« PrécédentContinuer »
edited with notes by W. Ilepworth Thomson (Cam- , the Scythians, Thracians, and Phrygians, whilst bridge, 1856, 2 vols.). These lectures are remarka- the Romans obtained it from Germany. In Southble for their great learning, eloquence, and depth of ern Europe, at the present time, B is very sparingly judgment. Besides his lectures, there have appeared, / used; and in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Southern Sermons, with a memoir by the Rev. Thomas Wood- France, it is sold by apothecaries as a medicinal ward (Dublin, 1849); Letters on the Development of agent for external application. The amount of B, in Christian Doctrine (Dublin, 1850); Letters on Roman- cows' milk (q. v.) is about 4 per cent., though the ism, (Lond. 1850).
kind of pasture, quantity of nilk, and general conBU'TLERAGE OF WINE, as described by Black- dition, influence the relative quantity of the several stone and Stephen, is a very ancient hereditary duty ingredients of milk. In the extraction of B. the belonging to the crown, and is otherwise called the mik is allowed to cool, and the cream which rises to prisage of wines. This duty is taken notice of in the the surface is skinmed off, and put into a large, Great Roll of the Exchequer, 8 Richard one, still ex. deep, earthenware vessel, where it lies for several tant. Under the right to levy it, the crown could days till enough has been collected for a churning. take two tuns of wine from every ship (English or
Any difference in the exact mode of treatment of the foreign)importing into England twenty tuns or more, milk yields a B. with some peculiarity or other. one before, and one behind the mast; which, bý Thus the B. and cream of Devonshire, which are charter of Edward I was exchanged into a duty of famed for their superior richness, owe this in greater two shillings for every tun imported by merchant
part to the mode of manipulating the milk, and not strangers, and called butlerage, because paid to the to the special character of that fluid, or to the king's butler.
richness of the pastures in those districts. The BU'TOMUS, a genus of aquatic plants, of which
milk in Devonshire is not allowed to cool slowly, as
elsewhere, but is at once placed in large deep one species, B. umbellatus, is frequent in ditches and ponds in England, Ireland, and many parts of
pans, and carefully heated. A scum quickly rises, Europe, but is very rare in Scotland. It is popularly
which is pushed to the side ; and whenever the called Flowering Rush, and is one of the plants to
bubbles of steam appear, the milk is removed, and
allowed to cool in the ordinary way, wlien a good deal which the praise has been assigned of being the
of the milk thickens to the consistence of B., and is skimmed off as the celebrated Devonshire clouted cream. In England, the B. of Epping and Cambridge is highly esteemed, and in every part of Great Britain, the Dutch B., in a salted form, is very largely consumed; indeed, three-fourths of all the foreign B. consumed in Great Britain is imported from Holland.
In order to separate the B. from milk, recourse is always had to the process of agita. tion in CHURNS (q. V.). The principle involved in each and all of the forms of this apparatus is the thorough agitation of the contents, so as to cause the rupture of the minute fat globules present in the milk, and the incorporation or kneading of these ruptured fat globules into larger or smaller masses of butter. The cream is strained through cloth into the churn, to remove any foreign matter; and the agitators being set in motion, the friction of the movement, combined with the admission of air, and the chemical changes it induces, raises the temperature of the whole contents. At one time, it was thought that one great object of the agitation was the admission of the oxygen of the air, which becoming thoroughly incorporated with constituents of the milk, combined therewith, and, as a consequence, led to the separation of the butter. It is found, lowever, that B. can be obtained from milk by mere agitation,
without the admission of the oxygen of the air. Butomus umbellatus.
At the same time, in the ordinary way of churning,
oxygen does play a subordinate part by combining most beautiful in the British flora. The leaves are with the sugar of the milk, and forming lactic acid, all radical, 2—3 feet long, linear, triangular, their which in its turn sours the milk, and separates sharp edges sometimes cutting the mouths of cattle, therefrom the caseine (a. .)-cheese-matter-in whence the generic name (Gr. Ox-cutting). The minute clots or flakes. vielding what is commonly scape, or flowering stem, is longer than the leaves, Selled sour or buttog mill. The process of chu terminating in a large umbel of rose-coloured flowers, i must be conducted at a medium rate. If too quickly readily distinguished from those of all other British performed. the B. is soft and frothy, and is said plants by having nine stamens, six in an outer, and to be burst; whilst when too slowly made, it is three in an inner row.
highly tenacious, strong tasted, and badly flavoured. BUÄTTER (Ger. butter ; Fr. beurre ; Lat butyrum) When all the B. has come, which is known by the is the fatty substance present in the milk of the particles agglutinating into irregular masses, the B. mammalia, and capable of being extracted from it. is made by takirg the lumps, and well washing and In ancient times, the Hebrews seem to have made kneading them on a wooden board in a tub of pure copious use of butter as food; but the Greeks spring-water till all the butter-milk has been and the Romans used it only as an ointment in expressed; it is then divided into the requisite their baths, and it is probable that the Greeks size of lumps, fashioned into rolls, or moulded into obtained their knowledge of the substance from forms, and usually stamped with some device. In BUTTER-BUTTERFLY.
the making up of the B., the hands of the operator 1 BUTTER, Rock, a mineral which may be regarded must be scrupulously clean, and be free from the as a variety of Alum (q. 1.)-an iron alum, appearing slightest taint of soap. Persons who are subject as a pastry exudation from rocks that contain alum to moist hands should never knead B., as it is or its constituents, particularly alum-slate and other very liable to be contaminated by the slightest for- schistose rocks. It occurs at Hurlet alum-work, near eign matter, especially animal secretions, and it is Paisley, Scotland, and in a number of places on the better always for the operator to wash the hands continent of Europe. It is not unlike butter in colwith water containing some oatmeal before com- our', varying from yellowish white to sulphur yellow. mencing. So important is this source of contam- | It is rather greasy to the touch, and is easily broken ination regarded in America, that every endeavour | in pieces. is made to get quit of manual labour in working the BUTTER TREE. a name given to several tropical B., and a wooden butter-worker has been invented, trees, of different natural orders, the fruits of which and is largely used there. When newly prepared, vield concrete fixed oils, baying the appearance and the B. is called fresh or sweet B., and is of a yellow used for the purposes of butter. The B. trees of colour, which is well known to be deeper as the pas- India and Africa belong to the genus Bassia (q. v.). ture on which the cows have been fed is richer, and
of the natural order Sapotacece ; the B. trees of Guihence the poorer kinds of B. are often artificially ana and Brazil to the genus Caryocar (q. v.), of the coloured with a little arnotto (q. v.), and rarely with natural order Rhizobolacea. The Oil-palms (q. v.), the juice of carrots.
and the Cocos butyracece (see Cocoa Nut), may also A large quantity of the B. sent into market has be regarded as B. trees, although not generally remore or less common salt added, for the purpose of iceiving that name. preserving it. For use within a week or two, the
BU'TTERCUP. See RANUNCULUS. proportion of common salt employed is about half
BUTTERFISH. See GUNNEL. an ounce to two pounds of B., though, where it has to be kept for some time, as much as one ounce of BUTTERFLY, the common English name of all salt to one pound of B. is used. The incorporation the diurnal Lepidopterous (q. v.) insects, correspondrequires to be carefully and dexterously done, so ing with the genus Papilio, as originally defined by that the resulting material may be uniform; and the Linnæus, but forming niany genera in the most better plan is to add only a portion of the salt at a recent entomological systems. Butterflies exhibit time, and to knead and re-knead the B. till the a great similarity in almost all respects to other whole is thoroughly mixed. When the less amount (lepidopterus insects, the common characters of of salt has been employed, the result is powdered B., which will be found in the article on that order; and the larger quantity yields salt butter. Much of but are distinguished even more than the rest of the latter is closely packed in small wooden firkins or them generally, by brilliancy of colouring, which in kits, and occasionally in stoneware, and sent into butterflies also belongs to the under as well as the market. Great care must be taken to have these upper side of the wings, whilst the beauty of moths kits, and indeed to have every vessel used in the and hawk-moths appears chiefly on the upper side. preparation, as clean or sweet as possible. Constant Accordant with this circumstance, is the further rinsings with cold water, and scaldings with boiling peculiarity, that almost all butterflies, when at rest, water, are resorted to. Attention must likewise be usually bold their wings erect, the under side being paid to the atmosphere of the apartments in which thus chiefly exhibited; whilst the other lepidopthe milk is first placed, and in which the subsequent tervus insects, when at rest, hold their wings in a operations go on, as a tainted atmosphere always horizontal or somewhat inclined position, and some tends to injure the quality of the marketable com- have them wrapped round the body. Butterflies modity.
are also the only lepidopterous insects which have The adulterations liable to be present in B. are no spines, bristles, or hooks on the margins of their an undue proportion of salt and water, and these wings, by which the second wing on each side can run up occasionally to upwards of 33 per cent., or be attached to the first, but both when flying and one-third of the total weight. Another adulteration is the presence of lactate of zinc, derived from the milk being placed in zinc pails and basins, from the impression that by some imaginary electrical influence an increase in the amount of cream will be the result; but though this is not attained, yet the milk tending to form lactic acid, the latter attacks the zinc vessel, and forms lactate of zinc, whiclı dissolves in the milk, and thereby contaminates it, imparting an unpleasant taste, and, when present in larger quantity, leading to violent spasmodic vomiting. When B. is allowed to get old, it becomes rancid, and tastes and smells disagreeably. To some extent, an acid is formed, called Butyric Acid (g. v.). The use of B. in diet will be considered under Food and NUTRITION.
BUTTER, in Chemistry, is often applied generically / Various forms of Scales (highly magnified) from the to any substance of the consistence of B., and is
Wings of Butterflies. therefore used to designate palm, cocoanut, shea, and nutmeg oils. It is also applied to certain metallic at rest, have all their wings quite separate. The substances which have an oily aspect and consistence manner in which the scales of the wings are imbriresembling melted B. ; thus we have B. of antimony, cated, gives those of butterflies a smoother appearbismuth, zinc, and tin.-_BUTTER of antimony is a ance than those of moths and hawk-moths. The thick, dense, oily compound, produced by acting antennæ of butterflies are generally simple, slender, upon the native sulphuret of antimony (SHS;) by and elongated, and terminated by a little club. concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCI) and heat, Their caterpillars have always sixteen feet (see when the oily chloride of antimony (SbCl,) is formed. CATERPILLAR). The pupa or chrysalis is angular; See ANTIMONY.
I is seldom enveloped in a cocoon; is generally
suspended by the tail, by means of a silky substance, , species produce several broods in a year, as the often to a leaf or twig, but is sometimes supported eggs in summer may be hatched in a few days. The by bands around the middle; and generally exhibits more or less of that golden colouring from which both the names aurelia (Lat. aurum) and chrysalis (Gr. chrysos) are derived.
Butterflies are found in all parts of the world; they are to be seen during the sunshine of the brief summer extracting nectar from the flowers even of Greenland and Spitzbergen, but they are most numerous in the warmest regions; where, however, many of them live chiefly in the shade of moist foliage, in woods and jungles. Dr. Hooker, describing the scenery on the banks of the Great Runjeet in the Sikkim Himalaya, says that 'by far the most striking feature consisted in the amazing quantity of superb butterflies, large tropical swallow-tails, black, with scarlet or yellow eyes on their wings. They were seen everywhere, sailing majestically through the still hot hair, or fluttering from one
Eggs of Butterflies, highly magnified. scorching rock to another, and especially loving to 1. Egg of Queen of Spain Fritillary (Argynnis Lathonia): settle on the damp sand of the river edge, where 2. Egg of Peacock Butterfly (Vanessa 10); 3. Larva ot they sat by thousands, with erect wings, balancing Large Garden White Butterfly (Pieris Brassica), in the themselves with a rocking motion, as their heavy
act of bursting from the egg ; 4. Egg of same insect, ready
to hatch, shewing the head and curved body of enclosed sails inclined them to one side or the other, resem
caterpillar through the transparent envelope.--For these bling a crowded fleet of yachts on a calm day.'
illustrations we are indebted to Westwood's excellent Butterflies possess no small power of wing; some
treatise on British Butterflies. of them, indeed, of which the wings are comparatively thin and delicate, are inferior in this respect,
caterpillars of each species are generally confined to and have a sort of zigzag flight: but others soar in some particular kind of plant, the leaves of which the air with a steady and continuous motion. Short
ta they devour; their ravages are well known, but lived as they are all generally believed to be, some
the excessive increase of their numbers is in part of the tropical species perform wonderful migra
restrained by many enemies, and by none more than tions; concerning which, however, nothing but the
he by the ichneumons (q. v.) and other insects which fact is yet well known. •Frequently,' says Sir
deposit their eggs in them, and the larvæ of which James Emerson Tennent in his work on Ceylon, the
the feed on them. The annexed cut represents a comextraordinary sight presents itself of flights of these
mon species of B., with its larva and pupa; an delicate creatures, generally of a white or pale yel
account of B. transformations will be given under low hue, apparently miles in breadth, and of such
INSECT TRANSFORMATIONS. prodigious extension as to occupy hours and even days uninterruptedly in their passage, whence coming no one knows, whither going no one can tell.'
The number of species of B. is very great, and the arrangement of them has been found difficult, chiefly upon account of the great similarity in all important respects which prevails among them all. They are divided, however, into two well-marked sections, of which the first is characterised by having only a single pair of spurs or spines on the tibiæ (or fourth joints of the legs), placed at their lower extremity ; whilst in the other section, the tibiæ of the hinder legs have two pair of spurs, one pair at each extremity. This distinction, seemingly unimportant in itself, is accompanied by other differences. The second section of butterflies may be regarded as forming a sort of connecting link between butterflies and hawk-moths. A few British species belong to it, but the species are generally tropical, and some of them, found in tropical Amer. Large Garden White Butterfly (Pieris Brassica), ica, are remarkable for their rapidity and power of
reduced : flight, and for the migrations which they perform, a, caterpillar; b, chrysalis ; c, perfect insect. besides being amongst the most splendid insects in creation,' a resplendent green, inimitable by art, re- Butterflies rary in size from less than an inch lieving the velvet black of their wings, and varying to almost a foot across the expanded wings. The with every change of light. The beautiful iridescence largest species are tropical. Some of the species of the wings of these and many other butterflies is are very widely distributed: Cynthia cardui, of owing to the peculiar position of the scales.
which the caterpillar feeds on the leaves of thistles, Some groups of butterflies are remarkable for the is found not only throughout Europe, but in Egypt, imperfect development of the first pair of legs, so Barbary, Senegal, Cape Colony, Madagascar, China, that they are generally described as having four legs Java, Australia, Brazil, and North America, being, instead of six.
in fact, one of the most widely distributed of all The eggs of butterflies are deposited on the plants, insects. The geographical limits of other species the leaves of which are to supply the food of the appear to be very restricted. The diversity of caterpillars. In cold and temperate climates, the colouring is almost endless, but a prevalence of eggs deposited in autumn are not hatched till the certain hues, or of certain modes of the disposal of following spring; but it is believed that many them, is observed throughout large groups. The