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common porpoise, but it is much larger, being from some have supposed; but merely the ingenious 16 to 24 feet in length. The body is thick, its application of a word previously in use, and whiclı circumserence at the origin of the dorsal fin, where appears to have been derived from the French it is greatest, being rather more than 10 feet, taper- cabale, possessing a similar signification. ing towards the tail, which is deeply forked. The

CABANIS, PIERRE JEAN GEORGES, a French physician, philosophical writer, and partisan of Mirabeau in the Revolution, was born at Cosnac, in the department of the Charente-Inférieure, 1757, When he had completed his studies in Paris (1773), he went to Warsaw, in the capacity of secretary to a Polish magnate. On his return to Paris, he was for some time engaged in literary pursuits, from which he turned his attention to an earnest study of medicine. At the outbreak of the Revolution, he attached himself to the liberal side, but detested the cruelties which followed. For Mirabeau, whose opinions he received, he wrote a work on national education, which was published after the death of that great orator (1791). C. was one of the Council of Five Hundred, afterwards member of the senate, and administrator of the hospitals of Paris. He died May 5, 1808. His chief work, Rapports du Physique et du Moral de l'Homme, completed in

1802, gained its author a considerable reputation Caaing Whale.

as a writer and philosopher. The work displays pectoral fins are remarkably long and narrow, fully no mean power of observation and analysis, but 5 feet in length, differing very much in this is vitiated by a sensationalism so absolute, 'that respect from those of every other known cetaceous it seems at first sight as if the author were animal. The whole number of vertebræ is 55. The burlesquing with grave irony the doctrines of his

brother-materialists. He denies that the soul is colour is black, with a white streak from the throat to the vent; and the skin is beautifully smooth, brain to be merely a particular organ specially fitted

an entity ; it is only a faculty; and declares the shining like oiled silk.

The C. W. feeds on cod, ling, and other large to produce thought, as the stomach and the intesfishes, but also to a great extent on cephalopodous tines perform the function of digestion. C. traces mollusca, the cuttle-fish, indeed, seeming to be its this grotesque analogy through all its, niceties, principal food. It is the most gregarious of all the and at last triumphantly concludes, that the Cetacea, great shoals or herds being usually seen brain digests impressions and organically secretes together in the northern seas which it inhabits. thought !' He afterwards greatly modified his views. These herds exhibit the same propensity with flocks

CABATUAN, a city of the province of Iloilo, on of sheep, when pressed by any danger, to follow the island of Panay, one of the Philippines. It is their leaders, so that when they are hemmed in situated on the banks of the river Tiguin, which so by boats, if one break through to the open sea, all abounds with crocodiles that fishing is unsafe. escape; but if one is driven ashore, the rest rush Navigation is very uncertain, the river being someforward with such blind impetuosity as to strand times nearly dry, while at others it overflows its themselves upon the beach, where they become banks, and deluges the surrounding country. The an easy prey and rich .prize to their pursuers. The city was founded in 1732, and possesses a population appearance of a herd of caaing whales in a northern of 23,000, who are chiefly engaged in the production bay produces a scene of great excitement, and of rice, and of cocoa-nut oil. every boat is in requisition. From 50 to 100

CABAZERA, capital of the province of Cagayan, whales are often captured, and it is recorded that island of Luzon, Philippines. Pop. 15,000. Tobacco 1110 were killed, in the winter of 1809—1810, at is grown very extensively in the province, and its Hvalfiord, in Iceland. The word caaing is not the manufacture affords employment to large numbers Scottish form of calling, as has been supposed, but of people. is a totally different Scotch word, which signifies

CA'BBAGE (Brassica oleracea; see BRASSICA), driving. C. W. appears to be originally an Orkney

a plant in most general cultivation for culinary or Zetland name. The same animal is known to sailors as the Black Whale, the Howling Whale, also to a considerable extent for feeding cattle. It

purposes in Europe and other countries, cultivated the Social Whale, and the Pilot-fish.-Another is a native of the rocky shores of Britain and other species of the same genus, G. Rissoanus, 9 or 10 feet long, the male of a bluish-white colour, the parts of Europe, more plentiful on the shores of the female brown, both sexes marked with irregular in its wild state is generally from a foot to two

Mediterranean than in more northern latitudes, and white lines and brown spots, is found in the feet high. This plant has been cultivated in Europe Mediterranean.

from time immemorial ; it has likewise been cultiCABAGA'N, a. thriving town, situated at the vated from an early period in gardens and about northern extremity of the island of Luzon, one of villages in India. Few plants shew so great a tenthe Philippines, with a population of about 11,000.

dency to vary in their form through cultivation; and CABAʼL, a term employed to denote a small, among the varieties of this one species are reckoned intriguing, factious party in the state, and also several of our most esteemed culinary vegetables, a union of several such, which, for political or such as Kale (q. v.) or Greens, Borecole, Colewort personal ends, agree to modify or sacrifice their |(q. v.), Savoy (q. v.), Kohl Rabi (q. v.), Cauliflower principles. The word was used to describe an English (q. v.), and Broccoli (q. v.)-plants which differ ministry in the reign of Charles II., the initials much in their appearance and in the particular of whose names composed CABAL—viz., Clifford, qualities for which they are valuable, both from Ashley, Buckingham, Arlington, and Lauderdale. each other and from the original wild plant. This was not the origin of the word, however, as The wild C. has smooth sea-green leaves, waved



and variously indented; the bolling of the leaves, 1 by their tails, often under ledges of garden-walls, or their forming close heads at a certain stage of or similar projections, and are metamorphosed into the growth of the plant, so that the inner leaves are shining pale-green chrysalids, spotted with black, blanched, is peculiar to those cultivated varieties from which the perfect insect emerges, either in which commonly receive the name of cabbage. the same season or after the lapse of a winter

The ordinary varieties of C. are often called by no longer to devour cabbage-leaves, but to subsist the general name of White C., to distinguish them delicately upon honey, which it sucks from flowers. from the Red C., which is of a deep brownish-red See INSECTS.-— The SMALL C. B., or Small Garden or purplish colonr, and is chiefly used for pickling, White Butterfly, sometimes called the TURNIP for which purpose it is much esteemed. The Tree BUTTERFLY (Pontia or Pieris Rapæ), very much C., or Cow C., is a variety cultivated for cattle, resenibles the Large C. B., but the expanse of the especially in the Channel Islands and the north of wings is only about 2 inches. The eggs are laid France, of which the leaves do not close together singly on the under side of the leaves of cabbages, into compact heads, but which is remarkable for its turnips, &c., and the caterpillars, which are of a great height-reaching, when it is in flower, ten feet velvety appearance, pale green, with a yellow on rich soils—and for its branching stem. The line along the back, and a yellow dotted line stems of this kind are sometimes used as stakes for on each side, sometimes appear in great numbers, pease, and even as cross-spars for thatched roofs. and prove very destructive. They bore into the The Portugal or Tranxuda C., also known as Couve hearts of cabbages, instead of merely stripping the Tronchuda, is a variety remarkable for its delicacy, leaves, like those of the last species, and thus and for the large midribs of its leaves, which are are a greater pest, even when comparatively few. often used like sea-kale. It is an article of luxury The chrysalis is of a pale reddish-brown colour, like cauliflower, and requires a somewhat similar freckled with black.--A third species, also common cultivation.-C.-seed is sown either in spring or in Britain, the GREEN-VEINED WHITE BUTTERFLY autumn, and the seedlings transplanted in rows at (Pontia or Pjeris Napi), very nearly resembles the distances of two feet or upwards, according to the small cabbage butterfly.--The excessive multiplicasize of the variety. They are often planted closer, tion of these insects is generally prevented by small and the alternate plants cut young for open greens, birds, which devour them and their caterpillars, and for which the sprouts that arise from the stem of by insects of the Ichneumon (q. v.) tribe, which lay some varieties after the head has been cut off are their eggs in the caterpillars, that their own larvæ also used. Cabbages require a rich, well-manured may feed on them. soil, and the earth about the roots ought to be CABBAGE FLY (Anthomyia Brassicce), a fly of often stirred. By sowing and planting at different the same family with the house-fly, flesh-fly, &c., dates and of different varieties, a succession is and of which the larvæ or maggots often do great secured in the garden; and when winter approaches, injury to the roots of cabbages, and sometimes to part of the principal crop may be taken up and laid those of turnips. It is of the same genus with the in a sloping position, so that only the heads are above fly generally known as the Turnip Fly (q. v.), and the earth, in which way they are generally preserved also with the Potato Fly (q. v.), Beet Fly (q. v.), &c. without injury. In some places, cabbages are com- It is about one-fourth of an inch in length, and half pletely buried in the earth, the plants not being an inch in expanse of wings ; of an ash-gray colour; allowed to touch each other; and this method the male having a silvery gray face, and a long succeeds well in peaty or sandy soils.

black streak on the forehead; the female, a silvery The C., considered as food, contains more than 90 white face, without any black streak; the abdomen per cent. of water, and therefore cannot be very of the male is linear, that of the female terminates nutritious: 100 parts of the ordinary C. consist of

conically; the eyes of the male nearly meet on the Extractive,

crown, those of the female are distant, with a broad Gummy matters,

black stripe between them.

The larva is very
Vegetable albumen,

similar to that of the flesh-fly-yellowish white, Green fecula,

tapering to the head, which has two black hooks. Water and salts,

The pupa is rust-coloured and horny. The digestibility of C. varies according as it is CABBAGE MOTH (Mamestra or Noctua Braspartaken of raw or boiled: thus, raw C. alone is sicæ), a species of moth, the caterpillar of which digested in: 24 hours ; raw C. with vinegar, in 2 feeds on cabbage and turnip leaves, and is somehours ; and boiled C. takes 44 hours. Immense times very destructive. The caterpillar is greenishquantities of cabbages are used in Germany as black, and changes to a brown pupa in autumn. Sauer Kraut (q. v.).

The perfect insect is of a rich mottled-brown colour, CABBAGE BARK. See ANDIRA.

the upper wings clouded and waved with darker CA'BBAGE BUTTERFLY, a

brown, and having pale and white spots, a yellowish to several species of butterfly, the larvæ of which line near the fringe, the fringe dotted with black devour the leaves of cruciferous plants, especially and ochre, the under wings brownish and white.

CABBAGE PALM of the cabbage tribe, and are popularly known as

CABBAGE TREE, cabbage-worms or kale-worms. "The Large C. B., name given in different countries to different species or Large White Garden Butterfly (Pontia Brassicæ, of Palm, the great terminal bud of which—the Palin or Pieris Brassicce), is one of the most common of Cabbage—is eaten like cabbage. The C. P. of the British butterflies. It is white; the wings tipped West Indies is Areca oleracea. The Southern States and spotted with black. The wings, when expanded, of America have also their C. P. or Cabbage Tree, measure from 24 to 3 inches across. The antennæ otherwise called the Palmetto (Chamaerops Palmetto). terminate in an ovoid club. The female lays See ARECA, EUTERPE, PALM, and PALMETTO. her eggs, which are conical and bright yellow, in CABBALA (from Heb. kibbel, to receive), the clusters of 20 or 30, on the leaves of the plants received doctrine, by which is not to be understood wbich are the destined food of the caterpillars. the popularly accepted doctrine, but that inner or The caterpillars, when fully grown, are about 1 inch mystical interpretation of the Law which the Cabor 17 inch long, and are excessively voracious, balists allege that Moses received from God in the eating twice their own weight of cabbage-leaf in 24 mount, and subsequently taught to Joshua, who in hours. When fyll grown, they suspend themselves his turn communicated it to the seventy elders, and

2:34 2.89 0.05 0.29 0.63 93.80






which has ever since been the treasure of the select the statutes for the formation of an Icarian

Jews. Since the 12th c., the study of this secret colony' on the Red River in Texas; inviting his lore has gradually resulted in a distinct school followers to emigrate. The first division sailed on and literature, the elements of which, however, are the 2d February 1848, but a short experience already visible in the Macedonian epoch, and the convinced them that Texas was anything, but a real or historical source of which is to be found in Utopia. Their complaints reached Europe, but did the eastern doctrine of emanation. In Philo, in not deter C. from embarking at the head of a second the Talmud, &c., we certainly find theologico-philo- band of colonists. On his arrival, he learned that the sophical conceptions, which were at a later period Mormons had just been expelled from Nauvoo, in taken up and modified; but the first book on Illinois, and that their city was left deserted. The cosmogony is Jezirah, a production of the 7th c., Icariens established themselves there in May.1850. attributed to Akiba. After the second half of the C. now returned to France, to repel the accusations 12th c., the Cabbalistic doctrines, which had at first against his probity which had been circulated during been confined to such high themes as God and his absence, and to obtain a reversal of the judgcreation, began to include exegesis, ethics, and ment which had been formally pronounced against philosophy, and so became a kind of mystical him, 30th September 1849. Having succeeded in religious philosophy. The numerous Cabbalistic this, he went back to Nauvoo, where he governed, writings composed during the three subsequent as a sort of dictator, his petty colony, until 1856, centuries, professed to teach the secret or mystical when he was deprived of his office, and obliged to flee sense of Holy Writ, and the principles on which it to St. Louis, where he died 9th December of the is grounded, the higher meaning of the Law, as well same year. In justice to Cabet it should be said that as the method of performing miracles, by the use of the highest moral tone prevailed at Nauvoo, and that divine names and sacred incantations. The Cab- his colony on the upper Mississippi, as respects the balists, moreover, prepared books, which they attri- conduct of his people, was a model of purity and inbuted to the oldest authorities---for instance, Sohar, dustry. a work written in Aramaic, during the 13th c., and

CABEZA DEL BUEY, a town of the new profathered upon Simeon-ben-Joachai, a scholar. of vince of Badajoz, Spain, about 86 miles east-southAkiba. This became the Bible of the Cabbalistic east of the city of Badajoz. It is situated on the neophytes. The chief opponents of the Cabbalists northern slope of the Sierra Pedregoso, has manuwere the philosophers, and in part the Talmudists. factures of woollens and linens, and a trade in cattle Towards the close of the 16th c., the Cabbalistic and agricultural produce. Pop. 5395. wisdom, which by that time had degenerated into magic and word-juggling, received a new impulse CABEZO'N DE LA SAL, a town of Spain, in from its teachers in Palestine and Italy. Since the the province of Valladolid, about 7 miles north

It is situated time of Reuchlin, many Christian scholars have in- north-east of the city of that name. vestigated the subject.

on the Pisuerga, and is celebrated as the scene of CABEIRI, divinities anciently worshipped in one of the first battles of the Peninsular campaign, Egypt, Phænicia, Asia Minor, and Greece. The in which the Spaniards were signally defeated by the ancients have left us very obscure notices of the C., French. Pop. 2000. and learned men have been unable to reach any

CA'BIN is the general name for a room or apartsatisfactory conclusions with regard to them and ment on shipboard. In ships of war, the livingtheir worship. It is certain that the worship had rooms of the admirals and captains are called state both its mysteries and its orgies, and it appears also cabins, and are fitted up with much elegance, with that the c. were amongst the inferior divinities, a gallery or balcony projecting at the stern. The and regarded as dwelling upon the earth, like the chief officers below the captain have their cabins on Curetes Corybantes, and Dactyles, and were prob- either side of the main-deck; while those of the ably representatives of the powers of nature.

subordinate commissioned officers are, in large ships, CA'BÉS, or KHABS, Gulf of (ancient Syrtis on either side of the lower or orlop deck. Alí Minor), an inlet of the Mediterranean Sea, lying the cabins of a ship of war are enclosed by light between the islands of Kerkenna and Jerba, on the panelling, which is quickly removable when preparnorth-east coast of Africa, in lat. about 34° N., and ing for action. long. from 10° to 11° E. The town of Cabes (ancient Tacape) stands at the head of the gulf.

CA'BINET (Ital. gabinetto), a small chamber set

apart for some special purpose, such as the conserCABET, ÉTIENNE, a notable French communist, vation of works of art, antiquities, specimens of was born at Dijon, January 2, 1788, and educated natural objects, models, and the like. From signifyfor the bar, but turned his attention to literature ing the chamber in which such collectious are conand polities. Under the Restoration, he was one of tained, the term has recently come to be employed the leaders of the Carbonari (q. v.), and in 1831 was by us, in imitation of the French, to signify the colelected deputy for the department of Côte d'Or. lections themselves, and this even when they fill Soon afterwards, he published a History of the July many rooms or galleries. It often means simply a Revolution (1832), started a Radical Sunday paper, small room appended to a larger one, when it is also Le Papulaire (1833), and, on account of an article called an anteroom, a retiring-room, and the like. in this paper, was sentenced to two years' imprison- See CLOSET. CABINET Picture, a picture suited for ment, but escaped to London. Here he wrote

a cabinet or small room. C. pictures are generally brochures against the July government, and began small in size, highly finished, and thus suited for. his communistic studies. After the amnesty, 1839, close inspection. he returned to Paris, and published a History of the

CABINET. See MINISTRY, French Revolution (4 vols., 1840), bestowing great

. praise on the old Jacobins. He attracted far more CA'BLE is either a large rope, or a chain of iron notice by his Voyage en Icarie (1840), a philoso- links, chiefly employed on shipboard to suspend and phical and social romance,' describing a communistic retain the anchors. Rope cables are made of the Utopia. The work obtained great popularity among best hemp, twisted into a mass of great compactness the working-classes of Paris. C. next proceeded and strength. The circumference varies from about to turn his philosophical romance' into a reality, 3 inches to 26. A certain number of yarns are and published (1847) in his journal, Le Populaire, twisted to form lissum; three lissums






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twisted in an opposite direction to form a strand; and three strands are twisted (in the same direction as the yarns in a lissum) to form a cable. The number of yarns in a C. of given size is not always alike, because the yarns slightly vary in thickness; but the following is among many tables which have been prepared relating to pared with those of hemp: such as the greater cables of 120 fathoms, and of the usual degrees of weight, the less elasticity, and the greater care rethickness :

quired in management; but the advantages more than counterbalance these defects, and have led to the very extensive adoption of chain cables both in men-of-war and in merchant ships.

CABLE-MOULDING, in Architecture, is a moulding cut in the form of a rope, the twisting being prominently shewn. It was much used in the later

Norman style Some cables are made with four strands, but three is CABLING, the moulding by which the hollow the common number. If a C. be twisted too much, parts in the flutes of columns and pilasters in it is stiff; if too little, it is weak. The strength of classical architecture are often partially filled. The a C. of 18 inches circumference is found to be about C. seldoms extends beyond the third part of the 60 tons; and for other dimensions, the strength shaft from the ground. varies according to the cube of the 'diameter. On CABOʻCHED, or CABOʻSSED, an shipboard, cables receive the names of chief cables, heraldic term, from the old French bower cables, &c., according to the anchor to which word caboche, the head. When the they are attached. During the last great European head of an animal is borne, without war, the largest ships in the British navy carried ten any part of the neck, and exhibited cables, most of which were about two feet, or a full in face, it is said to be caboched. little more, in circumference. Although ships seldom anchor at a greater depth than 40 fathoms, it is ish, kabyse, a cook's room in a ship;

CABOOʻSE, or CAMBOOSE (Dan- Stag's Head

Caboched. not deemed safe to trust the anchor to a C. of 120 Ger. kabuse, a little room), is the fathoms, lest the C. should be jerked by a high sea

name of the kitchen or cook-room in a merchantwhen too nearly perpendicular; two are spliced together at the ends, and the C. of 240 fathoms thus ship. In coasting-vessels, the term is applied to a

portable cast-iron stove on the deck, where food is produced acts more like an elastic spring.

cooked. CHAIN CABLES are made of links, the length of each of which is generally about six diameters of

CABOT, the name of two Venetians, father and the iron of which it is made, and the breadth son, both celebrated as navigators and discoverers. about three and a half diameters. In government - GIOVANNI CABOT, or CABOTTO, the father, whose contracts, chain cables are required to be made business compelled him to reside much in Bristol, in 127 fathoms lengths, with one swivel in the was appointed by Henry VII., March 5, 1496, to the

command of a squadron of five vessels on a voyage
of discovery in the Atlantic Ocean.
dition he was accompanied by his sons Ludovico,
Sebastiano (born at Bristol, 1477), and Sanzio. On
the 24th of June 1497, the coast of Labrador, North
America, was sighted. The merit of this discovery
has been generally ascribed to the navigator's second
son, Sebastian C., the most scientific of the family ;
but an extract from a chart preserved by Hakluyt
mentions the father before the son. The expedition
returned in August 1497. In 1498, a second was
made, with what results we do not know; and in
1499, a third to the Gulf of Mexico. About this
time, Giovanni, the father, appears to have died, and
we hear no more of Sebastian till 1512, when he
entered the service of Ferdinand, king of Spain.
During the year 1515, he was engaged in revising
maps and charts, in connection with his profession,

and in planning an exploration of the North-west Chain and Hemp Cables.

Passage to Asia, which, however, was laid aside

on account of the death of Ferdinand in 1516. middle of every alternate length, and one joining- C., who seems to have been no favourite with the shackle in each length. The stay-pins, to strengthen Spanish courtiers, was now subjected to a series of the links, are of cast iron. The bar or rod from contemptible insults. This usage induced him to which each link is made, has the two ends cut return to England, and in 1517, he was appointed diagonally; it is bent into the form of a nearly by Henry VIII. to the command of an expedition to complete oval ring; and then the two ends are Labrador. He reached lat. 677° N., and entered joined and welded, the stay-pin being at the same Hudson's Bay, where he gave names to several places; time introduced at the proper place. Besides the but the expedition proved on the whole a failure, ordinary links, there are end-links, joining-shackles, on account of the cowardice or malice of his vicesplicing-tails, mooring-swivels, and bending-swivels. commandant, Sir Thomas Perte. C. now entered The sizes of chain cables are denoted by the thick- again into the Spanish service, was made pilotness of the rod-iron selected for the links. The major of the kingdom by Charles V., and commanded following table gives certain ascertained quantities an expedition which examined the coast of Brazil concerning the cables in ordinary use :

and La Plata, which he attempted to colonise. In

In this expe

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1531, he returned to Spain, and resumed his old | the Carlist party in Spain, was born at Tortosa, situation ; but in 1548, he once more betook himself in Catalonia, 31st August 1810. The death of to England, where he was well received by King Ferdinand, in 1833, gave the signal for a civil Edward VI., who made him Inspector of the Navy, war, and first brought C. into notice. Placing and gave him a pension. To this monarch he seems himself at the head of some guerilla troops, he to have explained the variation of the magnetic joined the Absolutists, or partisans of Don Carlos, needle in several places, which he was among the and by his vigilance, energy, and daring soon first, if not the very first, to notice particularly. In rose to be second in command in the Maestrazgo 1553, C. was the prime mover and director of the district.

Throughout Aragon and Valencia his expedition of Merchant Adventurers which opened name became a by-word for cruelty. After peneto England an important commerce with Russia. It | trating as far south as Andalusia, his forces were is not known exactly when C. died.--Memoir of Se- completely routed by the royal troops, on the borbastian Cabot (Lond. 1831).

ders of Aragon, and he himself, severely wounded, CABOTZ. See Cusso.

escaped with difficulty into the woods.

rumoured that C. was dead, when all at CA'BRA (ancient Ægabrum), a town of Spain, in the province of Cordova, 30 miles south-east of the 1600 horse. Invading the province of Valencia,

once he re-appeared at the head of 10,000 foot and city of that name. C. is irregularly built between

he two hills, and surrounded with gardens; vine- February 1837, and again on the 19th March at .

overthrew the royal army at Buñol, 18th yards in the neighbourhood produce excellent wine. Burjasot ; but was in his turn vanquished at It is chiefly agricultural; but it has manufactures Torre-Blanca, and once more compelled to seek of woollen, linen, hats, soap, earthenware, &c.

a hiding-place. Shortly after, he re-opened the Pop. 11,576.

war with fiery energy.

Madrid itself was threatCABRAL, or CABRERA, PEDRO ALVAREZ, the ened by C., who about this time, received the title discoverer of Brazil, was descended from an old and of count of Morella for liis vigorous defence of the patrician Portuguese family. Nothing is known of fortress of that name, and was also appointed his early life, save the fact, that he must have governor-general of Aragon, Valencia, and Murcia. recommended himself by talent and enterprise to The Carlists now believed that the triumph of King Emanuel of Portugal, who, after the first absolutism was approaching, when the treachery voyage of Vasco de Gama, appointed C. to the of the Carlist General, Marotto changed the whole command of a fleet of 13 vessels, carrying 1200 men, aspect of affairs, and Don Carlos fled from Spain. and bound for the East Indies. On the 9th March c. held out until Espartero forced him to quit the 1500, he sailed from Lisbon. To avoid the incon- country in the summer of 1840. He then entered venience of being becalmed on the coast of Africa, France, where he was taken prisoner, and confined he took a course too far westerly, fell into the South for a short time in the fortress of Ham. In 1845, American current of the Atlantic, and was carried he strongly opposed Don Carlos's abdication of his to the unknown coast of Brazil, of which he claimed rights. On the outbreak of the French revolution possession for the king of Portugal, April 24, 1500, in 1848, he renewed the struggle on behalf of naming the new country "Terra da Santa Cruz.' | absolutism in Spain; but the adventure proved a After sending home one vessel to bear news of this miserable failure, and on the 27th January 1849, great accidental discovery, C. sailed for India; but he recrossed the Pyrenees, and has since lived in on the 29th of May, four of his vessels foundered, exile. He took no active part in the recent attempt and all on board perished, including Diaz the great of General Ortega (April 1860) to disturb the peace navigator; and soon afterwards three more vessels of Spain. were lost. C. therefore landed at Mozambique, on the east coast of Africa, of which he first gave clear

CABU'L, a river in Afghanistan, rises in lat. 34 information, and also discovered (August 23) the 21' N., and long. 68° 20' E., on the southern decliAntschedives Islands, of which he described correctly vities of the Hindu Kush or Indian Caucasus. Its the position. Hence he sailed to Calicut, where, source is 8400 feet above the level of the sea; and baving made the terror of his arms felt, he was

an eastward run of 320 miles, with a fall of about permitted to found a factory; entered into success- 7500 feet, along North Afghanistan, through the ful negotiations with native rulers, and thus estab- Khyber Mountains, and across Peshawur, carries lished the first commercial treaty between Portugal it into the Indus, opposite to Attock, in the and India. He returned from India, bringing with Punjab. The point of confluence marks the head of bim a considerable booty, and arrived in the port of navigation on the main stream, while the tributary Lisbon, July 31, 1501. It appears probable that the itself is practicable about 50 miles upwards for king was dissatisfied with the results of the expedi- craft of 40 or 50 tons. By means, therefore, of the tion (although it had annexed Brazil to the crown

two taken as one line, there exists an available of Portugal), for subsequently we find no mention communication of about 1000 miles between the

The made of Č. among other discoverers. At the request Khyber Mountains and the Indian Ocean. of C., Sancho de Toar wrote a description of the c. washes the cities of Cabul, Jelalabad, and coast of Sofola.

C.'s voyages are described in Dobundee. Ramusio's Navigatione e Viaggi, 3 vols. (Venice,

CABU'L (city) stands in lat. 34° 30' N., and 1563; new ed., Venice, 1835).

long. 69° 6' E., near the point where the river, here CABRE'RA, a small island in the Mediterranean, crossed by three bridges, ceases to be fordable. lying off the southern point of Majorca. It is about Elevated about 6400 feet, and overtopped, within three miles in length and breadth, with an irregular a short distance to the north, by pinnacles of the coast, and is little else than a barren calcareous Indian Caucasus, about 14,000 feet higher than rock. The only interest attached to C. is, that dur- itself, C. differs widely in climate from most places ing the war in the Peninsula it formed a Spanish on the same parallel. The winter is severe and depôt for French prisoners, who were crowded in the summer is temperate, ranging from 75° to thousands into the desolate spot, and treated with 85° F., though sudden vicissitudes of temperature great barbarity; of which an account is given in a

are common at every season, and more particularly popular work, entitled the Adventures of a French in the warmer months. C. is celebrated all over Sergeant.

the East for the variety and excellence of its fruits. CABRERA, Don Ramon, the boldest leader of Within a circuit of three miles, it has a population

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