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paunch with chopped straw and other such agreeable / vain to maintain his independence: and when Guido stuffing, and then sews up the wound with a plough- returned from his unsuccessful expedition to France. share for a needle, and an iron chain for a thread. In he was persuaded to put himself in opposition to some places, she is the queen of the crickets. She B., and was chosen king of Italy. With the help of is represented as having a long iron nose and an Arnulf, however, B. ultimately prevailed. After the immensely large foot. That she was once an object death of Guido in 894, his son Lambert compelled of worship, is testified by the numerous springs, &c., B. to share with him the sovereignty of North that bear her name in Salzburg and elsewhere. It Italy; but, on the assassination of Lambert in 898, is likely that many of the Sagas of B. were trans- B. contrived to obtain possession of the whole of ferred to the famous Berthas (q. v.) of history and Lombardy. His influence quickly sank. He could fable. The numerous stories of the White Lady' check neither the plundering incursions of the who appears in noble houses at night, rocks and Hungarians across the Alps in the north, nor those nurses the children wbile the nurses are asleep, and of the Arabs, who laid waste the shores of the south. acts as the guardian angel of the race, have doubt. The nobles now called in Louis, king of Lower less their root in the ancient heathen goddess Burgundy, who was crowned at Rome in 901; but Berchta.

he proved no better, and was finally overpowered BE'RCHTESGADEN, a village of Bavaria, by Berengar. In 915, B. was crowned emperor by charmingly situated on a mountain slope, about 15 Pope John X. ; but the nobles, who appear to have miles south of Salzburg. Pop. 3000. It has a royal kept themselves during his reign in a state of hunting lodge, but the place is most remarkable for chronic disaffection, again revolted, and, in 919, its government salt-mines, from which 16,000 cwt. of placed themselves under the banner of Rodolf of rock-salt is annually obtained. During the residence Burgundy, who completely overthrew B. on the 29th of the court, the mine is sometimes illuminated, and July_923. The latter, in his extremity, called in its chambers are then seen to great advantage. the Hungarians to his aid, which unpatriotic act

BERCY, a town of France, in the department of alienated the minds of all Italians from him, and the Seine, situated on the right bank of the river of cost him his life, for he was assassinated in the the same name. It forms a suburb of Paris, and following year, 924. has a population of 14,239. It has a large business BE'RENGAR II., the son of Adalbert, Count of in wines and other liquors.

Ivrea, and grandson of Berengar I., succeeded to his BERDIA'NSK, a well-built. seaport town of father's possessions in 925, and married Willa, niece of Southern Russia, government of Taurida, on the Hugo, king of Italy, in 934. Incited by his ambitious northern coast of the Sea of Azov. B. has the finest and unscrupulous wife, he conspired against Hugo, roads in the Sea of Azov, and is a place of great and in consequence was compelled to flee to Germany, commercial activity, being the entrepôt for the where he was received in a friendly manner, by the products of surrounding governments. It has a Emperor Otto I. In 945, he recrossed the Alps at trade in fish, wood, grain, coal, and salt; there the head of an army. The nobles and the townsare also extensive coal-mines and salt-lakes in its people both welcomed him; but, instead of assuming vicinity. Pop. about 7000. In 1855, during the the crown himself, he handed it over to the weak Crimean campaign, Captain Lyons destroyed govern- Lothaire, the son of Hugo. On the death of Lothaire, ment property to a large amount, but the town was who was probably poisoned by Willa, B. allowed spared.

himself to be crowned along with his son Adalbert, BERDITCHE'V, a town in the government of in 950. To establish himself firmly in his new Kiev, Russian Poland, famous for its four annual position, he wanted Adelheid, the youthful widow fairs. At these, cattle, corn, wine, honey, leather, of Lothaire, to marry his son. She refused, and &c., are disposed of. The average annual value of was subjected to a most cruel imprisonment, but the sales is £600,000. Pop. 58,645, chiefly Jews. ultimately found a helper and husband in the

BERE'ANS, an almost extinct sect of Christians, Emperor Otto himself, who, at the imperial diet of who originated in Scotland in the 18th c. Their Augsburg in 952, compelled B. to acknowledge Italy name is derived from the circumstance that the to be a fief of the German empire. B. soon after inhabitants of Berea received the word with all engaged in war with the emperor, who sent his readiness of mind, and searched the Scriptures son Ludolf against him. Ludolf was successful, but daily.'— Acts xvii. 11. The founder of the B. was died in 957, of poison, administered, as was believed, the Rev. John Barclay, a native of Perthshire, by Willa. B. again mounted the throne, but behaved b. 1734, d. 1798. From him they also received the with such intolerable tyranny that his subjects and name of Barclayans. They believe that the know-Pope John XII. called in the aid of the emperor, ledge of God's existence and character is derived who marched into Italy in 961, and took possession from the Bible alone, and not from reason or of the country. B. took refuge in a mountainnature ; that the Psalms of David do not relate to fortress, where be held out till 964, when hunger David at all, but exclusively to Christ; that assur. compelled him to capitulate. He was sent as & ance is of the essence of faith; and that unbelief is prisoner to Bamberg, in Bavaria, where he died in the unpardonable sin. In the ordinary points of 966. His wife, Willa, retired into a content, and his doctrine, they are Calvinistic.

three sons died in exile. BE'RENGAR I., King of Italy, was the son of BERENGA'RIUS OF TOURS, a distinguished Eberhard, Duke of Friuli, and of Gisela, the daughter scholastic theologian, was born at Tours, in France, of the Emperor Louis the Pious. He and Guido, 998 A. D. His master, Fulbert de Chartres, is Duke of Spoleto, were the two most powerful and reported to have prophesied on his death-bed that B. ambitious nobles in Italy at the close of the 9th c. would prove a dangerous man. In 1030, he was After the deposition of Charles the Fat in 887, B., appointed preceptor of the school of St. Martin, in Guido, and Adalbert, Count of Tuscany, became Tours, and in 1040, made Archdeacon of Angers. candidates for the Carlovingian throne. B. was Here he continued to deliver his metaphysicocrowned king of Italy at Pavia in 888, while Guido theological prelections, and drew upon himself the attempted to secure the realm of France. The charge of heresy, in reference to the doctrine of former soon irritated the nobles against him by transubstantiation. He held the doctrine of Scotus condescending to hold his territory in fief from Erigena, that the bread and wine in the sacrament Arnulf, king of Germany, against whom he found it of the eucharist remained bread and wine, and that BERENICE-BERESINA.



the faith of the believer who recognised their symbolic i of B. and Titus forms the subject of a tragedy by meaning only transformed them subjectively into | Racine. the body and blood of Christ. This interpretation BERENI'CÉ (modern name, Sakáyt-el-Kublee, was condemned by Pope Leo IX., 1049-1050, and Southern Sakáyt '), a town of Egypt, on a bay in also by King Henry I. of France. In 1054, he the Red Sea, 20° miles south-west of Rass Bernass. retracted his opinion before the Council of Tours, It was founded by Ptolemy Philadelphus, and was but what B. meant by 'retractation' it is not easy to in ancient times the emporium of the trade with see, for he immediately returned to his conviction, India, but it is now ruined, and interesting only for and recommenced the advocacy of it. For this he its antiquities, which include hieroglyphics, sculp was cited to appear at Rome, where he repeatedly tures, and a temple dedicated to Serapis. There are abjured his error,' but never seems to have really emerald mines in its vicinity that have been worked abandoned it. Hildebrand, who was then pope, since the time of the ancient Egyptians. treated him with great moderation; and at last, when he discovered how hopeless it was to bind BERESFORD, WILLIAM CARR, VISCOUNT, down B. by abjurations or declarations, he con- distinguished military commander, natural son of the ceived it best to let him alone. Harassed and first Marquis of Waterford, was born 2d October weakened by the attacks of the orthodox party, 1768, and entered the army in 1785. After serving headed by Lanfranc of Canterbury, he finally retired in various parts of the world, he bore a conspicuous to the isle of St. Cosmas, near Tours, in 1080, part in the reconquest of the Cape of Good where he spent the last years of his life in Hope in 1806, and subsequently, with the rank of devotional exercises. He died in 1088. The greater Brigadiergeneral, was with the British force that number of his works are lost; such as are extant took possession of Buenos Ayres. In August 1808, have been collected and published by the Vischers he joined the British army in Portugal, and pro(Berlin, 1834).

ceeded into Spain with Sir John Moore's forces ; BERENICÉ, the name

was present at the battle of Corunna; and, after

of several celebrated women of ancient times.—1. B., daughter, of Lagus with them to England. In February 1809, Major

covering the embarkation of the troops, returned and Antigone, and the second wife of the Egyptian general B. was ordered a second time to Portugal, described by Plutarch as the first in virtue and with the local rank of lieutenant-general; and he

take the command of the Portuguese army, wisdom of the wives of Ptolemy. Theocritus celebrates her beauty, virtue, and deification in his Idyls succeeded in improving its discipline so greatly, as 15 and 17.-2. B., daughter of Ptolemy II. (Phila- Appointed Marshal of Portugal in March, at the

soon to render it highly efficient for active service. delphus) and Arsinoë, was married to Antiochus. II. head of 12,000 men, he attacked the French in the of Syria, after he had divorced his wife Laodice, north of that kingdom, crossed the river Douro, whom, however, he again took back, putting B. drove Loison's division back to Amarante, and unitaway.' Laodice having no faith in her husband, ing with the force under Sir Arthur Wellesley, poisoned him, and caused B. and her son to be mur- pursued it in its retreat till it was utterly disordered.——3. B., daughter of Magas, king of Cyrene,

For his services at the battle of Busaco, granddaughter of B. No. 1. was to have been married ganised. to Demetrius the Fair, but he having slighted her for 27th August 1810, B. was nominated a Knight of the her mother, she caused him to be murdered, and then Albuera, May 16, 1811, and for the victory there

Bath. He commanded at the bloody battle of went to Egypt and married Ptolemy III. (Euergetes), gained over Soult, he received the thanks of parliaher father and Ptolemy II. During the king's wars in ment. He was present at Badajoz; at Salamanca, Asia, the queen B. made a vow to offer her beautiful battles on the Pyrenees; at Nivelle, where he led

where he was severely wounded ; at the various hair to the gods when her husband returned safely, the right of the centre; at Nive; and at Orthez. vow which she fulfilled. The hair was suspended in the temple of Venus, whence, it is said, it was taken He was in command of the British troops which took away to form a constellation, Coma Berenicce. B. possession of Bordeaux, and subsequently, distinwas put to death by her son, Ptolemy IV. (Philopa- guished himself at the battle of Toulouse. In May tor), when he succeeded to the throne.-4. B., also 1814, he was created Baron, and in 1823 Viscount called Cleopatra, daughter of Ptolemy IX. (Lathyrus),

Beresford. By the Portuguese government, he was was, on her succession to the throne, married to sent, in 1814, to Rio Janeiro, to suppress a formidAlexander II., by whom she was murdered 19 days tion, January 1828 to November 1830, he was

able revolt there. In the Wellington administraafter marriage.-5. B., daughter of Ptolemy XI. Master-general of the Ordnance. He bore the title (Auletes), eldest sister of the renowned Cleopatra, of Marquis of Campo Mayor and Duke of Elvas in was raised to the throne after her father's deposition, Spain, Conde de Francoso in Portugal, and was 58 B. C. but was put to death when her father was restored, 55 B. C. She was first married to Seleucus, knight of several foreign orders. He died, without whom she caused to be put to death, and afterwards issue, 8th January 1854, when the title became to Archelaus, who was put to death with her.--There were, besides, two Jewish Berenices—the one, BERESI'NA, or BEREZI'NA, a river of Russia, daughter of Salome, sister of Herod the Great and having its rise in the north of the government of Costobarus, and mother of Agrippa I. ; the other, Minsk. It flows in a southward direction for and more famous, was daughter of this monarch. about 240 miles to the Dnieper, which it joins She was three times married: first, at a very early above Redchitzka. It is connected with the Düna, age, to Marcus, son of Alexander the Alabarch; or Dwina, by a canal, a communication between afterwards to her uncle, Herod, king of Chalcis, who the Black and Baltic Seas being thus established. dying, left her for the second time a widow, at the The B. is memorable on account of the disastrous age of 20; and again to Polemon, king of Cilicia, passage of the French, November 1812, during whom she soon deserted to return to her brother, the retreat from Moscow. Two bridges over the King Agrippa II., the same before whom Paul B.-one for troops, the other for baggage and defended himself at Cæsarea. After the capture of artillery--were hastily constructed. Many of the Jerusalein, she went to Rome, and Titus, who was pontoniers died from the hardships endured in much in love with her, would have married her but making these bridges. On the 27th, the passage for the opposition of the people. The intimacy of the French commenced, and was continried




Saring the whole of the day. Victor's rear-guard north-east of Milan, in lat. 45° 42' N., and go 37' E. of 7000 men, under Partonneaux, were, however, B. consists of two parts—the upper city, wherein intercepted by the Russians, and had to capitu- the nobility, a very exclusive class, reside ; and late. On the 28th, a vigorous attack was made by the Borgo, a suburb where all business is transthe Russians on the French on both sides of the acted. B. is well built, has a castle, occupying river, but too late to prevent the latter securing the the most elevated part of the town, and a massive road to Zembin. The Russians, however, established cathedral. Silk, cotton, linen, and woollen fabrics a battery of twelve pieces to command the bridge ; and iron goods, are manufactured. It has also an and the panic and confusion of their enemies now extensive trade in grindstones, quarried in the became dreadful. The artillery bridge broke, and vicinity. Annually, in the month of August, the all rushing to the other, it was soon choked; multi- largest fair in Northern Italy is held here, at which tudes were forced into the stream, while the Russian money to the estimated amount of £1,200,000 is cannon played on the struggling mass. On the 29th, turned over. .

Under the Roman empire, B. became a considerable number of sick and wounded soldiers, a municipal town of importance. It was destroyed women, children, and sutlers, still remained behind, by Attila, 452 A. D.; and after the fall of the despite the warnings of Marshal Victor and General Roman empire, it became one of the chief towns Eblé, until preparations were made for burning the of the Lombard kings in this part of Italy, and bridges. Then a fearful rush took place ; and as the capital of a duchy. After numerous changes, its fire seized the timbers, men, women, and children inhabitants placed themselves under the protection threw themselves in desperation into the ilames or of the Venetian Republic in 1427, and formed an the river. 12,000 dead bodies found on the shores integral portion thereof (with one exception of 9 of the river, when the ice thawed, attested the years) until the subversion of the republic by magnitude of the French disaster. The Russians Napoleon in 1797. Bernardo Tasso, the father of took 16,000 prisoners and 25 pieces of cannon. Torquato, and Tiraboschi, author of The History of

BERETTYO-UJFALU', a market-town of Hun- Italian Literature, were natives of Bergamo. B. is gary, county Bihar, with a pop. of 5500.

the capital of the province of the same name, which BEREʻZNA, a town of Russia in the government has an area of 928 square miles, a population of of Tchernigov, on the Desna, with a pop. of 5500.

364,000, and good pasturage for sheep and goats; BEREZO'V, or BERES'OFF ( the town of birch-iron, marble, lignite, and whetstones, are also found.

BE'RGAMOT is the name of various kinds of trees'), a town of Siberia in the government of

pear, to which, however, no common distinctive Tobolsk, on the left bank of the Sosva, a branch character can be assigned. The name is used both of the Obi, in lat. 63° 30' N. It is a small place, in Britain and upon the continent of Europe. The but important as the sole fur and skin trading proper B. Pear is probably the B. Crasanne, a station in a vast extent of country. Its annual fair Hattish, rough-skinned pear with a long stalk. It is largely attended. It is the favourite residence has a very juicy pulp, as soft as butter, of an of the Ostiaks and Voguls. Prince Menschikoff, the favourite of Peter the Great, who was banished of the best dessert pears. Metzger, in his work on

extremely pleasant flavour, and is esteemed as one to B., died and was buried here in 1731. His grave the pomaceous fruits (Kernobstsorten) of the south of was opened 90 years afterwards, when his body, Germany (Frankfort, 1847), describes no fewer than clothed in the uniform of the time, was found as 47 kinds of pears, which all bear the name of B., free from decay as on the day it was buried, the although some of them differ very widely from each frost, which at B. penetrates the soil to the depth other. of several feet, having preserved it.

BE'RGAMOT is also the name of a species or BERG, BURG, BURGH, roots entering into variety of the genus Citrus (q. v.), also called the B. the composition of many names of places. Berg ORANGE, or MELLAROSA; by some botanists regarded (Ger.), Beorg (Ang.-Sax.), means “hill,' mountain ;

as a variety of the orange (C. Aurantium.); by and burg or burgh, means 'fort,' castle,'citadel,' others, as a variety of the lime (C. Limetta); and probably from being situated on a hill or eminence. elevated by Risso to the rank of a distinct species, See BOROUGH, BURGH.

under the name of C. Bergamia. Of its native BERG, formerly a duchy of Germany, now incor-country or origin, nothing can be told, except that it porated with the Prussian dominions and divided was probably derived, like its congenors, from the into the circles of Düsseldorf, Solingen, Elberfeld, East. It is now cultivated in the south of Europe ; Lennep, and Duisburg. After various vicissitudes, and from the rind of its fruit, the well-known Oil or B. had merged in the electorate of Bavaria. In 1806, B. is obtained, which is extensively used in making Bavaria ceded it to France; and Napoleon the same pomades, fragrant essences, eau de Cologne, liqueurs, year adding to it large adjoining territories, made its &c. The fruit is pear-shaped, smooth, of a palearea about 6700 square miles, and erected it into a yellow colour, and has a green, subacid, firm, and grand duchy, constituting his brother-in-law, Murat, fragrant pulp. The essential oil is obtained by sovereign. Two years afterward, Murat, being distillation, or by grating down the rinds, and then transferred to the throne of Naples, Napoleon's subjecting them to pressure, which is the better nephew, then Crown Prince of Holland, was made method. The oil is also obtained from other varieties grand duke. The peace of 1815 gave B. to Prussia. or species of the same genus. It is of a pale-yellow

BERGAʼMA (ancient Pergamos), a city of Asiatic colour, or almost colourless. One hundred B. oranges Turkey, pashalic of Anatolia, situated in a beauti- are said to yield about 24 ounces of oil. Oil of B. is ful and fertile valley, on the right bank of the frequently employed for diluting or adulterating the Caicus, about 40 miles north-north-east of Smyrna. very expensive blue volatile oil of chamoinile (q. v.). Lat. 39° 4' N., and long. 27° 12' E. In early times, the BERGEN, a seaport town of Norway, in the city was the capital of the kingdom of Pergamus province of the same name, situated on a promontory (q. v.). Many ruins still exist to attest the former at the head of a deep bay, called Vaagen.

Lat. 60° magnificence of Bergama. The present population 24' N., long. 5° 18' E. With the exception of the of B. is about 15,000, four-fifths of whom are Turks. north-east side, where lofty mountains enclose it,

BE'RGAMO (the ancient Bergomum), a fortified B. is surrounded by water. It is walled, and town of Lombardy, situated on some low hills additionally protected by several forts, mounting between the Serio and the Brembo, about 29 miles in all upwards of 100 guns. The entrance to BERGEN-OP.ZOOM_BERGHEM.

the harbour is dangerous without a pilot; but it was blockaded by the English in 1814, who, under within it is safe and commodious. B. is built in Sir Thomas Graham, attempted to surprise the a semicircular form round the harbour, and has fortress on the night of the 8th of March, with a a picturesque appearance from the sea. A close force of 4000, but after carrying the greater part inspection discovers it to be generally well and of the works, they were, through remissness in substantially built, but many of the streets are sending support

, overpowered by the brave garrison, crooked and narrow. It has a cathedral, various and either slain or forced to surrender. The French churches, hospitals, refuges for the poor, public gave up the fortress under the Treaty of Paris. B. libraries, &c; is the seat of a secondary judicial has manufactures of earthenwares, and a large trade tribunal, of one of the three national treasuries, in anchovies. Pop. 9,900. the diocese of a bishop, and the station of a naval squadron. Its chief manufactures are tobacco, porce, ment of Dordogne, about 25 miles south-south-west

BERGERAC, a town of France, in the departlain and cordage. It has numerous distilleries, and some ship-building yards. The principal trade of of Périgueux. It is situated in a fertile plain or the B., however, is its export of stock-fish (dried fish right bank of the river Dordogne, which is here of the cod family) and cod-liver oil, which it obtains crossed by a fine bridge of five arches. Its prinfrom the northern provinces. Twice a year, the cipal manufactures are paper, serges, hosiery, hats, Norlandmen come to. B. with their fish, receiving entrepôt of the trade of the department.

earthenware, and iron and copper articles. It is the

The in exchange for them such articles of necessity or department of Dordogne is celebrated for its wine, luxury as they require. In March and April, as which is called B. wine, and also small champagne. many' as 600 or 700 vessels are to be seen in the It is both white and red in colour, and takes a high harbour of B. at once, laden with the produce of the winter-fishing, and with skins and feathers. place among the Garonne and Bordeaux wines. B. The summer-fishing is not quite so productive. after being driven out by Louis of Anjou, again got

was taken and fortified by the English in 1345, who, The annual value of the stock-fish exported from

B. B. is about 2,000,000 specie dollars (£450,000). In possession of it, and retained it until 1450.

It was disaddition, it exports about half a million barrels of mantled by Louis XIII. in 1621. Pop. about 8000.

suffered greatly in the religious wars. herrings, and 20,000 barrels of cod-liver oil, the finest of which is used for medicinal purposes and BERGHAUS, HEINRICH, one of the most active for lamps, the coarsest for dressing leather. The promoters of geographical knowledge, was born at chief imports are brandy, wine, corn, cotton, wool. Cleves, in Rhenish Prussia, 3d May 1797, and edulens, hemp, sugar, coffee, &c. The climate of B. is cated at the gymnasiuin of Münster. As conductor exceedingly humid, but not unhealthy. B. was of the road and bridge corps in the department of founded in 1069 or 1070, by Olaf Kyrre, who made the Lippe, then (1811) part of the French empire, it the second city in his kingdom, and it was soon and afterwards in the Prussian army, he had opporraised to the first rank. In 1135, King Magnus tunity to advance his knowledge of geodesy. In had his eyes put out here by his rival, Harald 1816, he was made 'geographical engineer' in the Gille, who was himself murdered in B. a year after. war department in Berlin, and was employed on In 1164, the legate of the pope crowned King the trigonometrical survey of Prussia, and became Magnus Erlingson here; and here, a century after-|(1824) professor of mathematics in the Archiwards, King Hakon crowned. The black tectural Academy of Berlin, and (1836) director pestilence, which ravaged Norway, first made its of the Geographical School in Potsdam. appearance in B. in 1348, and the city has since productiveness of his pen has been extraordinary. been several times devastated by it. The first The best known of his chartographical works is treaty entered into with any foreign nation by his Physical Atlas (90 plates, Gotha, 1838–1848), England, was made with B. in 1217. But the which forms the basis of Johnston's work with English and Scottish traders were soon displaced by the same title published in Edinburgh. He has the merchants of the Hanse towns, who contipued been employed on an ethnographical map of to exercise and abuse their monopoly until their Germany since 1848. As a writer, he has edited supremacy was broken by an act issued by Frederick several geographical periodicals. His Geog. Jahrbuch II. of Denmark, in 1560 ; and in 1763, their last (Geog. Annual), published since 1849, forms a supwarehouse fell into the hands of a citizen of Bergen. plement to the Physical Atlas. Of a more popular B. is still the most important trading-town of nature are his Physicalische Erdbeschreibung (PhyNorway, but Christiania is rapidly making up to it. sical Description of the Earth), Grundlinien der Pop. in 1865. 27,703.

Staatenkunde (Outlines of the Political Character of BE'RGEN-OP-ZOOM, a strong fortress in the States), and Ethnographie, all of which appeared at province of North Brabant, Holland, about 20 miles Stuttgard between the years 1846-1850.

In 1855, north of Antwerp, stands on the little river Zoom, he published a work entitled Was man von der Erde at its entrance into the east branch of the Scheldt. weiss (What is Known of the Earth), in which B. Lat. 51° 29' N., long. 4° 17' E. The importance of takes a survey of the present condition of geoits position has rendered it the object of many a graphical science. In 1855—1856, appeared an Atlas

The Netherlanders made it one of their der Oesterreichischen Monarchie, and Landbuch der strongholds in their struggles with Spain. The Mark Brandenburg. Prince of Parma besieged it in vain in 1588; three BERGHEM, NICHOLAS, one of the finest of the assaults by the Spaniards in 1605 also failed, as did Dutch painters, was born at Haarlem, 1624, and the siege by the marquis of Spinola, in 1622, which, studied painting first under his father, afterwards after a duration of 78 days and a loss of 10,000 men under Van Goyen, Weenix the Elder, and other was raised on the arrival of Prince Maurice of masters. He soon acquired an extraordinary facility Orange. The fortifications were afterwards strength of execution; and his industry, naturally great ened by the engineer Coehorn, so as to give it the was stimulated by the cravings of his avaricious reputation of being impregnable. Yet the French, wife, who thought he, never could earn too much. under Count Löwendal, in 1747, after a siege of two Accordingly, he scarcely ever left his studio, and we months, and the springing of 41 mines by the might wonder where he found all the materials for assailants, and 38 by the defenders, took the place his landscapes, which now decorate the best collecby storm. In the winter of 1794, it capitulated to tions of Europe; but he had carefully studied nature Pichegru. Being incorporated with France in 1810, during his long residence at the castle of Bentheim.




Warm colouring, natural and original grouping, and Dunkirk. It is situated on the Colme, at the foot of a general happy arrangement, are the leading features a hill, was strongly fortified by Vauban, and has the in B.'s landscapes. Strict criticism may object to means of laying the valley under water. The canal some traces of lightness in execution, and may of B., which admits vessels of 300 tons burden, demand greater natural truth in some points, espe- unites it with Dunkirk and the sea, and its favourcially the outlines of animals; but these defects able situation makes it the entrepôt of the produce are lost in the general excellence of B.'s pictures. of the adjoining country. It has manufactures of His etchings are highly esteemed. B. died in his soap, tobacco, and earthenware, and also sugar and native place, 1683.

salt refineries. B. was first walled and fortified by BERGLER, JOSEPH, an historical painter of con- Baldwin II., Count of Flanders; and Baldwin IV. siderable note, was born at Salzburg, 1753. Having erected a splendid abbey, of which two towers studied under Martin Knoller at Milan for several only remain, in honour of St. Winnoc, who retired

Between years, B. went to Parma, where in 1784, bis picture here in the beginning of the 10th c. of Samson being delivered by Delilah into the hands the 13th and 16th centuries, B. suffered much of the Philistines, obtained the chief prize of the from wars, and changed masters several times. academy there. Returniug to Germany, he, in 1786, Pop. 5455. settled at Passau, where he was appointed painter BE'RGYLT. (Sebastes Norvegicus or Scorpæna to Cardinal Auersperg, prince-bishop, and in this Norvegica), a fish of the Mailed Cheek family, or capacity painted many fine altar-pieces. B., having Sclerogenido (q. v.)- the family to which gurnards been made director of the Academy of Prague in and sticklebacks belong-but so much resembling 1800, removed to that city, where he continued to a perch in appearance, that it was formerly called reside until his death in 1829. The impetus which Perca Marina, or Sea-perch. It is sometimes called he gave to the fine arts in Bohemia was very marked, the Norway Haddock, although it has no resemand his school furnished a goodly number of eminent blance to the haddock. It is an inhabitant of all artists. His principal works are a Cyclus, or series the porthern seas, and is occasionally found on the of important events drawn from the history of British coasts at least as far south as Berwick. It Bohemia, in sixty-six sheets : ‘Libissa, Queen of the is of a red colour, dark on the upper parts, reddishFairies, deciding a Dispute between two Brothers white beneath. Its gill-covers are armed with short for the heritage of their Father;' The Deliverance spines; the anterior rays of the dorsal fin are strong of Charles IV.;' and Hermann and Thusnelda.'

spines, the posterior portion of the fin has soft rays. BERGMAN, TORBERN Olor, a celebrated chemist The B. attains a length of two feet and upwards. It of the 18th c., was born at Katharinberg, West is good for food, and the Greenlanders use it not Gothland, Sweden, March 9, 1735. He was sent at only in a fresh but in a dried state. They take it by seventeen years of age to the University of Upsala, long lines and baited hooks in the deep bays of their with a view to prosecute studies qualifying him coast. either for the church or the bar; but disliking both BERHAMPO'RE, the name of two towns in these professions, he devoted himself to natural British India.—1. B., in the presidency of Madras, is history, physics, and mathematics, and soon made a military station in the district of Ganjam. It is some interesting discoveries in entomology, while he in N. lat. 19° 20', and E. long. 84° 50', being 525 also distinguished himself as an accurate astronomical miles to the north-east of Madras, and 325 to the observer. In 1767, B. was elected to the chair of south-west of Calcutta. The cantonments, themchemistry at Upsala, and continued to fill it until selves on a rocky ledge, have to the south and east his death, which took place at Medevi, in July 1784. a plain of considerable extent, on the nearer edge B. published a vast number of dissertations, the of which is the native town, with a population of most important of which are collected into six octavo about 20,000.—2. B. or Burhampore, in the subvolumes under the title of Opuscula Torberni Berg-presidency of Bengal, is in the district of Moorshedman Physica et Chemica (Leip. 1779—1781). His abad, being on the left bank of the Bhagirathi or essay on Elective Attractions was translated into Bhagruttee, which, itself the first great offset of English by Dr. Beddoes.

the Ganges, afterwards joins another great offset, BE'RGMEHL, or MOUNTAIN-FLOUR, is a the Jellinghee, to form the Hoogly. B. is in N. recent deposit of a white or cream-coloured powder lat. 24° 5', and E. long. 88° 17', being distant from of extreme fineness, composed almost entirely of Calcutta by land and water respectively 118 miles the indestructible silicious frustules or cell-walls of and 161. It has long been one of the principal Diatomaceve (q. v.). From its resemblance to flour, military stations in British India.

The grand it has been mixed with ordinary food, in seasons of square, enclosing a spacious parade-ground, is partiscarcity, and thus used by the inhabitants of Nor- cularly striking; and the quarters of the European. way and Sweden, who suppose it to be nutritious. officers form handsome ranges of brick-built and When subjected to a red beat, it loses from a stuccoed edifices. B. is the seat also of a civil quarter to a third of its weight, the loss consisting establishment; and the houses of its chief members, probably of organic matter, and this would make it erected in convenient spots in the neighbourhood, in itself nutritious; but it seems to derive its chief give the place an air of grandeur and importance. value from its increasing the bulk of the food, B., though at one time extremely unhealthy, from and rendering the really nutritious portion more its low and moist site on the delta of the Ganges, satisfying. On the other hand, there have been has yet been so much improved by sanitary experiments tending to shew that B. does contain a measures, as to be second to no spot of Bengal in very small proportion—3 or 4 per cent.--of positive salubrity. In the spring of 1857, B. acquired an nutriment.

nnenviable celebrity, as being the cradle of the In Maryland and Eastern Virginia an extensive bed disaffection which so speedily led to the massacre of of microscopic organisms occurs nearly 100 miles long, Meerut. and in som3 places 30) feet thick, which is referred to

BE'RJA, a town of Spain, in the province of the Eocene Tertiary of marine origin, Peat bogs and fresh ponds often abound with the remains of Diatoms. Andalusia, at the foot of the Sierra de Gador, about

22 miles west of Almeira. It has manufactures of BERG00'. See WADAY.

linen fabrics, hats, hardware, and leather, and a trade BERGUES, a town of France, in the department in wine and oil. Population about 8000, who are of the Nord, about 5 miles south-south-east from I chiefly engaged in mining lead, which is plentiful in

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