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very competent assembly, the House of Lords. In , regarding the wisdom and goodness of the Deity; 1714, appeared the third volume of his History of and this independent of written revelation, and of the Reformation. In the spring of 1715, he was the revelation of the Lord Jesus; and from the attacked by a pleuritic fever, and carried off on whole to point out the inferences most necessary the 17th of March, in the 720 year of his age. B. and useful to mankind.' The competition is open to was thrice married : his rst wife was remarkable the wbole world, and the prizes are adjudicated by for her beauty; the second, for her fortune; and the three persons appointed by the trustees of the testathird, for her piety.
tor, together with the ministers of the Established Soon after B.'s death, appeared Bishop B.'s His- | Church of Aberdeen, and the principals and protory of his ow. T'ime, froin the Restoration of King fessors of King's and Marischal Colleges, Aberdeen, Charles II. to the Conclusion of the Treaty of Peace On the first competition in 1815, 50 essays were at Utrecht, in the Reign of Queen Anne. It was given in ; and the judges awarded the first prize, sarcastically but foolishly abused by the Tory £1200, to Dr. William Lawrence Brown, Principal writers of the day--Swift, Pope, Arbuthnot, and of Marischal College and University of Aberdeen others. B. was a man of strict, almost of puritanic for an essay entitled The Existence of a Supreme virtue; yet his charity, geniality, and moderation of Creator ; and the second prize, £400, to the Rev. sentiment might be imitated with advantage even John Bird Sumner, afterwards Archbishop of Canin our own div. His style is neither elegant nor terbury, for an essay entitled Records of Creation. correct, and his judgment is not always reliable, On the second competition, in 1855, 208 essays were yet the honesty, earnestness, simplicity, and vigour given in; and the judges, Rev. Baden Powell, Mr. of his writings, as well as their fulness of details, Henry Rogers, and Mr. Isaac Taylor, awarded the make his works very valuable to the student of first prize, £1800, to the Rev. Robert Anchor Thomphistory.
son, Lincolnshire, for an essay entitled Christian BURNET, JOHN, a painter, engraver, and author, Theism; and the second prize, £600, to the Rev. was born near Edinburgh, March, 1784, and died May, Dr. John Tulloch, Principal of St. Mary's College,
He was first brought under the notice of the St. Andrews, for an essay on Theism. The above public through his engravings of Wilkie's works, four essays have been published in accordance with which he executed in a inost admirable manner. Of
Mr. Burnett's deed. his own paintings, the best known engraving is that
BURNETT'S DISINFECTING LIQUID of “Greenwich Pensioners receiving News of the ANTISEPTIC FLUID is a liquid introduced by Battle of Trafalgar.' He hits written several works Sir W. Burnett for the purpose of deodorising the on art, illustrated by drawings and engravings of bilge-water of ships, sewerage-water, &c.
It is a his own, the most important of which is a Practical strong solution (sp. gr. 2) of chloride of zinc, accomTreatise on Painting. He is also the author of panied by a small amount of chloride of iron; and Rembrandt and his works, 4to, 1849; and in con- when intended to be used, it is mixed with water junction with Mr. Peter Cunningham, of the Life in the proportion of one' pint to five gallons of and Works of J. M. W. Turner, 4to, 1852.
The liquid acts only as a deodoriser and BURNET, Thomas, best known from his Theory antiseptic (see ANTISEPTICS), and does not yield any of the Earth, was born in Yorkshire, 1635, and vapour which can exhibit the properties of a studied at Cambridge. After acting as travelling- disinfectant (q. v.). It is of service in preserving tutor to several noblemen, he was elected Master of dead animal tissues, as in the dissecting-room, and the Charter-house (1685), and later, succeeded Arch- in jars containing anatomical specimens. It has bishop Tillotson as clerk of the closet to William III. | little action on knives or steel instruments. When
aving (1692) published a work, Archæologice added to bilge or sewerage water, the chloride of Philosophicce, sive Doctrina Antiqua de Rerum Ori- zinc (ZnC) mainly acts by decomposing the offenginibus (also in English), displaying great learning, sive sulphide of ammonium (SIIS), which it does but treating the Mosaic account of the Fall as an by forming the sulphide of zinc (ZnS) and chloride allegory, he was obliged to retire from the clerk- of ammonium (NH4C1), both of which are odourship, and lived in the Charter-house till his death, less. The strong solution of chloride of zinc has in 1715. His Telluris Theoria Sacra (first part, also been applied to the preservation of timber, 1680 ; second, 1689) was written in Latin, but trans- and the process of so treating wood is called, after lated, or rather recomposed in English, hy the its inventor, Burnettising. Crewe's disinfectant liquid author. It is an ingenious speculation, written in is chemically the same as the above. ignorance of the facts of the earth's structure, and BURNEY, Dr. CHARLES, a
musical composer, is therefore a mere system of cosmogony, and not celebrated as the author of the General History of geology. But it abounds in sublime and poetical Music, was born at Shrewsbury, 1726. Having conceptions and descriptions, conveyed in language studied music in his native city, in Chester, and of extraordinary eloquence, and called forth the under Dr. Arne in London, he commenced giving highest applause at the time.
lessons in music himself. After composing three BURNETT PRIZES, THE, are two theological pieces-Robin Hood, Alfred, and Quren Mab-for premiums, founded by Mr. Burnett of Dens, Aber- Drury Lane, B. left London, and settled at Lynn, in deenshire. This gentleman (born 1729—died 1781) Norfolk, where he designed his work on the History was a general merchant in Aberdeen, and for of Music. In 1770-1772, he travelled in France, many years during his lifetime spent £300 annually Italy, the Netherlands, and Germary, collecting on the poor.
On his death, he bequeathed the materials for his proposed work, and published an fortune he had made to found the above prizes, essay on the Present State of Music in France and as well as for the establishment of funds to Italy, &c. (2 vols., Lond. 1772). . This was followed relieve poor persons and pauper lunatics, and to hy his General History of Music from the earliest support a jail-chaplain, in Aberdeen. He directed Ages to the present Period (4 vols., Lond. 1776– the prize-fund to be accumulated for 40 years at 1789). Beside other minor works, B. wrote a Life a time, and the prizes (not less than £1200 and of Handel, and nearly all the musical articles in £100) to be awarded to the authors of the two best Rees's Cyclopædia. He was appointed organist to treatises on the evidence that there is a Being the Hospital at Chelsea in 1789. He died in 1813. . all-powerful, wise, and good, by whom everything He was intimately acquainted with trany of the exists; and particularly to obviate difficulties I most eminent men of the day, including Edmund
BURNING GLASSES AND MIRRORS--BURNS.
Burke and Dr. Johnson.-IIis second daughter, 1 BURNS, ROBERT, the great lyric poet of ScotFRANCISCA B. (afterwards Madame D'Arblay), became | land, was born 25th January 1759, in a small cottage distinguished as authoress of Evelina, Cecilia, near Ayr. His father, then a nursery-gardener, Georgiana, and Camilla—novels formerly very and afterwards the occupant of a small farm, had popular, and still retaining some interest.
to struggle all his life with poverty and misfortune, BURNING GLASSES AND MIRRORS. See Lens, but made every exertion to give his children a good and MIRROR.
education; and the young poet enjoyed an amount
of instruction and miscellaneous reading which, to BU'RNLEY, a thriving town in Lancashire, those unacquainted with the habits of the Scotsituated in a narrow vale on the banks of the Brun, tish peasantry, would seem incompatible with the a mile and a half above its junction with the straitened circumstances and early toil which were North Calder, and 24 miles north of Manchester. his lot. About his sixteenth year, he began coniPop. now upwards of 30,0:70. It has manufactures posing rerses in the Scottish dialect, which attracted of cottons and woollens, calico-printing works, iron notice in the vicinity, and extended the circle of and brass foundries, machine-making works, brew- his acquaintance; and thus he became exposed eries, tanneries, and rope-works. Its prosperity to temptations, which, acting on an extremely greatly depends on the collieries in the vicinity, and sociable and passionate disposition, broke in upon traffic is facilitated by railways and canals, which the previous sobriety and correctness of his life. unite it with the principal centres of trade in Lanca- A small farm, on which he had entered with his shire and Yorkshire.
brother in 1781, proved far from a prosperous underA Roman vicinal way passed through the town, taking; and being harassed and imbittered by part of which is still known and used as the ' Long other misfortunes—the results of imprudence--he Causeway.' Roman coins, pottery, urns, &c., have resolved to leave his native land, and go to Jamaica. been found near the town, and an extensive Partly to procure the means of payii g his passage, series of beacons, encampments, dikes, &c., occupy he published a collection of his poems at Kilmarthe slopes of the hills in the neighbourhood for a nock in 1786. The reception these met with was linear distance of more than 10 miles. From the highly favourable, and his genius was recognised in name of the river, Brun, and other circumstances, quarters where he had not looked for notice. While these slopes are supposed to furnish a very probable preparing to embark, he received a letter encouragsite for the battle of Brunnanburh, so celebrated in ing him to go to Edinburgh, and issue a new edi. Saxon history.
tion. This was the turning-point of his life. During BURNOUF, EUGENE, one of the most distin- his stay in the Scottish metropolis, he associated guished orientalists of modern times, was born with all that was eminent in letters, rank, and at Paris, April 1, 1801, and after entering on fashion, and his conversational powers excited little the study of law, betook himself to the oriental less admiration than his poetry. The profits of the languages, especially those of India and Persia. In publication were considerable, and enabled him to conjunction with Professor Lassen of Bonn, he take the farm of Ellisland, near L'umfries, where he published, in 1820, Essai sur le Pali, which was settled in 1788, having publicly ratified his marriage followed, in 1827, by Observations Grammaticales with Jean Armour. With his farm he conjoined sur quelques Passages de l'Essai sur le Pali. His the office of an exciseman; but after three or four great aim, however, at this time, was to obtain a years, he was obliged to give up farming, and from complete knowledge of the remains of the that time lived in Dumfries, dependent on his salary religious literature in the Zend, or Old Persic lan- from the excise, which, at first, only £50), never guage, wliich had been neglected since the time of rose above £70. The striking contrast in the lot Anquetil du Perron, or, at least, not philologically of the rich and the poor with which his residence in and critically examined. B. undertook to decipher Elinburgh had impressed him, made him hail the those curious MSS. which Anquetil du Perron had French Revolution with enthusiasm; and some brought home with him, and which lay unregarded imprudent expressions of his having been reported to in the Bibliothèque Imperiale. He commenced by the authorities, destroyed his prospects of promotion causing the chef-d'oewure of Old Persic literature, in the service, and only the interference of an influthe Vendidad-Sadé (one of the books of Zoroaster), to ential friend prevented him from losing his office. be lithographed with great care, and published from Such was then the terror of innovation, and the time to time in the Journal Asiatique the brilliant hatred of everything like liberal opinions, that results of his laborious studies, which drew upon many of the better classes, who had fêted the poet, him the regard of the learned world. In 1834, he now shumed the 'Jacobin,' as they stigmatised published the first volume of his Commentaires sur him. Imbittered by what he felt to be injustice, le Yagna l'un des Livres Liturgiques des Perses, a he recklessly allowed those habits of dissipation to work which, for the first time, rendered possible grow upon him which made the more respectable a knowledge not only of the dogmas, but also of the of all classes look coldly on him; and the remorse language of Zoroaster. It is a masterpiece of con- thus occasioned in his calmer moments aggravated scientious industry, united with copious lingual and that tendency to melancholy which the gloom and antiquarian lore. His studies in the Zend language toil of his early years had probably implanted in induced him to make an attempt to decipher the his constitution. Broken in health, he died 21st cuneiform inscriptions of Persepoiis, in his Mémoire July 1796. sur deux inscriptions Cunéiformes (Par. 1836). In The poetry of B. is purely the outpouring of 1840, he published the text along with a translation the moment--the response of the feelings to the of the Bhagavat-Purâna, a system of Indian mytho- immediate circumstances of life. Its charm and logy and tradition.. As the fruit of his study of the power lie in the justness of the feelings expressed, Sanscrit books of the Buddhists, appeared in 1845 and in the truthfulness and freshness which it the Introduction à l'Histoire du Bhoudhisme. See derives direct from life. Seldom have such manliBuddhism. This great work absorbed for six years ness, tenderness, and passion been united as in the the whole energies of B., who was now recognised songs of Burns. They formed the first awakening as the worthy successor of Silvestre de Sacy. It is of the spirit of true poetry in Britain after a long to be regretted that death did not permit this slumber. The popularity that B. instantly acquired illustrious orientalist to continue his labours further. has continued unabated, not only in his native ScotHe died May 28, 1852.
land, but wherever English is spoken; his poems BURNS AND SCALDS-BURRIAVA.
have also been translated into almost every European | 1828. In The Life and Works of Burns (Edin. 1851– tongue. Dr. Currie, of Liverpool, published the first 2), by R. Chambers, the poems are incorporated in collected edition of his poems and letters, with a life the narrative in chronological order. (4 vols. Lond. 1800), for the benefit of the poet's In 1859, the centenary of B.'s birth was celebrated widow and family. Several more complete collec- with unparalleled enthusiasm, not only in every city tions have appeared since, of which, that by Allan and almost in every village of Scotland, but in the Cunningham, in 8 vols. (Lond. 1834), may be men-chief cities of England, and througliout America, the tioned. A life of B., by Lockhart, appeared, Edin. British colonies, and India.
, you! FŐOW Bunny
Autograph of Burns.
BURNS AND SCALDS are injuries to the surface Extensive scalds or burns are very fatal to young of the living body arising from excessive heat-children ; and it must be remembered that their skin a scald implying that the heat proceeded from a is more susceptible to external impressions, and will fluid medium, as boiling water; a burn, from a solid. suffer from a degree of heat innocuous to an adult. The injury is much the same in both cases; there- Infants have frequently been scalded to death in too fore the directions for the treatment of burns will hot baths, or by too hot fomentations. The princibe applicable also to scalds. These injuries may ples of treatment for burns produced by the contact be divided into three classes: 1. Burns resulting of chemical agents to the skin, are the same as those in simple redness of the skin; 2. Burns resulting for burns by fire. in vesication or blistering; 3. Burns resulting in
BURNT OFFERINGS. See SACRIFICE, sloughing, or death of the part. The first object, after the accident has occurred, is to relieve the BURNT SIË'NNA, a fine orange-red pigment, suffering; and cold applied either in the form of ice transparent ind permanent, used both in oil and waor water seems in most cases to have almost a ' ter colour painting. It is obtained by simply burnspecific power in allaving pain and checking the ing the ferruginous ochreous earth known as Terra advance of inflammation. In other cases, moderate di Sienna. Excellent greens are produced by mix. warmth is found more efficacious, and we must be ing it with Prussian blue. It mixes well with other guided mainly by the sensations of the sufferer as to pigments generally, and dries quickly. which of these remedies we make use of. In very severe cases, opium or chloroform may be employed.
BURNT STONES, antique carnolians found in But if the injury the body has received be very seri- ruins, and seeming to have been acted upon by fire, ous, the patient complains less of pain than of cold; having a dull appearance externally, but exhibiting he shivers
, is much depressed, and must be well sup- a beautiful red colour when held up to the light. plied with stimulants, to prevent his dying from the They are sold at a very high price, particularly if to shock.
the natural beauty of the stone is added the merit of The best local application is the Carron-oil, which fine workmanship. They were once, however, more derives its name from the famous ironworks, where esteemed than now, and an imitation of them, by it has been used for many years.
It consists of burning the upper surface of carnelians with a lot equal parts of olive-oil and lime-water, and should iron, was very fashionable. be applied on Jinen rags or cotton-wool. Blisters
BURNT U'MBER, a pigment of a russet-brown may be pricked, and the contained serum allowed to colour, is semi-transparent, mixes well with other trickle away, but on no account is the raised skin to pigments, and dries quickly. It is obtained by be removed. The dressings should not be changed burning umber, an ochreous earth containing manoftener than cleanliness requires; and as cach por- ganese, and deriving its name from the place where tion of the old dressing is removed, it must at once it was first discovered_Umbria in Italy. be replaced with fresh, so that as little exposure as possible of the burnt surface may take place. The
BURNTI'SLAND, a seaport town of Fifeshire, on main principle of treatment is exclusion of the air the north shore of the Firth of Forth, about 8 miles from the injured part; and so long as this is effect. north-north-west of Edinburgh. It consists of one ed, it matters but little what remedial agent is em- long street, clean and well kept, with a back street ployed. Great care must he taken in the treatment runuing parallel, and some diverging lanes. B. is a of a sore resulting from a burn, that the contraction station on the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee Railway, of the scar does not cause distortion of the neigh- Station on the opposite side of the Forth. It has a
a steam-boat ferry connecting it with Granton, the boniring parts.
Its trade consists When the clothes catch fire, the person should lie commodious harbour on the west. down on the floor, and roll lierself
, or be rolled, in principally of distilling, fisheries, and herring-curthe rug, table cover, or any thing sufficiently volumi- ing; and in the summer season it is now considera
a convenient watering-place. nous to stifle the flames; and afterwards the clothes, bly resorted to as especially stockings, should be removed with great It unites with Kinghorn, Dysart, and Kirkcaldy care, lest the cuticle should separate with them, to send one member to parliament. Pop. (1851) which would materially increase the sufferings of the
BURRIA'NA. a town of Spain, in the province
of Castellon-de-la-Plana, about & niles south from the by the former commissioners may not be without town of that name, is situated on the left bank of the interest at the present time, as indicating the direcRio Seco, about 1 mile from its mouth in the Medi- tion which it is not impossible that the reforms of
It has a population of 6200, who are their successors will take. • We entertain,' they say, chiefly engaged in agriculture and fishing; and ex- very strong apprehensions that the laudable object ports wine, oil, and fruit.
which it is proposed to promote by such bequests, BURRITT, Elihu, a distinguished advocate of the has not been very satisfactorily or usefully accomdoctrines of the Peace Society, and widely known plished, and that the number of small bursaries has as the learned blacksmith,' was born at New been attended with consequences very prejudicial to Britain in Connecticut, United States, in 1811. He the interests of the universities. The number of was brought up to the trade of a blacksmith; but bursaries is greatly beyond the proportion necessary devoted all his leisure to study, especially to mathe- for the encouragement of extraordinary merit, or io matics and languages. In the latter field of study, provide for individual cases of unusual poverty and his range has been very wide, embracing more or hardship. It is completely proved that many are atless Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, and other oriental tracted to the universitiy in the hope of obtaining a tongues, and almost all modern European and bursary, and are induced to continue their attendSlavonic languages.
He is, however, much better ance without any natural turn for any of the learned known to the world as an earnest apostle of peace professions. It appears that some of these persons than as a scholar. To preach the doctrine of* uni- are at last left in the most distressing of all situaversal brotherhood,' he has travelled through the tions--disqualified for the occupations in which they United States and a great part of Europe. His might otherwise have been employed, and unable to chief works are, Sparks from the Anvil, A Voice turn to any account the education which they have from the Forge, and Peace Papers. He has taken a received in the university. Under such circumprominent part in the Peace Congresses of Brussels, stances, many are induced to direct their views to Paris, Frankfort, London, and Edinburgh; and is an the church, and very painful instances have been eloquent advocate of an ocean penny-postage. He mentioned to us
He mentioned to us of their occupations and condition has edited many journals promoting peace-views; in after-life.' The opinion is gaining ground, that and his tracts have been translated into all the lan- what is wanted in Scotland is not so much provision guages of Europe.
for encouraging learning in its earlier stages, as adeBU'RSARY (Fr. bourse, Lat. bursa, a purse), a
quate inducements to persons who have passed the stipend paid to a student at a university, being lives; and that donors to the universities would do
preliminary stages to make it the business of their generally the annual proceeds of a bequest, perma- much more for the advancement of education by the nently invested for that purpose. The bursaries of foundation of fellowships than of bursaries. the Scottish universities correspond very nearly to the scholarships (q. v.) of the English. They are
BU'RSLEM, a town of Staffordshire, on the Trent more numerous in Aberdeen than in any of the and Mersey Canal, in the centre of the pottery disother universities; and, what seems strange, consid-trict, 20 miles north of Stafford. Part of the town ering the antiquity and dignity of the foundation, stands on a height, and part on low ground, filled up they are least numerous at St. Andrews, and smallest and raised considerably by the refuse of the local
At King's College, Aberdeen, there manufacture. The footpaths are mostly paved with were, at the date of the report of the University blue bricks. It forms a portion of the parliamenCommission of 1831, 134 bursaries, being one to tary borough of Stoke-upon-Trent. Pop. 19,725. every third student; and at Marischal College, The abundance of coal and the variety of clavs, there were 106, being more than one to every third both of which are essential to the manufacture of student, taking the divinity students who attend porcelain and earthenware-especially for the proboth colleges as included in the number attending duction of saggars, in which those goods are passed King's College. The amount of these provisions is, through the kilns—have made B., since the 17th c., in general, very small. At King's College, none
one of the chief seats of the fictile manufacture. exceed £50 a year, and the highest at Marischal The native clays are also used in making fine College is £26, whilst in both there are several articles of terra cotta, and coarse ones for kitchen which do not exceed £5, and, at Marischal, eight utensils, of a red, yellow, and brown colour. which are under £5. At Glasgow, at the same date, is also a glass manufactory here. The affairs of the there were 71 bursaries, exclusive of ten exhibitions town are managed by a ‘local Board of Health,' At to Balliol College, Oxford, on the Snell Foundation Birche's Head, a mile and a half from B., stands a (q. v.), and four smaller ones to the same college on large service reservoir of the Staffordshire Waterthat of Bishop Warner. The ordinary bursaries at works Company, from which the town and neighGlasgow range from £50 to £5. At St. Andrews, bourhood are supplied with excellent water. there are 55 bursaries, the highest being £25, and the native place of Josialı Wedgwood, who in the the lowest £5. At Edinburgh, though not numerous middle of the 18th c. greatly improved the manufacin proportion to the attendance-only 80 in all—the ture of pottery. bursaries are somewhat better; three of them being BURTON, Joux IIill, advocate (member of the worth £100 a year each. Many of these bursaries Scottish Bar), has achieved for himself a place in the were destined for the education of persons bearing world of letters by a variety of works, all remarkparticular names, and, till the report of the Com- able for ability, and several for original thought. mission of 1831, few of them were disposed of by B. was born at Aberdeen on the 22d of August competition. Since that period, this system has 1809; his father was an officer in the army, and been adopted in almost every case in which it is his mother the daughter of an Aberdeenshire laird. not expressly excluded by the conditions of the Having graduated at Marischal College, Aberdeen, bequest.
he became an apprentice to the profession of law As very extensive changes, both in the number in his native city; which, however, he afterwards and mode of disposal of these endowments, are likely abandoned for the higher sphere of the Edinburgh to result from the labours of the existing University bar. Here, with time on his hands, he devoted Commission (1860), it is needless to dwell on the himself to study and letters. For a long series details of the present arrangements with regard to of years, from 1833 downwards, he was a conthem. But the opinions expressed on the subject tributor to the Westminster Review of articles on
BURTON-BURY ST. EDMONDS.
law, history, and political economy; and for sev- , Canal passes B, and, a mile below the town, enters eral years he has contributed to Blackwood's Maga- the Trent, which flows into the Humber. The zine literary sketches, among which may be men- Trent here is crossed by a freestone bridge of 36 tioned the series entitled The Scot Abroad. arches, and 1545 feet long, built before the Norman Among his original works may be mentioned, The Conquest. In the 11th C., the Earl of Mercia Life and Correspondence of David Hume, 2 vols. founded an extensive abbey here, some of the ab8ro (Edin. 1846); Lives of Simon Lord Lovat and bots having seats in parliament. B. was once celeDuncan Forbes of Culloden, 8vo (Lond. 18+7), both brated for its alabaster works, and is now noted for excellent biographies; Political and Social Economy, its ale. Bass, Allsopp, Worthington, and several 16mo (Edin. 1849), a work in which he has shewn other large brewers of bitter ale have their premises high capacity for economical and social speculation, here. In the manufacture of this ale, hard-water and which is indeed a valuable, condensed, and instead of soft is used. lucid contribution to the literature of social science;
BU'RTSCHEID, or BORCE'TTE, a town of Narratives from Criminal Trials in Scotland; A Rhenish Prussia, about half a mile distant from Manual of Scottish Law; A Treatise on the Law | Aix-la-Chapelle, with which it is connected by an (Scottish) of Bankruptcy; and a History of Scotland avenue of trees. It has manufactures of woollen from the Revolution to the Extinction of the Last cloths and cassimeres, and celebrated sulphur springs Jacobite Insurrection, 2 vols. 850 (Lond. 1853), and baths, with a temperature of 106 to 155° F. He published in 1867 his great History of Scotland, Pop. 6000. from Agricola's invasion to the Revolution of 1688. The high merits of his History already published
BU'RWHA, or, as Dr. Barth spells it, BA'RUWA, have been universally admitted. Besides the numer
à town of Bornu, Central Africa, situated on the ous works already mentioned, B. has among his west bank of Lake Tsad, about 80 miles north
north-west of Kuka. labours edited the works of Jeremy Bentham (nomi
The town, which consists nally in conjunction with Dr., now Sir John, Bow- of closely packed huts, is surrounded by high clayring), with an able introduction ; in addition to this, walls, which, however, owing to the high mounds he has the merit of having conferred a benefit at
of rubbish imbedding them on all sides,' afford no once on the public and the memory of his author by protection whatever from the attacks of the Taa volume of Benthamiana, being a collection of warek, to whom the inhabitants have to pay tribute. choice and leading passages from Bentham's works, Fish in great quantities are caught in the adillustrative of his style and explanatory of his doc- joining lake, and form the chief food of the intrines, accompanied by a memoir (prefixed), and view habitants, as well as their only article of commerce. of Bentham's system (appended). In 1854 he was Pop. about 6000. appointed Secretary of the Prison Board of Scotland, BU'RY, a flourishing manufacturing town in the and on the abolition of that board in 1860, and the south-east of Lancashire, on a rising ground backed transfer of its functions to the Home Secretary, he by hills on the north and east, between the Irwell became the latter officer.
and the Roche, 9 miles north-west of Manchester,
It was early a seat of the woollen manufactures, BURTON, Robert, author of the Anatomy of carried on by Flemings, but these now yield in Melancholy, was born at Lindley, in Leicester- importance to those of cotton. Besides spinning shire, in 1376, and studied at Brasenose and Christ and weaving factories, there are important print, Church, Oxford. In 1616, he was appointed to the bleach, paper, and dye works, and some large vicarage of St. Thomas, and in 1628 to the rectory foundries. In the vicinity, are excellent freestone of Segrave in his native county. He appears, quarries, and abundant coal-mines. The town has however, to have continued all his life at Christ been much improved of recent years, and is respectChurch, where he died in 1640), leaving legacies ably provided with educational and literary instiof £100 each to the Bodleian and Christ Church tutions. Pop. 31,262. B. returns one member to libraries, and as many of bis books as they did parliament. There once stood a castle here, which not already possess.
was besieged by the parliamentary forces in 1614. his memory in Christ Church Cathedral.
B. is Some improvements in the cotton manufacture described by Anthony Wood as a good mathema- | arose here-viz., the invention by John Kay of the tician, a dabbler in nativities, a well-read scholar, fly-shuttle, which is thrown by the picking-peg and a thorough-paced philologist. “As he was by instead of the hand; and that of the drop-box, by many accounted a severe student, and a melancholy his son, Robert, whereby the weaver can use at will and humorous person, so by others who knew him
any one of thrce shuttles, so as to produce a partywell, a person of great honesty, plain-dealing, and coloured fabric. The late Sir Robert Peel was born charity. I have heard some of the ancients of in B., where his father established his great printChrist Church often say that his company was very works. merry, facete, and juvenile.' His · Anatomy of Melancholy, in which he appears under the title BURY, an ancient borough in Suffolkshire, on
BURY ST. EDMUNDS, or ST. EDMUNDSof Democritus Junior, is one of the most curious the Upper Larke, 26 miles north-west of Ipswich. melanges of heterogeneous elements
Pop. together. It consists mainly of an extraordinars It is well built, and delightfully situated. mass of quotations from old and obscure writers, The guildhall is built of fint' and freestone. It
It returns two members to parliament. tiresomely pedantic, but relieved by quaint touches has a botanic garden. It has a trade in wool, of humour and feeling. In his own lifetime, it was
butter, corn, and cheese, but no manufactures. It highly popular, and went through five, editions; and martyr, who was crowned here on Christmas
received its name from Edmund, the Saxon king after that, it fell into comparative oblivion, but is now again popular among lovers of quaint literature. Day, 856; taken prisoner, and put to death by the Dr. Johnson said it was the only
On the site of Danes, and soon after canonised.
only book that ever took him out of bed two hours before his usual here Canute raised a Benedictine abbey—505 feet
his tomb, six priests founded a monastery; and time.
by 212, with 40 chapels, churches, cloisters, &c. BURTON-ON-TRENT, a a town in Staffordshire, which in time became the richest and most impor21 miles east of Stafford, on the Trent. Pop. tant in England, save that of Glastonbury. From
The Grand Trunk or Trent and Mersey '1020 to its dissolution by Henry VIII., it was ruled
A monument was erected to