to the full moon of October, is to Bangkok. Of the eastern Sham states, some are devoted by the Burmans to a stricter observance tributary to B., others to Siam, while those west of of the ceremonies of their religion. During the the Irrawaddy are wholly under Burman rule. The latter month, several religious festivals take place, Singphos cluster round the mountains of the north, which are so many social gatherings and occasions and along the western mountain-boundary of Bur- for grand displays of dress, dancing, music, and mah, wild Kyhens, and many tribes under differ feasting. At such times, barges full of gaily-dressed ent names, live in varying degrees of civilisation. people, the women dancing to the monotonous The Karens are met with chiefly in Southern dissonance of a Burman band, may be seen gliding Burmah.

along the rivers to some shrine of peculiar sanctity. Religion.-Buddhism (q. v.) is the prevailing relig- The worship on these occasions has been described ion of B., where it has been preserved in great by an eye-witness, in 1857, as follows: ‘Arrived purity. Its monuments, temples, pagodas, and mon- at the pagodas and temples, the people suddenly asteries, are innumerable ; its festivals are carefully turn from pleasure to devotion. Men bearing observed, and its monastic system is fully established ornamental paper-umbrellas, fruits, flowers, and in every part of the kingdom. While directing the other offerings, crowd the image-houses, present reader to the special article on Buddhism for an ac- their gifts to the favourite idol, make their shek-ho, count of its doctrines, history, &c., we may here and say their prayers with all dispatch. Others glance at its development, institutions, and edifices are gluing more gold-leaf on the face of the image, among the Burnians.

or saluting him with crackers, the explosion of The members of the monastic fraternity are which in nowise interferes with the serenity of known in B, as pon-gyees, meaning 'great glory;' the worshippers. The women for the most part but the Pali word is rahan, or holy man. The remain outside, kneeling on the sward, just at pon-gyees are not priests, in the usual acceptation the entrance of the temple, where a view can be of the term, but rather monks. Their religious obtained of the image within.' On another occaministrations are confined to sermons, and they sion, we read: The principal temple being under do not interfere with the worship of the people. repair, was much crowded by bamboo scaffolding, They are a very numerous class, living in monas- and new pillars were being prit up, each bearing teries, or kyoungs, and may at once be known by an inscription with the name of the donor. .... their yellow robes (the colour of mourning), shaven The umbrellas brought as offerings were so numerheads, and bare feet. They subsist wholly by the ous, that one could with difficulty thread a passage charity of the people, which, however, they well through them. Some were pure white, others white repay by instructing the boys of the country. The I and gold, while many boasted all the colours of the

BURMAA.

rainbow. They were made of paper, beautifully of Gautama. The most remarkable specimer! of Burcut into various patterns. There were numerous man temple-architecture is the Ananda of Pagan. altars and images, and numberless little Gautamas; The ground-plan takes the form of a perfect Greek but a deep niche or cave, at the far end of which cross; and il tapering spire, with a gilded tee at the was a fat idol, with a vellow cloth wrapped round height of 168 feet from the foundation, crowns the him, seemed a place of peculiar sanctity. This whole. 3. The kyoung is generally constructed with recess would have been quite dark, had it not a roof of several diminishing stages, and is often been for the numberless tapers of rellow wax that adorned with elaborate carved work and gilding. were burning before the image. The closeness of Burman architecture differs essentially from that of the place, the smoke from the candles, and the India in the frequent use of the pointed arch, not fumes from the quantity of crackers constantly only for doors and windows, but also in the vaulted being let off, rendered respiration almost impossible. coverings of passages' An old pon-gyee, however, the only one I ever saw Cities. — Amarapura, the present capital of B., and in a temple, seemed quite in his element; his seat of royalty, is built on a peninsula of the Irrawadshaven bristly head and coarse features looking dy, a few miles above Avil. It is laid out fourugly enough to serve for some favourite idol, and square, and bounded by a defensive wall of brick; he seemed a fitting embodiment of so senseless | the palace occupies the centre. Ava, for a long time and degrading a worship. Offerings of flowers, the capital of the empire, has been for years almost paper-ornaments, flags, and candles were scattered a desert. Pagan represents the past of B., and is about in profusion. The beating a bell with a remarkable for its magnificent ruins of templedeer's horn, the explosion of crackers, and the rapid architecture, extending over a space of 8 square muttering of prayers, made up a din of sounds, miles; the prevailing type is the cruciform vaulted the suitable accompaniment of so misdirected a de- | temple. votion.'

Government.--The government of B. is a pure The rosary is in general use, and the Pali words despotism, life and property being at the mercy of Aneitya ! doka! anatta ! expressing the transitory the reigning sovereign. Many instances of the cruel nature of all sublunary things, are very often abuse of arbitrary power, by even recent kings, repeated. The Burman is singularly free from might be given. The present monarch is, howfanaticism in the exercise of his religion, and his ever, mild, approachable, and apparently desires the most sacred temples may be freely eniered by the welfare and happiness of his subjects. The Lot-dall, stranger without cffence; indeed, the impartial or High Court of Council, is composed of the four observer will hardly fail to adınit that Buddhism, woon-gyees, or principal ministers of state. The in the absence of a purer creed, possesses consider atwen-woons, or household ministers, are likewise able influence for good in the country under con- four in number. They receive the roval commands, sideration. Reciprocal kindnesses are promoted, and are in close attendance upon the king. Tlie and even the system of merit and demerit--the one woon-douks are a third order of ministers, and act leading to the perfect state of Nirvana, the other as assistants to the woon-grees. The decisions of punishing by a degrading metempsychosis--has no the lot-dau, when sanctioned by the king, become doubt some moral effect.

law. The Dam-a-that, a Burman translation of the The religious edifices are of three kinds : 1. The Institutes of Menu, is also in force. White umbrelpagoda (Zadee or T'sa-dee), a monument erected to las and white elephants are regarded as insignia of the last Buddha, is a solid, bell-shaped mass of royalty. The Lord White Elephant,' indeed, is plastered brickwork, tapering to the summit, which looked on as an estate of the realm, a mark of is crowned by the tee, or umbrella, of open iron universal sovereignty, and a sacred being. It has a work. 2. The temple, in which are many images palace, a minister, and numerous attendants.--The

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Specimen of Burmese Writing. military power of the country is not great, and of on the gilding and beautifying of a single pagoda or musketeers it is probable that the king could not temple, whilst roads, bridges, and works of public command more than 18,000.

utility are neglected. The civilisation of B., if not retrograde—which The vernacular tongue of B. belongs to the monothe ruins of Pagan would almost seem to indicate sullabic class of languages, and is without inflection ; -is stationary and stereotyped, like that of China. I the character is formed of circles and segments of All the wealth of the country is lavished on religious circles. It is engraved on prepared strips of palmedifices, £10,000 sterling being sometimes expended leaf, and a number of these form a book. Printing

BURMAH-BURNET.

is unknown except where introduced by the mis- ; office he subsequently exchanged for the profes. sionaries. Pali is the language of the religious sorship of Greek. In 1715, after the death of literature.

Perizonius, he removed to the university of Leyden, Commerce. --Exports and imports, by way of Pegu, where he died 31st March 1741. pay a duty of 10 per cent. at the British frontier His literary career was very active, and his hot custom-house, established at Thavet-myo. The temper and intolerant spirit involved him in many principal exports (from B. Proper) consist of Sesa- controversies. Among his most distinguished advermum oil, teak-timber, petroleum, sweet-oil, tobacco, saries were Le Clerc and Bentley. His chief works lackered boxes, gold-leaf, silver, lead, copper, stick- are editions of the Latin classics-Petronius, Velleius lac, indigo, cocoa-nuts, &c. ; ponies, wheat, pulse, Paterculus, Quintilian, Valerius Flaccus, Phædrus, and cotton, pass Thavet-myo duty free. The Ovid, the Poëtæ Minores, Suetonius, Lucan. The imports (into the Burman empire) are ngapee (a first of these appeared in 1709, and the last in paste of rank pickled fish, which is eaten with rice, 1740. They are characterized less by taste and the staple food of the Burman), paddy, rice, dried critical acumen than by learning, fulness of matter, fish, saltill these being imported by thousands of and beauty of type. tons annually. Cotton piece-goods, silk do., and BURN, RICHARD, was born in 1720 at the village woollens, pass free. The vilue of this trade up and of Winton, in Westmoreland. After being educated down the river in one year, from June 1, 1855, at Queen's College, Oxford, he received the living was £338,880. B. carries on likewise an overland of Orton, in his native county, which he continued traffic with China, the cotton of Ava being ex- to hold until his death in 1785. He is widely chinged for the silk of the Celestial Empire.

known as the compiler of two very niseful law-books, The standard currency of B., called yowet-ni (red- the Justice of the Peace and Ecclesiastical Law, which leaf), is silver, but there is no coinage. This metal have each passed through many editions. He also is used, however, of varying degrees of purity, which I published a History of the Poor-laus, an edition of complicates mercantile transactions, and assayers Blackstone's Commentaries, and several sermons and are einployed to find the value of the metal.

works of a religious nature. History. Of the early and mythical history of B.,

| BURNES, SIR ALEXANDER, a distinguished nothing need here be sid. The kingdoms of Ava

traveller in Central Asia, was born at Montrose, and Pegu long contended for mastery. The latter

in Scotland, in 1805, where his father, who was was in its zenith in about 1530 A. D. Passing on to 1752, it appears that the Peguars, after a period of

a cousin of Robert Burns the poet, was an active subiection obtained the advantage. At this time magistrate. he early entered the mhalan army.

and his knowledge of Oriental languages gained however, Alompra, or Aloung Pra, the most cele

him rapid promotion. After performing some brated warrior-king in Burman history, rose to

important missions for the Indian government, he power, founded the present dynasty, subdued the

was, at his own suggestion, sent on an expedition Peguins, and incorporated their country, as well

into Central Asia. Starting from Lahore on the as many neighbouring states, with his own. The

| 11th February 1832, B., having adopted the dress Burman empire attained its greatest expansion in

and usage of the Afghans for greater safety, passed 18:22. The wars of 1822--1824 and 1852 with the

through Peshawur and Cabul, and crossing the British, have reduced the kingdom to its present contricted limits.

Indian Caucasus, reached Balkh on the 9th June. See Narrative of the Mission Thence he passed on to Bokhara. Astrabad, and from the Governor-general of India to the Court of

Teheran, and journeying through Ispahan and Ava, 1855, by Captain Yıle (Lond. 1858); Mason's

Shiraz, reached Bushire on the Persian Gulf, from Natural Productions of B.; Winter's Six Months

whence he embarked for India. He received the in B. (Lond. 18.38); Malcom's Travels in the Burmon Enpire ; Missions of Symes, Cox, Canning,

special thanks of the governor-general for his

travels; and on his return to England in 1833, he Crawfurd, and Burney to the Court of Ava, and

received a warm welcome from the India House personal observation.

and Board of Control, and was highly honoured by BURJAH, British. The provinces composing the Royal Geographical and other societies. In this portion of the Anglo-Indian empire have all September 1839, having previously, for his importbeen wrested from the kings of Ava, and are as ant services. been knighted and promoted to the follow:

rank of lieutenant-colonel, he was appointed poliArea in Square Approximate Statement Miles. of Population.

tical resident at Cabul, where he was murdered Tenasserim Provinces

30,000

210,157 on the breaking out of the insurrection in that city Martaban (q. V.), .

3,800
76,000

in November 1841. B. was the author of several Pegui (q. V.), .

32.300

510,150 Arracan, or”Aracan (q. v.), 10,700

papers in the Journal of the Geographical Society, 362,797

also of Travels into Bokhara, and of Cabul, being a 76,500 1,189,164 narrative of a journey to and residence in that city, of these, the Tenasserim provinces of Maulmain which was published after his death. (or Ainherst), Tavoy, and Mergui, together with BURNET, the English name of two genera of Aracan, were ceded to the British Government plants, Sanguisorbu and Poteriuni, belonging to the by the treaty of Yandaboo, signed on the 24th of natural order Sanguisorbere (q. v.)--very generally February 1826, at the close of the first war with regarded as a sub-order of Rosacece which have Birmah. Pegli and the province of Martaban were much resemblance to one another, and receive a retained as compensation after the war of 1852. In

common name also in other languages. Sanguisorba 1869 B. B. extended over 90,070 square miles, with a has hermaphrodite flowers with four stameus: in population of 2,196,180.

Poterium, the flowers are polygamous, and the BURMANN, PETER, the most important mem- stamens indefinite in number. In both, the calyx ber of a Dutch family celebrated for learning, was is 4-fid, and the corolla wanting.--GREAT B. (Sanborn at Utrecht 1668, studied law at the university guisorba officinalis) is common in meadows in all of that city and of Leyden, and, after taking his parts of Europe, and not unfrequent in some parts degree in 1688, travelled through Germany and of England, particularly where the soil is calcareous. Switzerland. After practising as an advocate for It has a steni 1-2 feet high, pinnate leaves, with some years, he was appointed professor of history about four pair of ovate serrated leaflets and an odd and rhetoric in the university of Utrecht; which one; the flowers are crowded in dark red spikes. BURNET.

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It is cultivated in Germany for feeding cattle, and is, of the ingredients of the famous cool tankard, and much esteemed for this use, as it grows well even the name Poterium is from a Greek word signifying

| a drinking vessel.--Both this and the preceding are perennial plants. Sanguisorba Canadensis, a tall herb, with white flowers, sometimes purple, represents this genus in the U. States, and is found in boys and meadows, chiefly northward.

BURNET, GILBERT, Bishop of Salisbury, was born at Edinburgh on the i8th September 1643. He was educated at home, and afterwards at Marischal College, Aberdeen, where he pursued his studies so diligently, tí at he took his degree of M.A. before lie was fourteen. In the course of a year he made up his mind to enter the church, and read so hard at theology, that in less than three years he had mastered the chief systems of divinity, besides having gone over the Old and New Testaments in the original, with all the Conimentaries of note in his time. In 1663, he visited | Cambridge, Oxford, and London, where he met with many of the leading divines of England. Next year, he passed over into Holland, and perfected his knowledge of Hebrew under a learned rabbin of Amsterdam. In 1665, he was presented to the parish of Saltoun, where he remained for five rears. In 1669, he was appointed Professor of Divinity in the university

of Glasgow, but having mixed himself up in the Great Burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis): politico-ecclesiastical affairs of the time, he brought a, a leaf; b, spikes of flowers; c, a flower. upon himself the enmity of Lauderdale, and found

it prudent to resign his chair in 1674. He now on very poor soils, and the produce is abundant. removed to London, and was made preacher at Cattle are very fond of it. The root is astringent, the Rolls' Chapel by Sir Ilarbottle Grimston, and and was formerly used in medicine.-COMMON B. afterwards lecturer at St. Clements. In 1676, he (Poterium Sanguisorba) grows in sunny places on published his Memoirs of the Dukes of Hamilton, and hills in the middle and south of Europe, and is in 1679, the first volume of his History of the Refor

mation, which procured him a vote of thanks from both Houses of Parliament. Next year appeared Sonne Passages in the Life and Death of the Earl of Rochester, in which B. records the religious interviews which he had with that profligate nobleman during his last illness, and which led to the latter's conviction of the truth of Christianity. In 1681, he published the second volume of his History of the Reformation, and in 1682, his Life of Sir Matthew Hale. The efforts which had previously been made, were now repeated, to induce him to break with the liberal and moderate party, and to attach himself to the king. He was offered the bishopric of Chichester, but refused it. In 1683, he narrowly escaped being brought into trouble in regard to the Rrehouse plot. He conducted the defence, attended the execution, and vindicated the memory of his friend Lord Willianı Russell. The king exhibited his unkingly spite by depriving B. of his St. Clements lectureship. On the accession of James ll., he went to the continent, and travelled through France, Italy, Switzerland, and Germany. In 1684, he was introduced

to the Prince of Orange, with whom he became a Common Burnet (Poterium Sanguisorba): great favourite, and by whom he was frequently a, upper part of stem or branch, with leaves and flowers ; consulted in reference to the great scheme for the

b, barren flower, shewing calyx and stamens; c, fer- deliverance of England. When William came over, tile flower, with calyx cut open.

B. accompanied him in the capacity of royal chap

lain, and shortly after, was appointed Bishop of common in England, especially in the chalk dis- Salisbury. He entered on the duties of his diocese tricts. In habit and foliage, it much resembles the with great ardour; but his first pastoral letter, in Great B., but the leaflets are smaller, and the which he founded the right of William to the flowers are in heads of a dull purplish color. It throne on conquest, gave so much offence to both has been much cultivated in some parts of England Houses of Parliament, that they ordered it to be as a substitute for clover on chalky soils, and is burned by the hands of the common hangman. relished by cattle. It forms great part of the William, however, who knew the excellent qualities natural pasture of the South Downs, and of the of the bishop, was not greatly inipressed by this excellent sheep-walks of Salisbury Plain. It is solemn performance, and continued to trust B. to regarded as a plant particularly suitable for poor the end of his life. In 1698, B. was appointed arid soils. It is sometimes cultivated in gardens, preceptor to the Duke of Gloucester; in 1699, he and its leaves, which are slightly astringent, are published his celebrated exposition of the 39 Articles, used in salads or soups. They are said to form one which was condemned as heterodox hy that not

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