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caterpillars of many species are variously furnished | vulgaris) is abundant in the northern parts of with spines, those of others-none of them British- Britain and of Europe. It has the power of coaguhave long fleshy prominences, horny at the tip, lating milk. The Laplanders pour reindeer milk, probably intended as means of defence. The hinder wings of many butterflies are curiously prolonged into tail-like appendages, one or more on each wing, which vary in form, being sometimes long and linear, sometimes broad and widening towards the extremity. These are, however, little seen in British species.
Butterflies are chiefly known to us as objects of admiration and of pleasing contemplation, enhancing the charms of the most delightful weather, and always associated with the most lovely scenes, or it must be added as a cause of annoyance and vexation by the ravages of their caterpillar young in our fields and gardens. There is, however, one small species (Euplaa humata) which affords a supply of food to some of the wretched aborigines of Australia. Butterflies of this species congregate in such vast numbers on the masses of granite in the mountains, that they are collected by simply making smothered fires under the rocks, in the smoke of which they are suffocated. Bushels of them are thus procured, and they are baked by placing them on the heated ground, the down and wings removed, and the bodies made into cakes which resemble lumps of fat. The months of November, December, and January are quite a season of festivity from the abundance of this food.
Brief notices of a few of the principal kinds of B. will be found in other parts of this work.
Butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris): See CABBAGE BUTTERFLY, CAMBERWELL BEAUTY,
a, the entire plant; b, a flower. PURPLE EMPEROR, &c. BUTTERFLY FISH. See BLENNY.
warm from the animal, upon the leaves of this plant, BUTTERFLY WEED, or PLEURISY ROOT instantly strain it, and set it aside for two or three (Asclepias tuberosa, see ASCLEPIAS), a plant found
days, till it acquires the consistence of cream, and in all parts of the United States, and which has
some degree of acidity, when it is with them a faobtained a considerable reputation for the medicinal vourite article of food. A little of it in this state virtues of its root. The root is large, formed of will produce the same effect on warm reindeer milk irregular tubers or spindle-shaped branches, exter- which was at first produced by the leaves of the nally vellowish brown, internally white, with a plant. The origin of the English name B. is somesomewhat acrid nauseous taste when recent, merely | times referred to the power of coagulating milk, bitter when dried. It vields its properties tó boiling sometimes to the peculiar sliminess of the leaves. water, and is usually administered in the form of BUTTISHOLZ, a village of Switzerland, in the a decoction, sometimes in that of a powder. It is canton of Lucerne, and 11 miles north-west from the diaphoretic and expectorant, and has been found city of that name. Near to B. is a large mound useful in the commencement of pulmonary affections, called the English Barrow, because here are buried in rheumatism, and in dysentery.—The stem of the 3000 Englishinen, followers of De Coucy, son-in-law plant is erect and hairy, with spreading branches; of Edward III. of England, who, while devastating the leaves oblongo-lanceolate, alternate, hairy, and the cantons, were defeated and killed by Swiss somewhat crowded; the flowers orange-yellow, form- peasants in 1376. ing numerous umbels.
BUTTMANN, Philipp Karl, one of the most BUTTERMILK is the form of milk from which distinguished philologists of modern times, was the butter or oily matter has been abstracted. born at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1764, and studied See BUTTER. Buttermilk contains the caseine, sugar, at Göttingen under Heyne. He became, in 1789, and salts of ordinary milk, and is only deficient in assistant in the Royal Library in Berlin, and rose oily matters. It is therefore nutritious, and is successively to be secretary and librarian (1811). largely used in Ireland and Scotland as an article He held at the same time (1800–1808) a professorof food, being very generally partaken of with por-ship in the Joachimsthal Gymnasium in Berlin, ridge and with potatoes. It may be drank ad libitum, which he afterwards exchanged for a professorship is a very agreeable cooling beverage, and is in the newly founded university of that city. He
grammars, the Griech. Grammatik (Berl. 1792 ; 18th BUTTERWORT (Pinguicula), a genus of plants ed. by his son Alexander Buttmann, 1849), and an of the natural order Lentibulariacece (g. v.), dis- abridgment of it, Griech. Schulgram. (11th ed. 1843); tinguished by a two-lipped calyx, the upper lip both have been translated into English. His trifid, the lower bifid; "a spurred corolla, two- Lexilogus (translated by Fishlake) and Ausführliche lipped and gaping, the upper lip arched; and Griech. Sprachlehre, or Larger Greek Grammar, a globose germen. The species are small plants which have gone through several editions, are dewith only radical leaves, found in the bogs and signed for scholars. In his Mythologus, he has col.. marshes of different quarters of the world. Some lected his essays on the myths of the ancients. of them possess much beauty when in flower, par- BUTTON. The term B. is applied to the wellticularly P. grandiflora, a rare native of the south known appendages to dress used for fastening or of France and of Ireland. The common B. (P. | for ornament; and to a sort of oblong latch moving
upon a pivot in the middle, that is applied by car- is shaped like a hollow cone, with its base just large penters and cabinet-makers for fastening the lids of enough to enter the cavity; and after insertion, a boxes, doors of presses, &c. The mass of fused blow spreads it out, so as to fill up the inner and metal found at the bottom of a crucible or cupel, larger part of the cavity, and thus it is dove-tailed in. after fusing or assaying, is also technically called a Buttons with holes, technically called 'four-holes,' button.
“three-holes,' and 'two-holes,' when of pearl-shell, Buttons used for dress are of four kinds—shank wood, bone, or ivory, are cut with the tubular saw buttons, hole buttons, covered buttons, and wire as above, turned separately in a lathe, and drilled. buttons. The chief seat of manufacture is Birning: | When of metal, the blanks are punched, then ham, though recently a very keen competition has stamped in dies to the required form; the holes are been established in France and Germany, especially punched, and again stamped, to round the sharp in fancy buttons. Shank buttons are for the most edges that would otherwise cut the thread. part of brass, which is supplied to the maker in The semi-paper B. is an important improvement sheets rolled to the thickness he requires. Circular recently made upon the metal four-hole. A very
of fly-presses and punches. The fly-press consists up; into this is laid a blank of thick brown paper of a vertical iron screw with a triple thread, to or rather thin mill-board; another stamping squeezes which screw is attached a horizontal arm, bending the raised edge round the paper, and clasps it tightly, downwards at the end to form a handle, by thus incorporating together the metal and paper. swinging which the screw is made to descend The holes are then punched, and again pressed, so rapidly and firmly, carrying the punch with it. that the metal edges may be well rounded and The presses are worked by women and girls, who sunk into the paper. After being japanned, these hold the sheet metal in the left hand, and push it buttons appear as if of solid metal ; but they are under the punch while the screw, which is worked superior on account of their lightness, and the by the right hand, is ascending. More coniplex absence of any edges to the holes that can cut the machines are also used, by means or which a row of thread. 8 or 10 blanks are cut at once, the machine itself Wire buttons are simply rings of wire covered by pushing the metal forward; but hand-punching is machinery with threads radiating from the centre, still the method most extensively adopted in Bir- and embracing the wire-ring. These are almost enmingham. The edges are next trimmed, to remove tirely superseded by linen-covered buttons. the burr, and the blank is planished by stamping with Covered buttons were formerly made by sewing a plain die, and the name of the maker embossed in cloth upon "bone-moulds '-i. e., flat bone discs with like manner. The shanks are made by a machine a hole in the middle. These have been quite superwhich is fed with a coil of wire, which it pushes in ceded by the various modifications of the flexible short lengths to a pair of shears; these, when cut shank,'' fiorentine,' and other buttons, the subjects off, are, by another part of the machine, forced into of a multitude of patents. The details of these are a kind of vice, which bends them to the required somewhat complex, but the general principles of loop shape; the ends are then struck out flat with construction are nearly the same in all. A metal a hammer, and the complete shank is pushed out blank is punched, and its edge is turned up by a of the machine. These shanks are soldered to the die in a fly-press; then another blank is punched blanks, and the buttons are finished in the lathe. with a hole in the middle, and of such size, They are then lackered or gilded. See Gilding and that, when flat, it shall fit into the upturned LACKERING.— Shell' buttons are those with a convex edge of the first : this perforated blank, or collet, face, a flat or convex back, and hollow. These are is next pressed into a concave or dished shape. made of two blanks, that forming the face being Two cloth blanks are now punched, one consilarger than the back to which the shank is attached. derably larger than the metal blank, the other These blanks are pressed into the required shape by somewhat smaller; the larger cloth blank is laid dies worked in the fly-press, and then, by another upon the flat face of the metal blank, and its edges die, the edge of the larger blank is lapped over turned over; these edges are covered by the smaller the smaller, and thus attached without soldering. cloth, and then the collet laid upon them with its Livery and other buttons having a device in strong concavity towards the cloth. They are now all relief are stamped by a die attached to a heavy pressed together in a sort of die or mould, by which weight or monkey.' This monkey is suspended by means the collet is flattened and spread out, while a rope working over a pulley, and terninating in the upturned edge of the metal blank is turned a stirrup into which the workman places his foot, forcibly over it, thus securing the collet, and with and thereby lifts the weight and die; then raising his it the cloth which is strained tightly on the face, and foot, suddenly lets it fall upon the B., which rests in its edges bound between the blank and the collet, another die fixed in the bench below. The monkey so that the whole is firmly held together. This and die are guided in their descent by working in a process is variously modified according to the kind groove between two upright posts. While the die is of button. The linen B. before referred to is formed ascending, the workman holding the blank next to simply of the blank and collet, both being perforated be stamped under his thumb, pushes it to its place, in the middle, and the linen stretched over them, at the same time pushing out the one that has been forming the flat B. used for underclothing. This stamped. This is done very rapidly; and the con- has recently been improved by leaving a bar of sequence of a moment's inattention is a crushed metal across the central hole of the blank, over thumb-by no means an uncommon accident.-which bar the thread is passed in sewing on the Common white metal-buttons are cast in moulds, in button. The flexible shank buttons have a padding which the shanks are previously plaeed, and are of paper and cloth between the blank and collet; thereby attached without soldering. When the and this padding, covered with the smaller cloth body of the B. is of pearl-shell, bone, or wood, the or silk blank, is made by the pressure to project blanks are cut out by means of a tubular saw--i. e., through the hole of the collet, and form the à tube toothed at one end; this is made to revolve shank. in a lathe, and the shell is pressed against it. The Many four and two hole buttons are now made shanks are fixed by cutting a cavity half way of plastic materials, which are pressed in moulds to through the blank; this is undercut, so that it is the shape required. Horn buttons are made by enlarged as it deepens. The stem of the shank / pressure, the horn having been softened by heat.
Very elaborate and elegant patterns in relief are at According to the census of 1851, only 11 males
Wales was 2988 males and 3950 females; total,
T BU'TTONWOOD. See PLANE.
BU'TTRESS (Old Eng. botress ; Fr. buttée), a | the Early English, though they existed on the con-
BU'TUA ROOT. See CISSAMPELOS.
rancid odour. It is mixable in all proportions in of gritstone, called the Crescent, a curve of 200 water, alcohoi, ether, and oil of vitriol; has the feet, with wings of 58 feet. It includes two hotels, specific gravity 973 (water being 1000), boils at a library, assembly rooms, &c. Near B. is the. 314°; though it volatilises at ordinary temperatures, Diamond Hill, famous for its crystals; and Poole's as appears from the rancid odour of its vapour. Its Hole, a stalactitic cavern 560 yards long. The chemical symbol is HO,C8H703, and it combines Romans had baths here. Mary Queen of Scots with bases, such as lime, soda, &c., to form salts. I resided for some time at B., when in the custody of
BUTYRIC ETHER, or PINE-APPLE OIL, is the Earl of Shrewsbury. B. is approached by railway an exceedingly fragrant oil obtained by distilling both from north and south; and the baths, which butyric acid (or the butyrate of lime), alcohol, and have been recently rebuilt, are considered among sulphuric acid. The material which passes over is the finest in Europe. The town in 1851 had a poputhe B. E., and it is generally mixed with alcohol, flation of 1235, which increased to 4142 in 1861, and and sold in commerce as Artificial Pine-apple Oil. 6229 in 1871. . It possesses the same very pleasant flavour which' BUXTON, Sir Thomas FOWELL, a man of singu. belongs to pine-apples, and there is little doubt lar earnestness and force of character, belonging to that pine-apples owe their flavour to the presence the class termed philanthropists,' was born in 1786 of natural butyric ether. The artificial variety at Earl's Colne, Essex. The eldest son of a wealthy is now extensively used for flavouring confec- family, and early deprived of paternal guidance, his tions, as pine-apple drops, for sophisticating bad youth was distinguished chiefly by a strong developrum, and for flavouring custards, ices, and creams, ment of animal energy, natural enough to a young as also an acidulated drink or lemonade named Englishman whose full stature exceeded 6 feet 4 Pine-apple Ale. B. E. alone cannot be used in per- inches. At the university of Dublin, his mind at fumery for handkerchief use, as, when inhaled in length asserted its claims, and the new consciousness even a small quantity, it tends to cause irritation of of needing to raise the family fortunes animated the air-tubes of the lungs and intense headache, but him to extraordinary efforts. His preparatory eduit is often employed in the manufacture of perfumes. cation had been almost thrown away, but at By the old system it was composed of ordinary | 21 he left the university its most distinguished ether (C4H50) and butyric acid (C8H703 +HO), graduate. In that year he married a sister of the and its strict chemical name and symbol is the celebrated Mrs. Fry, and entered business as a butyrate of the oxide of ethyl (C4H50, C8H1,03). / brewer, with an energy which in due time was It is remarkable that a substance possessing such a crowned with splendid prosperity. His warm redisagreeable odour 'as butyric acid (that of rancid ligious and moral impulses soon brought him promibutter) should be capable of forming, in part at nently forward as an advocate of philanthropic least, a substance with such a pleasant flavour as interests. Prison discipline forined one of the earliest artificial pine-apple oil.
subjects of his efforts. In 1818, he entered parliaBUXA'R, a town of Shahabad, in the sub-presi- ment as member for Weymouth, which he continued dency of Bengal, sitnated on the right bank of the to represent for about 20 years, taking a promi. Ganges. It is chiefly remarkable as the scene of a nent part in every debate on such questions as the victory gained in 1764 by Sir Hector Munro. At amelioration of criminal law and of prison discipline, the head of 7072 men, of whom only 857 were widow-burning and slave emancipation. The latter, Europeans, he defeated a native army of 40,000, in particular, engrossed a large share of his activity and captured 133 guns. B. is 62 iniles north-east for many years, and no man on that side disof Benares, and 398 north-west of Calcutta. Pop. played more indomitable zeal and firmness in its 3000.
advocacy. In 1837, he was rejected by his constituBUXBAU'MIA, a genus of Mosses, of which only ency, and refused ever after to stand for a borough. one species is known, B. aphulla, a very rare British ( His philanthropic labours, however, terminated only plant, remarkable for its apparent want of leaves: | with his life. In 1840, he received the well-merited the whole plant above ground seeming to consist of distinction of a baronetcy. He died on the 19th a little conical bulb, with minute scales, which are, 1 February 1845. however, really its leaves.
BUXTORF, JOHANN, a celebrated orientalist, BU'XTON, a town in Derbyshire, 33 miles north-was born 25th December 1564, at Kamen, in Westwest of Derby. It lies 900 feet above the sea, in phalia ; studied at Marburg, Herborn, Basel and a deep valley, surrounded by hills and moors, which Geneva. After travelling through Germany and have been tastefully planted; the only approach
Switzerland, he settled at Basel, where he became being by a narow ravine, by which the W ye flows professor of Hebrew in 1591. He died of the plague into the Derwent. The new part of the town 13th September 1629. In a knowledge of rabbinical is much under the level of the old. Five miles literature, he surpassed all his contemporaries. The to the east of B. is Chee Tor, a perpendicular two works which prove his extensive acquaintanice limestone rock. rising to a height of between 300 with this recondite branch of theological study, are and 400 feet from the Wye. B. has for 300 years his Biblia, Hebraica. Rabbinica (Basel, 1618-1619), been famous for its calcareous springs, tepid (82°F.), and his Tiberias seu Commentarius Masorethicus and cold (discharging 120 gallons of water per 1 (Basel, 1620). The most useful of his grammatical minute), and its chalybeate springs. It is visited works is the Lexicon Hebraicuin et Chaldaicum annually, from June to October, by 12,000 to 14,000 / (Basel 1607). persons, the waters being taken for indigestion, gout, BUXTORF, JOHANN, the son of the former, was rheumatism, and nervous and cutaneous diseases. | born at Basel, 13th August 1599, and displayed at Nearly 5000 strangers can be accommodated at one an early period a decided predilection for the same time. There is an institution called the Devonshire studies with his father. At five years of age-accordHospital, containing 100 beds, supported by sub- ing to his rather credulous biographers he could scription, where nearly 100 patients are annually read German, Latin, and Hebrew. To perfect his boarded and lodged free of charge. · The baths and knowledge of these tongues, he visited Holland, public walks are numerous. Much of the splendour France, and Germany; and in 1630 was appointed of B. is due to the Dukes of Devonshire, one of to succeed his father in the chair of Hebrew at whom, in the last century, at the cost of £120,000, Basel, where he died 16th August 1664. Besides erected an immense three-storied pile of buildings, I his Lexicon Chaldaicum et Syriacum (Basel, 1622),
and a work of Maimonides, entitled More Nevochim of young, at the proper season, that they have (Basel, 1629), which is an exposition of obscure hatched hens' eggs and brought up the chickens, passages of the Old Testament, he published from although if chickens not of their own hatching were the MSS. of his father a Lexicon Chaldaicum, brought within their reach, they devonred them. Talmudicum, et Rabbinicum (Basel, 1639), and Meat given to the B. nurse was carefully divided Concordantic Bibliorum Hebraicorum (Basel, 1632). among her nurslings, but they found out by their BU'XUS. See Box.
own instincts the use of grain and other vegetable BUYING OF PLEAS by lawyers is prohibited
food. The Rough-LEGGED B. (B. lagopus) is very
similar to the Common B., but is at once disby an old Scotch act passed in 1594. It will be explained under the English term champerty, to
tinguished by having the tarsi feathered to the which it is analogous.
toes, whilst in the Common B. they are covered
with scales. It is a rarer British bird, yet not of BUYUKDEREI, a beautiful suburb of Con- unfrequent occurrence: it is very widely diffused. stantinople, from which it is a few miles distant, being found in the Old World from Lapland to the situated on the Bosporus, in the midst of the most Cape of Good Hope, and equally common in North charming scenery. It forms the suinmer residence America. It is most frequently to be seen in marshy of many of the Christian ambassadors, some of districts, and often skinming over marshes, where it whom have splendid mansions here.
makes prey of frogs.--The RED-TAILED Hawk of BU'ZZARD (Buteo), a genus of Accipitres (q. v.). | North America is a species of B. (Buteo borealis). or birds of prey, of the family Falconide, having a
It is in very bad repute among American farmers rather small and weak bill, which bends from the and housewives for its frequent invasion of poultrybase, and is not notched, as in falcons. The legs are yards; from which it has acquired the name of short and strong, the tarsi covered with scales or Hen-hawk. -Several other species of B. appear with feathers, the toes short, and the claws strong. to be limited to particular parts of the world, as Buzzards may be regarded as an inferior kind of Buteo Jackal-so called from the resemblance of eagles; they do not possess courage equal to that its voice to that of the Jackal-to South Africa, of eagles and falcons, nor equal strength of bill and B. melanosternon to Australia. The Australian or claws. They are large birds; the COMMON B. species has the head, chest, and centre of the belly
deep black. The B. should not be confounded with the American vultures or Turkey Buzzard (Cathartes aura), or black vulture or carrion crow (Cathartes atratus). These are not falcons, to which order the Buzzards (Buteo) properly belong. The Fish Hawk is sometimes called the bald buzzard.
BY'BLOS, an ancient city of Phænicia, now called Jubeil, situated at the base of the lower range of the Libanus, about half-way between Tripoli and Beyrout. B. was famous as the birthplace of Adonis, or Thammuz, in whose honour a splendid temple was erected, which attracted many worshippers. The name given to the town by the Jews was Giblah, and its inhabitants the Giblites are noticed in the Scriptures as stone-squarers and calkers of ships. A wall belonging apparently to the era of the Crusades, surrounds the town, and the remains of a Roman theatre are still visible.—B. was also the name of a town in the Egyptian Delta, celebrated for its manufacture of papyrus from the byblus or papyrus plant.
BY-LAWS are the private regulations which
are usually made by corporate bodies for the control Common Buzzard.
and government of the corporation. They are bind
ing, unless contrary to the laws of the land, or to the (B. vulgaris) measuring almost 4 feet from tip charter, or act of incorporation, or, as it has been to tip of its outstretched wings. It is a bird still decided in England, unless they are manifestly pretty common in Britain, although much less so unreasonable. Blackstone tells us that the right than it formerly was. It is subject to variations of making B. was allowed by the law of the of plumage; the prevailing colour is brown, with Twelve Tables at Rome; and Mr. Stephen, in his a considerable mixture of black on the upper Commentaries, states that in the law of England parts, and of white or grayish-white on the under. such a right is so much of course, as regards every It is sluggish and inactive, in comparison with corporation, that if the charter by which certain many other birds of the same family ; is usually persons are incorporated give to a select body, out slow in its flight, and often sits long on a tree, of their whole number, a power to make B. as watching for prey, which, when it perceives, it to certain specified matters, the body at large is glides silently into the air, and sweeping rapidly nevertheless at liberty to make them with regard down, seizes it in its claws. This B. is plentiful to all matters not specified. Every corporation, in all the wooded parts of Europe ; it is found too, can of course alter or repeal the B. which also in the north of Africa, and is known to exist itself has made. By the Municipal Corporation in the western parts of Asia ; but it is doubtful Act, 5 and 6 Will. IV. c. 76, s. 90, borough counhow far it extends over that continent, a distinct cils have power to make B. for the government although very similar species occurring in the of the borough, and for the prevention and supHimalaya Mountains. The common B, is, however, I pression of nuisances ; such by-laws, however, a North American bird. Tame female buzzards not to be of force till the expiration of forty days have been known in several instances to exhibit so after the same, or a copy shall have been sent to strong a propensity for incubation, and the rearing one of the secretaries of state, during which period