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BYZANTINE EMPIRE.

affairs. Western Illyria (comprehending Pannonia, , Phocas, one of his generals, was elevated to the Dalmatia, and Noricum) was ceded to the Eastern throne. Phocas proved a bad ruler. Through his empire by the Roman emperor Valentinian III; monstrous vices, tyranny, and incapacity for governand after several victories achieved by the Byzan ment, the empire lapsed into still deeper anarchy. tine general Ardaburius, over the Persians, a part Suddenly, however, a deliverer appeared in the of Armenia was also annexed. But, nevertheless, person of Heraclius (q. v.), son of the exarch or Thrace and Macedonia could only be secured from governor-general of Africa, who headed a conspiracy, the destructive conquests of Attila by the payment marched to Constantinople, overthrew the tyrant, of tribute. After the death of Theodosius II., and ascended the throne, 610. But great as was Pulcheria married the senator Marcianus (450—457), the genius of Heraclius, he had to submit to twelve whose firmness repelled the invasions of Attila. Mar- years of defeat before he could organize and discianus was followed by Leo I., surnamed Macella cipline a victorious army. In 622, he opened those (the Butcher), a Thracian of low birth, but elevated magnificent campaigns in which the power of Persia to the throne by the commander-in chief, Aspar, was crushed, and which, in the opinion of Gibbon, who, being himself an Arian, would not venture to were equal to those of Scipio or Hannibal. He encounter the perils that sovereignty might have lived, however, to see more formidable foes in the entailed on one of his religious views. Leo. II., Arabs, who, inspired by fanatic zeal, and led by the grandson of the former, succeeded, but died after a Calif Omar, captured, during 635-641, the countries few months, in consequence of which the crown on the Euphrates, with Syria, Judæa, and Egypt. came into the possession of his father, Zeno (174— The power of the Greeks, which was demanded to 491), who was banished by Basiliscus (475), but resist the Arabian invasions, was miserably divided who re-ascended the throne in 477. Though a weak and weakened by their unending religious quarrels, and unpopular ruler, he contrived to retain his especially the controversy of the Orthodox against power in spite of several serious revolts. The the Monothelites (q. v.). The empire was breaking internal distraction of the empire, to which, as at asunder, and Heraclius, now worn out with the other times religious strifes added considerably, fatigues of war, had abandoned his enfeebled senses increased greatly during the reign of Zeno, and the to pleasure, and his enfeebled intellect to theological invasions of the Goths were prevented only by gifts discussions. He died in 641. Constantine III., who and stratagems. Ariadne, widow of Zeno, by her succeeded his father, Heraclius, also died soon after, second marriage raised the courtier Silentiarius to and was followed by Heracleonas, who lost the the throne under the title Anastasius I. (491-518). crown, and was mutilated in an insurrection. The By the help of the Goths, this monarch over next ruler was Constans, son of Constantine III., threw, after a six years' contest, the robber tribes who ruled from 642 to 668, made himself odious by of Mount Taurus. A new enemy, however, now cruelty, and perished in an insurrection. His soni, appeared on the Danube in the Bulgarians, against Constantine IV., Pogonatus (668--685), enforced a whose desolating raids Anastasius built the Long treaty of peace on the invading Arabs (675) by his Wall, to protect the peninsula on which Constan- successful use of the Greek fire in warfare. On tinople lies. The war with the Persians also broke the other side, he was compelled to pay tribute in out anew during his reign, and religious tumults 680 to the Bulgarians, who had established themoften purpled the streets of Constantinople itself. | selves in ancient Masia. Justinian II. (685-711), After his death, the army raised Justinus I. to the son and successor of Pogonatus, was victorious in throne. He maintained his position mainly through war against the Monothelire Maronites; but was the favour of the clergy, whom he had conciliated defeated by the Bulgarians (688), and by the Arabs by his severe persecution of heretics.

| (692). His cruelty caused an insurrection, at His nephew, Justinian (q. v.), succeeded (527- the head of which was Leontius, who, in 695, 565), and became celebrated by his code of laws, deposed him, cut off his nose (hence his surname and by the victories of his great generals, Belisarius Rhinotmetus), and banished him to the Tauric (q. v.) and Narses (q. v.). But the rapid decline of Chersonese; in 705, he was restored to the throne, the empire after his death shewed that he had not but adversity had taught him no wisdom. A part been able to give it any internal consolidation or of his subjects revoited, and the king, abandoned vitality. It was during the reign of Justinian that by his army and by the Bulgarians, was assassinthose pestilent contests of the Blues and Whites ated in 711. With him the dynasty of Heraclius against the Greens and Reds (political factions so expired. named from the colours respectively worn) first Philippicus Bardanes (the leader of the last attained any consequence; and though the first dis- insurrection against Justinian II.) was next raised to turbance was terribly chastised by Belisarius in 532, the throne (711); but after having made himself odious they continued to distract the capital periodically by favouring the metaphysical tenets of the Monodown to the 7th century. Justin II. (565–578), a thelites, he was deposed and brutally deprived weak man, governed by his wife, Sophia, yielded a of eyesight (713). His successor, Anastasius II., part of Italy to the Longobards, was unsuccessful prudently screened himself from a mutinous army against the Persians, allowed the Avari to plunder by retiring into a monastery (716), and left the the Danubian provinces, and ultimately became crown to Theodosius III., who abdicated in 717, insane through vexation and anxiety. Tiberius the when Leo, the Isaurian, and general of the army captain of the guard, was then made regent, and of the East, äid not recognise him, and marched after the death of Justin II., received the imperial with hostile intent to Constantinople. Leo. (q. v.) dignity. He ruled with mildness and prudence himself ascended the throne in 717, and drove back (578-582), purchased a peace with the Avari, con- the Arabs from Constantinople, but unhappily gave cluded the war with Persia, and left as his successor occasion in 726, for that contest concerning the the commander-in-chief, Mauricius, who reigned worship of images, which rent the empire for more from 582 to 602. Having replaced on the throne than a century. In 728, the exarchate of Ravenna the Persian King, Kosroes II., who had been banished was lost, and the eastern provinces became the prey by his subjects, he thus secured the peace of his of the Arabs, over whom, however, he won a great eastern frontiers: but, on the other hand, the war victory in Phrygia. He died in 741. Constantine V. against the A dari did not prosper. His niggardly |(741-775), son of Leo III., on account of his treatment of the army caused a military insurrec- zeal as an iconoclast, was hated by the monks, tion in which he was slain along with his son; and / who gave him the surname Copronymos,' because BYZANTINE EMPIRE.

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(according to their malicious and uncleanly state- i wife, Zoe, a profligate but crafty princess, who ment) he had polluted the font at his baptism. He raised successively to the imperial dignity Michael was a brave ruler, recovered from the Arabs parts IV. (1034), Michael V. (1041), and Constantine IX. of Syria and Armenia, and ultimately defeated the (1042). Meanwhile, Russians and Arabs devastated Bulgarians, against whom he had long been unsuc- the realm. In Asia, the Seljuk Turks proved dan. cessful. His son, Leo IV. (775--780) was a mild gerous enemies; while in Lower Italy, the Normans ruler; but by the ability of his generals he made narrowed the Byzantine power to the possession of the boundaries of the empire secure against the Otranto. After Constantine's death in 1054, Theo. Arabs. After him Constantine VI. ascended the dora, sister of Zoe, was elected empress; and on her throne under the guardianship of his ambitious death in 1056, Michael VI., who was deposed by mother, Irene (q. v.), who raised a powerful party Isaac I., Comnenus. in favour of image-worship. Constantine having With Isaac I., Comnenus, who came to the made an attempt to liberate himself from the influ- throne in 1057, the dynasty of the Comnenien ence of his mother and her paramour, Stauratius, emperors began). He retired to a monastery (1059), Irene barbarously caused her own son to be blinded and was succeeded by Constantine X., whose (797). He died soon after this atrocity; and Irene, widow, Eudocia, married Romanus IV., and raised who had boldly conceived the design of marry- him to the throne. Romanus was deposed in ing the Emperor Charlemagne, and thus uniting 1071 by Michael VII. (son of Constantine X.), who, the east and west of Europe in one vast realm, in his turn, was dethroned by Nicephorus III. excited the opposition which, in 802, placed her (1078), who reigned until 1081, when he was treasurer, 'Nicephorus, on the throne. Irene was deposed by Alexius I., Comnenus (q. v.), (1081— banished to Lesbos, where she died in 803. Niceph- 1118). This last reign was marked by the comorus, who fell in battle against the Bulgarians mencement of the Crusades. The successors of (811), was succeeded by his Son, Stauratius, who Alexius-his son, Kalo-Joannes (1118-1143), and soon yielded the throne to his brother-in-law, Manuel I. (1143—1180)—were able rulers, and vicMichael I., from whom it was taken by the torious in their engagements with the Turks. ManArmenian general Leo V., a powerful ruler, who uel's son, Alexius II., was murdered by his guardian, conquered the Bulgarians, but fell (820) in a con- Andronicus (grandson of Alexius I.), who raised himspiracy excited by his zeal against image-worship. self to the throne. He was the last prince of the Michael II., the Stammerer, was raised from a Comnenian dynasty, and fell in an insurrection exdungeon to the throne, and ruled until 829. In his cited by his own cruelty, 1185. reign, Crete and Sicily passed into the hands of the After the first turbulent reign of Isaac II., who Arabs. Under the rule of his son, Theophilus, who was blinded and deposed by his brother, Alexius is praised by the Byzantine historians for his love III., who took the surname of Comnenus in 1195, of justice (829_812), the general, Manuel, gained the Crusaders restored Isaac to the throne (1203), some indecisive victories over the Arabs. Theodora, and also crowned his son Alexius IV.; but the widow of Theophilus and guardian of Michael III. restless citizens of Constantinople elected Nicolas (842_-867), brought the controversy about images Kinabus, who took the title of Alexius V., and purto a close at the Council of Nicæa (842), when suing the usual bloody course, put his predecessor to the worship of these was fully sanctioned and death. re-introduced. During this reign, the government In 1204, the French and the Venetians (collecbusied itself in the persecution of the Paulicians tively named Latins) advanced on Coustantinople, (q. v.), while the Arabs devastated the Asiatic and captured the city, April 12, having made provinces. Theodora, having been banished to a themselves masters of the European provinces. convent by her son, the government was for some The whole was divided into four parts, of which time held by Bardas, uncle of Michael III., and after the first, including the metropolis, fell to the lot his assassination, by Basilius I., the Macedonian, who of Baldwin, Count of Flanders, who was made encaused Michael to be put to death, and afterwards peror, and to whom the other participants in the ruled ably from 867 to 886. But though on the expedition did fealty for their respective shares. whole successful against the Arabs, the latter con- The Venetians obtained the coasts of the Adriatic trived to make themselves masters of Syracuse. His and Ægean seas, a part of the Morea, and several dynasty (the Macedonian) maintained itself on the islands; Bonifacius, Count of Montferrat, Macedonia, Byzantine throne, with some few interruptions, until and part of Greece; several dukedoms, countships, 1056. The reign of his son, Leo VI., the Philoso- &c., were also established at Athens, Philippopolis, pher (886–912), was not prosperous. The inroads and other places for French knights; while a of the Bulgarians and of the Arabs, who, in 904, plun- number of Greek princes, both on the mainland dered Thessalonica, continued to increase during the and in the islands, maintained their independence. government of his son, Constantine VII., Porphyro- In the west of Asia Minor Theodorus Lascaris, genitus, who ruled mildly but feebly (912—959). who had been elected emperor at Constantinople, Under his son, the dissolute Romanus II. (959--963), formally transferred the seat of government to Crete was retaken from the Arabs by the vigour of Nicæa; and finally, in the north-east of Asia Minor, his general, Nicephorus Phocas, who, on the death the governor of the province of Colchis, Alexius of the emperor, married his widow, Theophania. Comnenus, ruled at Trebizond with absolute author. She, however, caused him to be murdered in 969, ity; while one of his successors, John Comnenus, as she wished to marry John Tzimiskes, who ruled even - assumed the title of emperor. At Con. till 976, and, like his predecessor, was victorious stantinople, neither Baldwin nor his successors against the Arabs and Bulgarians, as also the could strengthen the sinking empire. Baldwin Russians, who about this time began to emerge himself died (1206) a prisoner in the hands of the from obscurity as an enemy of the Byzantine Bulgarians. After him came his brother Henry, power. His successor, Basilius II. (976--1025), the who ruled bravely and wisely till 1216. For the son of Romanus, conquered the Bulgarian kingdom, next four years, the empire was actually without. and attached it as a province to the empire, which it a ruler, and a prey to utter anarchy. In 1221, remained till 1186, when it again became inde- Robert, son of Peter, Count of Auxerre and Cour. pendent. His brother, Constantine VIII. (1025- tenay, came to the throne; and was succeeded by 1028), did not resemble him. Romanus III. next John of Brienne, titular king of Jerusalem (1228--ascended the throne, but was assassinated by his 1237); and the latter by Baldwin II. (1237--1261).

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BYZANTINE EMPIRE_BYZANTINE HISTORIANS.

During these reigns, a great part of the empire was Romans,' even after Charlemagne had founded seized by John Vatazes, successor of Theodorus a new dynasty. Though great influence was at Lascaris of Nicæa (1222_1255). This ruler was various times exercised by the clergy as well as by followed in Nicæa by Theodorus II. (1255—1259), women, courtiers, and ministers, the emperors were whose son, Johannes, during his minority, was pure autocrats, having supreme power in all departsuperseded by Michael VIII., Palæologus, who, by ments of government, and being themselves superior the help of the Genoese, captured Constantinople to all laws. By pompous titles, by great splendour (July 25, 1261), and thus put an end to the Latin of costume, and by a strict observance of an elabordynasty; though some few Latin principalities ately minute court ceremonial, as well as by the maintained themselves till the fall of the Byzantine cruel penalties inflicted for any insult offered to the empire.

imperial dignity, or to the dignity of the emperor's Michael, the first of the Palæologi, a powerful relatives, they kept themselves sacredly apart from prince, really endeavored to strengthen the realm; the people. Gradually everything disappeared that but by his unhappy attempt to unite the Greek might have been a check upon the utter despotisin Church with the Latin, from which it had deci- of the supreme power. As early as the 6th c., the sively separated (1054), he gave great offence to consulate was absorbed into the mass of imperial the clergy and the people. His son, Andronicus II., honours, while the traces of the senate which Conwho came to the throne, 1282, re-established the stantine had established at Byzantium, and which Greek ritual. After the death of his son and was composed of those on whom the emperor had co-regent, Michael IX. (1320), Ardronicus II. was bestowed the dignity of patriciate, as well as the compelled to divide the throne with his grandson, chartered privileges of the towns, had entirely Andronicus III., who became sole emperor, 1328. vanished in the 10th century. The privy council, This monarch unsuccessfully opposed the Turks, to whom the conduct of the state was intrusted, who took Nicæa and Nicomedia in 1339, and wasted was arbitrarily chosen by the emperor. The state the European coasts. He died in 1341. Under his officials were very numerous, and their respective son, Johannes V., the Turks first gained a firm ranks carefully distinguished. They were raised far footing in the European provinces, and spread them- above the populace by titles and privileges, but were selves from Gallipoli (which they captured in 1357) utterly dependent on the throne. Among these, over other districts. Sultan Murad took Adrianople, the Domestici (including many eunuchs), claimed the 1361, and made it the seat of government. He and highest rank as immediate attendants on the his follower, Bajazet, conquered all the Byzantine emperor. The rank of the Curopalates, who had territories as far as Constantinople. Manuel II., charge of the four chief imperial palaces, became, in son and successor of Johannes, was besieged in course of time, subordinate to that of the ProtovestiConstantinople by Bajazet, who defeated an army | arius, who was invested with the highest dignity under Sigismund of Hungary, at Nicopolis, in 1396, of all. The Domestici were made commanders-inand compelled the Byzantine monarch to cede chief of the army. Among them the Domesticus of to the Turks one of the main streets of the city, the East (styled, par excellence, Megadomesticus) held which was saved from capture only by Timour's the highest rank, and finally, under the Palæologi, incursions into the Turkish territories, 1402. By was considered the first civil and military officer this diversion Manuel recovered some portion of of the realm. The provinces were ruled by the Byzantine provinces, but made so little use of governors bound to contribute certain sums to the the occasion, that, in 1422, the metropolis was again royal revenue, which gave rise to oppressive exacbesieged by Murad II., who, after he had over- tions. No distinction was made between the statethrown the force sent to aid the emperor by revenue and the privy-purse. For military service, Ladislaus, king of Hungary, at the battle of Varna, the land was divided into districts (Themata); and made Constantinople, in 1444, the limit of the the army, down to the later times, consisted almost domains of Johannes VI., son of Manuel, and entirely of foreign mercenary troops, the imperial compelled him to pay tribute. Constantine XI., body-guard, or Spatharii, who were mainly Gerbrother of Johannes, bravely but fruitlessly con- mans, holding the highest rank. The admiral of the tended against the overwhelming Turkish forces, fleet was styled Megas Dux. In the midst of conand fell heroically in the defence of Constantinople, stant internal and external disturbances, the adminiswhich was captured by Mohammed II., May 29, tration of justice was grossly neglected and abused, 1453, when the B. E. was brought to a close. The though Justinian and other emperors earnestly enpetty Latin princes who existed here and there in deavored to establish just laws. Greece, and the despots, Demetrius and Thomas, BYZA'NTINE HISTORIANS are those Greek who ruled in the Morea, were subdued by writers who have handled the history of the ByzanMohammed in 1460; while David, a member of the tine empire. They are divided into three classes Comnenian dynasty, the last emperor of Trebizond, 1. Those whose works refer exclusively to Byzantine submitted in 1461.

history; 2. Those who professedly occupy themselves It is almost superfluous, after this painful and with universal history, but at the same time treat bloody record of dynastic crimes and tumults, Byzantine history at disproportionate length; 3. continuing century after century for upwards of a Those who write on Byzantine customs, antiquities, thousand years, to affirm that the history of the architecture, etc. The B. H. are far from faultless, world never witnessed so miserable and degraded a yet, as they are the only sources of information caricature of imperial government as the •B. E. regarding the vast empire of the East, they are affords, or to express the conviction that nature was invaluable to us. The most interesting and instrucsternly satisfied to behold it finally swept from the tive among them, however, are those who confine face of the earth, even by the hands of barbarous their attention to a limited number of years, and

to the events which transpired under their own The constitution of the B. E. was founded observation, or in which they took part. The on the institutions of Diocletian and Constantine principal B. H. were collected and published at the Great, and was purely despotic. The emper- Paris in 36 vols., with Latin translations under the ors, who were consecrated by the Patriarchs of editorship of P. Philippe Labbé, a Jesuit, and his Constantinople, claimed, as the true descendants successors (1648—1711). This magnificent collecof the Cæsars, a sovereignty over the West as well tion was reprinted, with additions, at Venice, 1727 as the East, and styled themselves rulers of the ) --1733. In 1828, Niebuhr, assisted by Bekker, the

Turks.

BYZANTINES-BYZANTIUM.

two Dindorfs, Schopen, Meinecke, and Lachmann, monians in 403. Shortly afterwards, it renewed began a new Corpus Scriptorum Historic Byzantine, its alliance with Athens, and in 390, Thrasybulus of which many volumes have already appeared. altered its form of government from an oligarchy BYZANTINES, in Numismatics, is the term

into a democracy. When Athens again acquired applied to coins of the Byzantine empire. Byzan

a dangerous importance as a naval power, B., in

356, leagued itself with Chios, Rhodes, and King tine coins are of gold, silver and bronze; bear impressions distinct from those of the earlier Roman

Mausolus II. of Caria, and crippled the trade of the

former city; with which, however, it again formed coins; and were copied in several countries where the Byzantine standard was adopted. The com

an alliance, through the influence of Demosthenes, mercial relations of the Eastern empire served

in opposition to Philip of Macedon, who, in 341 to distribute its coinage over almost all the then

-340 B. C., vainly besieged Byzantium. Under known world. It was current in India, as well

Alexander the Great, B. retained a certain degree

of independence. For some time, B. was tributary as in the north of Europe. Recently, an increased attention has been paid to the study of Byzantine

to the Gauls, who settled in Thrace, after the death coins as aids to history.–Saulcy, Essai de Classi

of Brennus (280 B. c.). After the second Punic war,

when the Romans began to interfere in the affairs of fication de Suites Monétaires Byzantines (Metz, '1836).

Well, Grecian and Asiatic cities, B. attached itself to Rome,

and, retaining almost entire its former liberties, mainBYZANTIUM, a city which stood on the tained also its commercial inportance. In the civil Thracian Bosporus, was first founded by enigrants war between Septimius Severus and Pescennius from Megara in 667 B. C., and rapidly rose to impor Niger, B. sided with the latter. And was therefore tance as a seat of commerce. Its position was at besieged by Severus, and, after a brave defence of once secure and enchanting; it commanded the three years' duration, was captured in 196 A. D., and shores of Europe and Asia, had magnificent facili- reduced to ruin. Severus, repenting of the desolaties for trade, and was also encircled with rich, | tion which he had made, rebuilt a part of the city picturesque, and varied scenery. After a time of under the name of Augusta Antonina, and ornasubjugation under Darius Hystaspes, B. was liber- inented it with baths, porticos, &c. Caracalla ated from the Persian yoke by Pausanias. Along restored to the inhabitants their ancient privileges; with other Grecian seaports, B. revolted from and, in 330 A. D., under the name of New Rome or Athens in 440 B. C., but was captured by Aicibiades Constantinople, it was made the metropolis of the (408). Lysander recovered it for the Lacedæ- Roman empire. See CONSTANTINOPLE.

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THE third letter in all the alpha- 1 Eng. cart, pro. by some kyart), which would then V o s bets derived from the Roman. It readily slide into chambre. u corresponds in place to the Greek Ip the other Germanic alphabets, which were de

ganıma (T), and had originally the rived partly from the Roman and partly from the a same sound-viz., that of g in Greek, the Greek kappa or k is used almost to the 449) gun; as is expressly recorded, and exclusion of c, which, in German, Swedish, &c.,

as is proved by very old inscrip- appears only in words borrowed from the Romanic I tions, on which we read leciones, lece, for what languages. See letter K.

Gwere afterwards written legiones, lege. This! In modern English, c is pronounced like k before medial or flat guttural sound of c was at an early the vowels a, o, u, and like s before e, i, and y; and period of Roman history lost in the sharp guttural| where the sharp guttural sound has to be represented or k-sound (see ALPHABET), and this continued to be before e, i, and y, the Germanic k has superseded the pronunciation of the letter c in Latin down at the Anglo-Saxon c, as in king, keen. In so far as least to the 8th c. of the Christian era, not only in mere sound is concerned, c, is a superfluous letter such words as comes, clamo, but also before the vowels in Englishi; in every case its power could be repree and i. Such Latin words as Cicero, fecit, are uni-, sented either by k or by s. In the corresponding formly represented in Greek by Kikero, phekit; and words of the several Aryan languages, we find variin the times of the Empire, the Germans borrowed ous substitutions for c, thus: Lat. calamus, Eng. Kaiser, keller, from Cæsar, cellarium.

halm (stalk), Rus. soloma ; Lat. cord-, Eng. heart, It seems difficult, at first sight, to account for the Rus. serdtse ; Lat. collum, Ger. hals (neck); Lat. acer same letter having sounds so different as those (sharp), Fr. aigre, Eng. eager; Lat. duc- (lead or heard in call and in civil. The beginning of the draw), Ger. zog, Eng. tug ; Gr. pepo, Lat. coquo, Eng. transition is to be found in the effect produced upon cook; Lat. dictus, Ital. ditto. Ĉ sometimes disapcertai.) consonants by their standing before i| pears before I and r; thus : Gr. kleo (to sound one's followed by a vowel. Thus, in nation, ti has the fame, allied to kaleo, to call or shout), Lat. laudo, effect of sh; and out of diurnal has sprung journal. to praise, Ger. laut, voice, Eng. loud, Old Ger. In such combinations, į is originally a semivowel | hlud, fame (hence Hludwig or Clodowig, Clovis, having the force of y, and it is easy to see that tyon, | Louis). dyur, pronounced in one syllable, cannot but slide C, in Music, is the name of one of the notes of into the sibilant or hissing sounds of shon, jur. A the gamut. The scale of C major has neither flats precisely similar effect is produced on the k-sound nor sharps, and therefore is called the natural before ia, iu, io; in Lucius, Porcia, or rather scale. The different octaves of the ganiut, beginLukyus, Porkya, ky tends to slide into a hissing ning with C, are called by the Germans the great, sound similar to that of ty and dy. This tendency small, one-stroked, two-stroked, &c., beginning withi shewed itself early in the Latin tongue; and in the

- = = vulgar Latin of later ages, and in the Romantic EF; thus, C, C, C, C, C. tongues that sprang out of it, it fully developed itself, so that the Italian came to pronounce Lucia as if written Lutshia. Combinations like ceo, cea, C is also the sound on which the system of music are little different from cio and cia, and would is founded, and from which the mathematical pro. naturally follow the same course : and the s sound | portions of intervals are taken ; that is, a string of a being once associated with the letter c in these given length sounding C, when divided into certain positions, was gradually extended to it in cases where proportions, is made to produce harmonically the inthe e or ¿ was not followed by a vowel.

tervals of the different fundamental chords. The Anglo Saxon alphabet resembled the Roman, C Major, the first of the twelve major keys in from which it sprang, in having no k, and in modern music; being the natural scale, it has no always using c with the sound of k; king and signature. keen were spelled cuning and cene. It was also with-/ C Minor, the tonic minor of C major, has three out a, for which cw was usedequick being spelled flats for its signature-viz., B flat, E flat, and A flat. cwic. By a process analogous to that described | CAABA. See KAABA. above, such Anglo-Saxon words as ceori, ceosan (pro. | CAA'ING WHALE (Globicephalus deductor), a kyorl, kyosan), became transformed into the English cetaceous animal, which was formerly placed by natuchurl, choose. And this suggests a natural explana ralists in the genus Delphinus, but is now distinguished tion of the multitude of cases where the c of the therefrom on account of important characters of the Latin has been transformed into ch in French, and limbs and teeth. Thus the phalanges are more nuhas passed in this form into English-e. g., Lat. merous than in other genera of Delphinide, and the caput, Fr. chef, Eng. chief; Lat. caminus, Eng. limbs have a lower and more approximated position, chimney; Lat. carmen, Eng. charm. For as the | Among the species are the G, macrorhynchus of the Anglo-Saxons turned the karl or korl of the other South Seas, and G. scammonii of the North Pacific. Gothic nations into kyorl, so doubtless the Roman. They are all characterized by the rounded muzzle, ised Gauls corrupted the pronunciation of the and the convex and rounded top of the head. The Latin camera, for example, into kyamera (compare general form of the animal is not unlike that of the

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