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Her Majesty, with the advice of her privy council, Franeker, took the degree of doctor in 1694, and may either disallow the B., or a part, or enlarge the immediately after commenced to practice as an time within which they shall not come into force. advocate at the Hague. In 1703, he was elected Railway companies are required to lay before the by the states-general a member of the supreme Board of Trade, for the approbation of that authority, court, and in the exercise of his functions, soon certified copies of the B. and regulations by which had occasion to observe how defective and vague the railway is governed, which B. may be disallowed was the common law of the country. In 1710, by the Board at its pleasure. See CANAL ACTS, CAR- with a view to remedy this, he published the RIER, RAILWAY.

first part of his Observationes Juris Romani; in BYNG, GEORGE, VISCOUNT TORRINGTON, a British ( 1719, his Opuscula Varir Argumenti ; and in 1724, admiral, born January 27, 1663, eldest son of John he was elevated to the dignity of president of Byng, Esq., of Wrotham, Kent, entered the navy as the supreme court. In 1733, appeared the rest of a volunteer at the age of 15, and rapidly rose to the his Observationes Juris Romani. B. now began to rank of lieutenant. In 1688, he recommended him- devote himself earnestly to the study of Dutch self to the Prince of Orange by his activity and zeal and international law, acquiring, of the former in attaching the officers of the fleet to the cause of in particular, à most extensive and solid know: the Revolution, and was advanced to the rank of ledge. His great work on this subject is his captain. In 1702 he took part in the capturing and Qucestiones Juris Privati, which he did not live to burning of the Spanish fleet at Vigo, and in the finish, and on the other, his Quæstiones Juris Publici. following year was made rear-admiral of the red. In addition to these, B. collected (from his notes) The attack on Gibraltar was solely confided to his the decisions and proceedings of the supreme command, and for his gallant conduct at the battle court in his time, under the title Observationes of Malaga he was knighted by Queen Aune. In Tumultuariæ, and besides (what is perhaps his most 1708 he became admiral of the blue, and com- | valuable work) made a digest under the title of manded a squadron fitted out to oppose an intended Corpus Juris Hollandici et Zelandici, of all the laws invasion of Scotland from France, on the part of of his own country, whether statutory, or existing the Pretender. He pursued the French fleet to the in the decisions of courts, or in the practice of the Firth of Forth, took one ship, and forced the fleet bar, or in the customs of particular places. He died back to Dunkirk, on which occasion he was pre- (16th April 1743. A complete edition of his works sented with the freedom of the city of Edinburgh. was published by Professor Vicat of Geneva, in On the breaking out of the rebellion of 1715, he | 1761. was appointed to the command of a squadron in BY'RGIUS, JUSTUS, or, more properly, JOBST the Downs, and for important services against the BÜRGI, the inventor of various astronomical instruFrench, was created a baronet. In 1718, he com- ments, was born 28th February 1552, at Lichten. manded the English fleet sent to Sicily for the pro- steig, in the canton of St. Gall, Switzerland. In tection of the neutrality of Italy, and gained a vic. 1759, he went into the service of the learned tory over the Spanish fleet off Messina. Soon after, Landgraf of Hesse, Wilhelm IV. His first work he was appointed treasurer of the navy and rear-ad- was à celestial globe, the surface of which was miral of Great Britain. In January 1721, he was plated with silver, and in which the stars were sworn one of the privy council, and in September placed according to his own observations. The following, created Baron Southhill and Viscount landgraf sent it to the Emperor Rudolf II., who Torrington. On the revival of the Order of the thought it so beautiful, that in 1604, he appointed Bath, in 1725, he was installed one of the knights; B. his own mechanician. B. subsequently went to and, on the accession of George II., was nominated Austria, but returned to Cassel in 1622, where he First Lord of the Admiralty. He represented Ply- died in 1633. Many of his reputed discoveries and mouth in parliament from 1706 until 1721. Died inventions are questioned, such as those of logarithms January 17, 1733.

and the proportional compasses; but he seems to BYNG, John, a brave but ill-fated British admiral, I have hit upon something like both, while it is certain fourth son of the preceding, born in 1704, entered that he was the inventor of a method of resolving the navy early, served under his father, and, in spherical triangles. 1727, becanie captain. In 1748, he had attained BY'RLAW, BI'RLAW, or BU'RLAW, the name the rank of admiral of the red. In 1756, he was given to a sort of popular jurisprudence formerly in. appointed to command a squadron of ten ships of use in Scotland, in villages and among husbandmen. the line in the Mediterranean, destined for the Sir John Skene, writing in 1597, when the system relief of Minorca, at that time blockaded by a was in full force, defines B. as 'leges rusticorum, de re French fleet under La Galissoniere. On the 20th rustica lato-laws made by husbandmen, concerning Mar, B. made the signal to engage, which was neighborhood to be kept among themselves.'— Reg. obeyed by Rear-admiral West with such impetu- Majest. lib. iv. c. 39 ; De Verb. Signif. voce Bvrlaw. osity that several of the enemy's ships were driven As the B. was enacted by the common consert of out of the line; but B. not advancing to his the villagers or neighbours, so it was administered support, the French were allowed to escape, and by judges chosen by them from their own ranks. Minorca was lost. The dissatisfaction in England, These judges were commonly called "byrlaw men,' on the news arriving, was taken advantage of by a name which is still applied in some parts of Scotthe ministry to avert the public odium from their land to an arbiter, oddsman, or umpire. The courts own inefficient measures. B. was tried by a court- which they held were called 'byrlaw courts,' and martial, and condemned to death, for a breach of took cognizance of disputes between neighbour and the 12th article of war, but recommended to mercy. neighbour. B. is supposed to be derived from boor, Sacrificed to the general indignation, he was shot on or baur, a countryman. board the Monarch, at Portsmouth, March 14, 1757, BYRON, GEORGE Gordon, Lord, a great English meeting his fate with firmness and resignation. In poet, was born in Holles Street London, on the 22d the fleet, he was not popular, being a strict discipli- 1 of January 1788. He was the only son of Captain narian.

John Byron, of the Guards, and Catharine Gordon of BYNKERSHOEK, CORNELIUS van, a Dutch Gight, an heiress in Aberdeenshire. Captain Byron jurisconsult, was born at Middelburg, in Zealand, and his wife did not live happily. Domestic peace 29th May 1673. He studied at the university of | perished in the conflict of their ungovernable tempers. BYRON.

The husband's habits were profiigate in the highest | father's house, and refused to return. This event, degree, and the wife's fortune was soon squandered from the celebrity of one of the parties, caused conin the debauch and at the gambling-table. Sepa- siderable excitement in the fashionable world. B. rated from her husband, the lady retired to the city became the subject of all uncharitable tongues. of Aberdeen with her little lame boy, whom she The most popular poet, he was for a space the most rassionately loved, her sole income at this time being unpopular individual in the country. In one of his about £130 per annum. In his 11th year, B. suc- letters, written from Italy some years later, referring ceeded his grand-uncle, William Lord Byron; and to the slanders current at the time, he thus expresses mother and son immediately left the north for New- | himself: I was accused of every monstrous vice ktead Abbey, the ancient seat of the family, situated by public rumour and private rancour. My name, a few miles distant from Nottingham, in the romantic which had been a knightly or a noble one since my district which Sherwood Forest shadowed, and which fathers helped to conquer the kingdom for William was once familiar with the bugle of Robin Hood. the Norman, was tainted. I felt that if what was On succeeding to the title, B. was placed in a private whispered, and muttered, and murmured was true, school at Dulwich, and thereafter sent to Harrow. I was unfit for England; if false, England was unfit The most remarkable thing about B.'s early years for me. I withdrew.' The separation from his wife, was his extraordinary attachments. Like almost and the departure from England, mark a stage in every member of the poetic tribe, he had a passion B.'s genius. A new element of power had entered for the name of Mary. In his 8th year, in Aber-| into his verse; the reader feels it quite distinctly in deenshire, he fell in love with Mary Duff. Margaret the magnificent burst of exultation that opens the Parker, a cousin of his own, and who died early, was third canto of the Childehis next idol. His strongest passion was, however, for Mary Chaworth. This lady he first met when on

'Once more upon the waters, yet once more! a visit to Newstead in 1803, at which date he was ! Misery and indignation stimulated him to remarkin his 15th year. Miss Chaworth's father had been able activity. Six months' stay at Geneva produced killed in a duel by Lord Byron, the grand-uncle of the third canto of Childe Harold and The Prisoner the poet, and marriage would have healed the family of Chillon, Manfred and The Lament of Tasso were feud, and would have joined rich estates. But it written in 1817. The next year, he was at Venice, was not to be. Miss Chaworth was B.'s senior and finished Childe Harold there; and, in the gay by two years, and evidently felt little flattered by and witty Beppo, made an experiment in the new the worship of the lame Harrow boy. Next vear field which he was afterwards to work so successcame the parting interview described in The Dream, fully. During the next three years, he produced with which every Englishman is familiar now as the first five cantos of Don Juan, and a number with a personal experience. In 1805, B. removed of dramas of various merit, Cain and Werner being to Trinity College, Cambridge; and two years there- opposite polès. In 1822, he removed to Pisa, and after his first volume of verse, entitled Hours of worked there at Don Juan, which poem, with the Idleness, was printed at Newark. The poems therein | exception of The Vision of Judgment, occupied his contained were not absolutely without merit, but pen almost up to the close of his life. Morally, they might have been written by any well-educated his Italian life was unsatisfactory, and his genius

was tainted by his indulgences. At the close of his career, he was visited by a new inspiration ; the sun, so long obscured, shone out gloriously at its setting. In the summer of 1823, he sailed for Greece, to aid the struggle for independence with his influence and money. He arrived at Missolonghi

on the 4th of January 1824. There he found nothing Autograph of Byron.

but confusion and contending chiefs; but in three

months, he succeeded in evoking some kind of lad, who, in addition to ordinary ability, possessed order from the turbulent patriotic chaos. His the slightest touch of poetic sensibility. The volume health, however, began to fail. On the 9th April, he was fiercely assailed by Lord (then Mr.) Brougham was overtaken by a shower while on horseback, and in the Edinburgh Review, and his sarcasms stung fever and rheumatism followed. Medical aid was B. into a poet. The satire, English Bards and Scotch procured, and copious bleeding recommended; but Reviewers, was written in reply to the article in the this, B., with characteristic wilfulness, opposed. Edinburgh, and the town was taken by a play of Before death, he sank into a state of lethargy, and wit and a mastery of versification unequalled since those who were near heard him murmuring about his the days of Pope. In the babble of praise that imme- wife, his sister, and his child. After twenty-four diately arose, B. withdrew from England, visited hours' insensibility, he expired on the evening of the the shores of the Mediterranean, and sojourned 19th April 1824. His body was conveyed to England; in Turkey and Greece. On his return in 1812, he | and, denied a resting-place in Westminster Abbey, it published the first two cantos of Childe Harold, with rests in the family vault in the village church of immense success, and was at once enrolled among Hucknall, near Newstead. the great poets of his country. During the next two Lord B. is a remarkable instance of the flucyears, he produced The Giaour, The Bride of Abydos, tuations of literary fashion. Elevated to the The Corsair, and Lara. While these brilliant pieces highest pinnacle of fame in the heyday of his were flowing from his pen, he was indulging in all early popularity, he was unduly depressed after the revelries and excesses of the metropolis. What his death, when the false romance which he threw was noblest in the man revolted at this mode of life, around himself and his writings began to wear and, in an effort to escape from it, he married Miss away; and it is only during the last ten or twelve Milbanke, daughter of Sir Ralph Milbanke, a baronet | years that the proper place has been found for him in the county of Durham. This union proved singu in the public estimation. He is high, but not the larly infelicitous. It lasted only a year, and during highest. The resources of his intellect were amazing. that brief period, money embarrassments, recrimina- He gained his first reputation as a depicter of the tions, and all the miseries incident to an ill-assorted gloomy and stormful passions. After he wrote marriage, were of frequent occurrence. After the | Beppo, he was surprised to find that he was a birth of her child Ada, Lady Byron retired to her humorist; when he reached Greece, he discovered BYRON BAY-BYTTNERIACEÆ.

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an ability for military organisation. When all the Byssacece, and placed among Lichens. Some have

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with a scowling brow and a curled lip, he was to the rank of a distinct order, laughing in Italy, and declaring himself to be the comprehending the filamentous most unromantic being in the world. And he was fungi found in cellars, and simiright. Take away all his oriental wrappings, and lar plants;' but others reject you discover an honest Englishman, who, above all the genus as altogether spurious. things, hates cant and humbug. In Don Juan Some of the species once included and his Letters there is a wonderful fund of wit, in it have now been satisfacsarcasm, humour, and knowledge of man. Few torily shewn to be Lichens, others men had a clearer eye for fact and reality. His to be Confervacere, whilst many eloquence, pathos, and despair; his Manfreds and appear to be really not distinct Black-rock Byssus: Childe Harolds, were only phases of his mind. vegetable forms, but cryptogamic (Byssus nigra). Toward the close of his life, he was working toward plants prevented by unfavourhis real strength, and that lay in wit and the direct able circumstances from proper development. The representation of human life. If bis years had been green incrustations formerly regarded as species of extended, he would in all likelihood have deserted B., have been found to be the primary germination poetry for prose, gaudy coloured fiction for sober of mosses, often species of Polytrichum and Tortula. fact; and the assertion may be hazarded, that the It cannot be said, however, that the nature of all English novel would have boasted of another and a the vegetable forms which have been referred to greater Fielding.

the genus B., has yet been satisfactorily ascertained. BYRON BAY lies on the north-east coast of Some of them are very phosphorescent, and are Labrador in North America, its lat. and long. being generally found where some higher form of vegetarespectively 51° 40' N., and 57° 30' W.

tion is undergoing decay. BYRON ISLAND is situated in the Mulgrave' BYSTRÖM, Jon. NIKOLATS, a celebrated sculpArchipelago of the Pacific Ocean, its lat. and long. tor, was born 18th December 1783, at Philippstadt, being respectively 1° 18' S., and 177° 20' E.

in the province of Wermeland, Sweden, and educated BY'SSUS, a name given from ancient Greek and under Sergell of Stockholm. In 1809, he obtained Roman times to the bundle of silky filaments by the highest prize in the Swedish Academy of Arts. which many lamellibranchiate mollusks-bivalve

and in the following year went to Rome, where he shells-attach themselves to rocks or other fixed executed his first independent work, a 'Drunken substances. The B. springs from a cavity at the base

Bacchus,' and sent it home. It was received with of the solitary foot of the mollusk, and its filaments,

great approbation, and B. was compelled to repeat it which are capable of being reproduced if destroyed,

thrice. In 1815, he returned to Stockholm, and are secreted by a glandular tissue which occupies a surprised the newly elected crown-prince by exhibit

ing a colossal statue of himself, which he had finished all but the head in Rome, and which he had found means to complete quietly in Stockholm. The crown-prince was highly gratified, and commissioned B. to execute colossal statues of Charles X., XI., and XII. B. returned to Rome, but has since taken up

his residence in Stockholm. His chief works are: “Ā 23%?;.

Nymph going into the Bath,' 'A reclining Juno, suckling the Young Hercules,' • Hygieia,'' A Pandora combing her. Hair,' ' A Dancing-girl,' a statue of Linnæus, and colossal statues of Charles XIII., Gustavus Adolphus, and Charles XIV. B. excels in the delineation of females and children, but his male figures want strength of character; his con

ceptions are always true to nature, his grouping Byssus of Common Mussel.

skilful and pleasant, and his execution is clear and

distinct. furrow running nearly to the extremity of the foot. BYTTNERIACEÆ, a natural order of exogenous They are united together at the base in a common plants, sometimes united with the order Sterculiacere mass, and are often considerably divergent. They (q. v.), and also closely allied to Malvaceae (q. v.), are guided to their place by the foot, and expand from which it differs, especially in the stamens into a sort of disc at the point of attachment, so not being columnar-although more or less united, as to have a firm hold. A few common mussels generally into a cup or tube also in the anthers in an aquarium readily afford an opportunity of being turned inwards, and 2-celled. The species of observing the B., particularly when the filaments this order are trees, shrubs, or half-shrubby plants, are attached to the glass-sides of the vessel. In abounding chiefly in tropical climates, although some the Pinna (q. V.) of the Mediterranean, the B. is are natives of the temperate zones. About 400 have remarkably long and delicate, has a beautiful silky been described. The flowers of many are beautilustre, is very strong, and is capable of being woven ful. The most important product of the order is into cloth, upon which a very high value is set; but Cocoa (q. v.). The fruit of Guazuma ulmifolia, a the animal which produces it is now so rare, that it native of Brazil, is eaten, being filled with a sweet is almost exclusively an article of curiosity. This and pleasant mucilage. The young bark of this tree manufacture was known to the ancients.

yields, when macerated, a copious mucilage, and is BYSSUS (Gr. a fine flaxen or silky substance), therefore used in Martinique for clarifying sugar, as a genus established by Linnæus to include some is that of Kydia calycina in the northern provinces of the lowest and most obscure forms of vege- of India. Guazuma ulmifolia was introduced into iation, and defined as having a substance like fine India, and at one time largely cultivated in the down or velvet, simple or feathered. Botanists Madras presidency, under the name of Bastard sometimes ranked it among Algæ, sometimes among Cedar, that its foliage and young shoots might Fungi; it has been made the type of a group be employed as fodder for cattle. Its straight,

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BY-TOWN-BYZANTINE ART.

luxuriant young branches yield a strong fibre. The, consequently in Germany, where the subject has bark of other species of this order also affords a received more attention than in this country, the tough fibre, which is employed for making cordage, two terms are frequently used as synonymous. The particularly that of Microlona (or Schillera) specta- | appearance of B. A., in this its only peculiar sense, bilis in the regions on the southern base of the dates from the age of Justinian. i. e., from the earlier Himalaya, Abroma augustum in various parts of half of the 6th c., and its productive period may be India, Dombeya spectabilis in Madagascar, and D. said to terminate with the conquest of the Eastern umbellata in the Isle of Bourbon. Abroma augus- Empire by the Crusaders in 1204. But though its tum has been especially recommended to attention declension dates from this event, B. A. continued and cultivation on account of its fibre, which is to exist in considerable vigour down to the final beautiful, white, fine, and strong, and is produced destruction of the Empire of the East in 1453 ; and in great abundance. The plant grows to be a even now may be seen as the inseparable handmaid handsome small tree, having hairy lobed leaves and of the Greek Church, both in Europe and in Asia. beautiful drooping purple flowers; but may be It is in this point of view, and more particularly as treated inuch as willows grown for basket-making, forming the basis of artistic life in Russia, that B. A. and in this way yields two, three, or even four crops possesses its chief living interest in our day. What of cuttings annually, which are peeled and the bark | Rome was to the Western, Byzantium was to the macerated in order to the separation of the fibre. Eastern European; and the relation of the latter to BY-TOWN, a town of Upper Canada, on the

his mother-city, if it commenced at a somewhat Ottawa, taking its name from Colonel By of the

later date, continued during the whole period of the

e middle ages. Royal Engineers. It is now Ottawa (q. v.), the

Though the inhabitants of Eastern Europe thus capital of United Canada.

| derived their traditions of antiquity from a meaner BYZANTINE ART. From the time of Constan- source than the Romanic nations, they received tine the Great, the emperors of the East arrogated them more unbroken; and, from first to last, to their imperial city the pre-eminence which were subjected to their influences during a much for so long a period, ancient Rome had actually longer period. To them the living voice and possessed; and, as a necessary consequence of this hand continued to communicate what for nearly assumption, Constantinople, or Byzantium, as it still a thousand years Italians, Spaniards, and Franks continued sometimes to be called, became the rival | had had to seek in the dead image and letter of the mother-city in the richness and variety of its alone; and if anything still remains unrecorded artistic monuments. In Rome, and, indeed, in the of ancient thought, it doubtless dwells on Greek, whole of Western Europe, the first effect produced and not on Roman or German tongues. Indolent, by the influx of the mighty stream of barbarian life, luxurious, and dissolute as their ancestors had been and the consequent dissolution of existing society, in classical times, the citizens of Constantinople was the almost total suppression of artistic effort. were distinguished by an intellectual character, It was then that the artists of the West, willing and which, unfruitful and enfeebled though it was, was eager to avail themselves of the invitation held out systematic, subtle, mystical, and pedantic. They to them, poured into Constantinople, carrying with were eminently an instructed people ; but, like them what yet remained of the artistic life of the individuals whose glory is in the past, they were ancient world. Byzantium was the hearth on more conservative than original ; and, however which, during the dark period of the middle ages, 1 justly we may despise the chaff which they engenthose feeble sparks of ancient art were kept alive, dered, it is impossible to overestimate the value of which served to kindle the new and independent the corns of gold which clung to their memories. artistic life of the modern world. Not only were BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE. The typical form of the painters and sculptors of Italy indebted to the B. Architecture, at least as applied to ecclesiastical art of Byzantium for the tradition of that ideal mode of conception to which the term classical is peculiarly applied, but artists in every department derived thence the elements of that technical knowledge without which the embodiment of such con. ceptions is impossible. This practical acquaintance with the technical rudiments of their respective arts, which could scarcely have been derived from a mere examination of ancient works, was communicated to the fathers of Italian art by living Byzantines, some of them probably the descendants of those whom barbarian conquests had driven into the East, and whom the conquests of a still more barbarous race now restored to Western Europe. It is impossible to doubt that modern art was largely indebted to this circumstance for the marvellous stride which it took immediately after the taking of Constantinople by the Turks. But though its chief value may consist in its having thus transmitted to us the

Church of St. Sophia at Constantinople : succession of antiquity, B. A. was by no means

Specimen of Byzantine Architecture. devoid of original and individual character; and it is only in so far as it possesses this, and' not when regarded as a mere conservation of antique types purposes, was fixed by the church of St. Sophia, and processes, that it takes rank as a school of art. which still exists as the great mosque of ConstanThe characteristic element in B. A. may be described tinople. It was built, or rather rebuilt, by the as the earliest artistic recognition and representa- orders of Justinian, the architects being Anthemius tion to the senses of what was new and peculiar in of Tralles, and Isodorus, the Elder, of Miletus, and Christian as opposed to heathen life. To the fullest completed 537 A. D. Though the largest and most extent to which it could claim a separate and magnificent, the church of St. Sophia was but one of individual existence, B. A. was Christian art; and twenty-five churches which were erected in the

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BYZANTINE ART-BYZANTINE EMPIRE.

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capital, and of a vastly greater number of eccle- / delighted. The execution is careful, even painful siastical structures with which the provinces were | All this becomes more and more the case as we adorned by the pious emperor. The style thus advance in the order of time, the earliest Christian introduced largely influenced the architecture even works, and those immediately suggested by the of Western Europe ; and in St. Mark's at Venice, antique, exhibiting such faults only to a limited the churches at Ravenna and elsewhere on the extent. Down to the 12th c., the defects which we Adriatic, and even in the cathedral of Aix-la- have described were the worst which could be laid to Chapelle, we have examples of churches almost the charge of B. sculpture, and it is scarcely earlier purely Byzantine. The fundamental principle in than the 13th c. that it assumes that mummy-like the construction of Byzantine churches was an end- aspect by which it is too generally known. The art lessly varied application of the Roman arch, whilst of carving in ivory was practised with great success its exhibition in the form of the cupola was their at Constantinople, and in the examples of it which most characteristic feature. In the St. Sophia, as remain, the gradual decline-the benumbing process, was generally the case, the cupola covered the as it has been aptly called-may be traced with great principal central portion of the church, and was distinctness. Of this species of work, in its earlier supported by strong and lofty pillars, bound together and better times, a fine specimen in alto-rilievo of by bold arches. To this central space were usually the forty saints' may be seen in the museum at

joined others of smaller size, which were covered Berlin. The decorations of the churches, and of the by half-cupolas or arches of more ordinary construc- sacred vessels used in the service of the altar, formed tion. Though frequently in the form of a Greek no insignificant objects of art in the better Byzan

cross, with the great cupola tine period. Cups, plates, lamps, candlesticks,
rising in the centre, and crosses, and the like, were either of gold or silver,
smaller or semi-cupolas sur- and frequently adorned with jewels; whilst the
mounting the four arms, altar itself, the chancel, and sometimes the whole
neither this nor any other interior of the church, were covered with precious
plan was consistently adhered metals, the panels being adorned with mosaics or
to in Byzantine churches. frescoes.
The windows were always
semicircular, similar to those

BYZANTINE PAINTING. The same characteristics in the Romanic churches of

which we have ascribed to the sculpture belonged Germany, and in our own

to the pictorial efforts of the artists of Byzantium, INDUM Saxon or early Norman

and of the neighbouring countries who were mostly

their imitators. The execution was careful and churches; but the doors were frequently square-headed,

anxious rather than skilful, and such skill as after the classical model.

still remained was exhibited in the mechanical Many of the details, such as

perfection with which the gilding of the backthe square capitals tapering/

grounds and other details were managed. Of B.

pictures, the best existing specimens are to be found Byzantine Columu. downwards, and the bold projecting mouldings ornamented

in Italy, and belong especially to the school of

Sienna. The picture of the Virgin in the church with foliage, seem to have owed their origin

of St. Domenico at Sienna by Guido, bearing date entirely to the ingenuity of Byzantine architects.

1221, deserves special mention. Much labour was The earlier Byzantine churches were profusely

expended on the illumination of MSS. of the Scripornamented with mosaics, which, after the admix

tures, and of these many beautiful eximples, as ture of the Gothic element, and the adoption of

fresh as when they were painted, may be seen in the pointed arch, gave place to fresco-paintings,

most of the larger public libraries of Europe. The The constant use of the Apse (q. v.) is, after

chief interest attaching to B. painting consists in the cupola, perhaps their most marked feature.

the parental relation in which it stood to the art of The following division into periods, though, like

Italy. Cimabue may be regarded as its immediate most divisions of the kind, somewhat arbitrary, has the authority of M. Couchaud, an eminent

heir; and in the works of Giotto, Leonardo da Vinci.

Pietro Perugino, and even of Raphael in his earlier French architect, in its favour, and is, apparently, adopted by Parker: 1. Froin the time of Con

time, the traces of the inberitance are quite unmis

takable. See Painting. stantine to the middle of the sixth c. ; 2. From the beginning of Justinian's reign down to the 1 BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also styled the East 11th c., which comprises the greater part of the Roman, EASTERN, or GREEK EMPIRE, was founded in existing buildings of the pure Byzantine type ; 395 A. D., when Theodosius the Great, at his death, 3. From the 11th c. to the conquest of Greece by divided the Roman Empire between his two sons, the Turks, when the influence of the Venetian Arcadius and Honorius. The former, a weak and conquests is apparent in the intermixture of Italian luxurious character, was made emperor of the and Gothic details and characteristics.

eastern division, formerly included under the preBYZANTINE SCULPTURE. When contrasted with fectures of the East and of Illyricum-namely, Syria, the ignoble, tasteless, and meaningless productions Asia Minor, and' Pontus, stretching along the shores of the later plastic art of Rome, that of Constan- of the Black Sea in Asia; Egypt in Africa ; and tinople claims both admiration and respect. The Thrace, Mosia (now Bulgaria), Macedonia, Greece, figures are not deficient in dignity either in and Crete in Europe. Arcadius left the government form or in attitude, and a deeply Christian spirit is of the empire in the hands of his minister, Rufinus, traceable both in their general conception, and in from whom it passed to the eunuch Eutropius, and their rich and significant spmbolical accompani- afterwards to Gainas, the murderer of Rufinus. ments. In sculpture, as in architecture, the pecu- Gainas fell by his ambition in 401, and the shameless liar Byzantine type first exhibits itself towards and avaricious Empress Eudoxia ruled until the the beginning of the 6th century. Alongside of time of her death, 404. See ARCADIUS. After Theounmistakable reminiscences of the antique, it exhi- dosius II., a minor under the guidance of the prefect bits characteristics which are as unquestionably Prætorio Anthemius, had held the reins during six oriental. The figures are positively laden, not with years, he resigned the government in favour of his drapery alone, but with costume, which obscures sister Pulcheria (Augusta), who ruled powerfully che nobler and freer lines in which the ancients while her brother was kept apart from all state

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