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BERKELEY-BERKSHIRE.

the Sierra de Gador. Agriculture is also prosecuted | but, in point of fact, his system is a monument at to some extent.

once of marvellous subtlety of mind and of the most BE'RKELEY. a small town of Gloucestershire. pious devotion of the intellectual powers to the 15 miles south-west of the town of Gloucester, on cause of religion. The object was, as the full title the small river Ayon, a mile and a half east of its of the book itself sets forth, to inquire into and junction with the estuary of the Severn. Pop, of remove the causes of scepticism, atheism, and borough, 949 ; of parish, 4344. The town lies irreligion. It is only an illustration of the truth of in the fine vale of B., which is 25 miles long, the old saying, that extremes meet, if, in following and 4 broad. between the Severn on the west, out this pious purpose, he prepared the way for a and beech-covered hills on the east. This vale con. subtler form of scepticism (in Hume's philosophy) sists of rich meadow pasture land, on a deep fat than the world had previously known. The reader loam, and is celebrated for its dairies and cheese. will find valuable assistance to the apprehension The latter is the far-famed Double Gloucester,' of of Bi's system in Sir William Hamilton's Discuswhich each cow vields 340 lb. a vear. Near B. is the sions, and in his dissertations and notes to Reid's entrance to the B. and Gloucester Canal, navigable | Philosophy of the Human Mind. It must suffice to for vessels of 600 tons. Some trade exists in timber mention here that B. was the first philosopher who and malt. B. Castle is an embattled building on proposed a scheme of absolute idealism. an eminence south-east of the town, and which. In 1713, B. went to reside in London, where, in about 1150, was granted by Henry II. to Robert Fitz

the same year, he published a defence of his ideal hardinge, with power to enlarge and strengthen it. system, Three Dialogues between Hylas and PhiloHere Edward II. was murdered in 1327 by Mal. nous. Shortly after this he was appointed chaplain travers and Gourney. In the civil wars of Charles I.. and secretary of legation under Lord Peterborough, the castle held out for the king, but was taken whom he accompanied to Italy. In 1721, he returned after a nine days' siege by the Parliamentarians, to London; and in 1724, he became Dean of Derry. In the castle is preserved the cabin furniture of with an income of £1100, and resigned his fellowship. Drake the navigator. Dr. Jenner, the discoverer of B. was not a man to settle in the enjoyment vaccination. was a native of B., and is buried in the of leisure and opulence. The Dean of Derry set to parish church of St. Mary here.

devising schemes of usefulness, fixing at last on BE'RKELEY

one by which his deanery and income were to be SOUND, the most frequented exchanged for exile and £100 a year. This was inlet of the East Falkland Island, near its north-east the Bermudas College scheme for training pastors extremity. It is in lat. 51° 30' S., and long. 57° 56' ) for the colonies, and missionaries to the American W. Though it is difficult to enter, yet it contains Indians. Swift, failing to induce him to give the several excellent harbours. Its shores yield ample proiect up, made influence with ininisters to support supplies of water, cattle, and vegetables.

it, which they promised to do. Full of hope, B. BERKELEY, GEORGE, Bishop of Cloyne, and prepared for his exile; he married in August 1728, a distinguished philosopher, was the eldest son of Anna Elvert, daughter of Right Hon. John Forster, William B., a cadet of the family of the Earl of Speaker of the Irish House of Commons, and soon Berkeley. He was born on the 12th March, 1684, after sailed for Rhode Island. The support proat Kilcrin, near Thomastown, county of Kilkenny, mised by government was never given to him, and, Ireland. As a boy, he studied at the school of after six years, he returned to England heartbroken Kilcrin, at which Swift also received his early with failure, and harassed by creditors. He had education; and in his fifteenth year he followed his barely returned, however, when (1734) he received great countryman to Trinity College, Dublin, where, the bishopric of Cloyne, as a mark of favour from the in 1707, he obtained a fellowship. At Trinity, he queen. He was now once more in the enjoyment of enjoyed the society of Swift, who patronised him, leisure for literature. Soon appeared the Minute as he did almost everybody, and who subsequently Philosopher, followed by various letters and pamphlets had a great deal to do in shaping his fortunes. on the state of the country, and in 1749 by A word

Bi's career as an author began in 1707 (the to the Wise. In 1744, he gave the world his notions year in which he obtained his fellowship) by the of the virtues of tar-water in a book entitled Siris. publication of a work written three years before, | Tar-water appears to have been in his thoughts as at the age of twenty, entitled Arithmetica absque in his system--which must have been saturated Algebrà aut Euclide Demonstrata. This was fol- with it from this time till his death. His last lowed, in 1709, by the celebrated essay, Towards a work was Farther Thoughts on Tar-Water, published New Theory of Vision, in which he demonstrated in 1752. The fact is, he was hypochondriacal for the dependence of the perceptions of distance, mag. many years before his death. He died, 14th nitude, and situation on the sense of touch. This January 1753, at Oxford, whither he had gone to essay led to considerable controversy at the time,

live with his son, who was studying at Christ though its conclusions may now be considered as Church. A genial companion, an affectionate and not admitting of doubt. İn 1733, B. produced a steady friend, he was loved by all of his contempopamphlet in vindication of it-viz., The Theory of raries who enjoyed his society; a graceful writer, Vision or Visual Language, showing the Universal a subtle philosopher, and an active churchman, his Presence and Providence of the Deity Vindicated whole life was devoted to usefulness, and ennobled and Explained. By this time he had propounded by the purity of his aspirations. The best edition his system of absolute idealism. His Treatise of his works is that published in London, 1781, concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge / 2 vols. 4to. appeared so early as 1710. Its object was to BE'RKSHIRE, a midland county of England, undermine the materialism of the age, by denying, bounded N. by Gloucester, Oxford, and Bucks; E. on received principles of philosophy, the reality of by Middlesex; S. E. by Surrey ; S. by Hampshire; an external world. If there is no external world, and W. by Wiltshire. Greatest length, 50 miles; he argued, the phenomena of sense can be explained average breadth, 15. It is the thirty-second of the only by supposing a Deity continually necessitating forty English counties in size ; area," 752 square perception. B. has since been laughed at by many, miles, nearly one-half of which is under tillage, onewho could not see how the premises laid in the fourth in pasture, and one-sixteenth in wood. B., philosophy of the day led to his system; by many which is one of the most beautiful of the English he will always be laughed at as an idle dreamer; counties, lies in the valley of the Thames, and has BERLENGAS-BERLIN.

an undulating surface, rising in some parts into hills. I of the Iron Hand,' a German knight of the 16th Older tertiary strata, consisting of the London clay, c., may, with Ulrich von Hutten, be considered as occupy the east part of the country; cretaceous the last worthy representative of the chivalry of strata, the middle; and oolitic, the west. A range the middle ages, then expiring. He was born at of chalk-hills, or downs, connected with the Chilterns Jaxthausen, in Würtemberg, in the ancestral castle on the east, and the Marlborough Downs on the west, of his family, which may be traced back into tho crosses the country into Wiltshire, from Reading to 10th c. His education was conducted by his uncle Wallingford, attaining at White Horse Hill (so Kuno, with whom he attended the diet of Worms called from the gigantic figure of a horse defined in in 1495. He gratified his passion for war at first the chalk-a relic of ancient times) a height of 893 by taking part in several of the quarrels between feet. Between this range-the west part of which German princes, and at the siege of Landshut lost is occupied by sheep-walks and a smaller oolitic his right hand, which was replaced by one of iron, one skirting the valley of the Thames, is the Vale yet shewn at Jaxthausen. When the general peace of the White Horse, the richest part of the county, of the country had been established under Maxiand drained by the Ock. To the south of the milian I., Goetz retired to his castle. But a restDowns is the fertile Vale of Kennet, drained by the less spirit, and the general turbulence of the time, river of that name, and its feeder, the Lambourn. involved him in continual feuds with the neighbourTo the east is the forest district, comprising Windsor ing barons and free cities, in which he displayed a Forest, part of Bagshot Heath, &c. The forest mixture of lawless daring and chivalrous magnachiefly consists of hazel, oak, beech, ash, and alder. nimity. Having joined Duke Ulrich of Würtemberg The Thames skirts the whole north border of the against the Swabian league, on the duke's expulsion, county, winding through a course of 100 miles, but he was taken prisoner, and had to pay a ransom of in a direct line, only 52, and navigable nearly the | 2000 florins. In the Peasants' War of 1525, he took whole way. It is the chief river of B., the other part with the insurgents, and was chosen leader of rivers of the county being its tributaries; of which a part of their forces. In his narrative, he ascribes the chief are the Kennet, Leddon, and Ock. The this step to compulsion ; more likely it was his own Kennet is navigable for 30 miles. The climate of B. restless and turbulent spirit, and a desire for revenge is very healthy, being mild in the valleys, and on his old enemies of the Swabian league. On the bracing on the high lands. The soil varies greatly : unfortunate issue of the war, he at first made his In the valleys, it is generally a fertile-loam, with a escape, but was afterwards fallen upon unawares

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between the valleys of Kennet and White Horse he would appear before the league when summoned. consists chiefly of sheep-walks; and along the Thames, Accordingly, he had to appear at Augsburg, where and to the west of the Ridge Way, or Downs, it is he was kept in arrest for several years, and at last chiefly dairy and pasture land. Under the meadows, sentenced to perpetual imprisonment in his own on the Kennet, near Newbury, is a layer of peat, castle, and, in case of his breaking this condition, to which is extensively burnt, and the ashes applied as a a fine of 20,000 florins. He passed eleven years in top-dressing to the pastures. The chief crops are oats this state, and was only pardoned on the dissolution and wheat. 'Double Gloucester' and pine-apple' of the league. He died July 23, 1562, after having cheese are exported in large quantities to London. still taken part in campaigns in Hungary and in There is a superabundance of horses. Swine are France. He wrote an account of his own life, pubextensively reared, especially near Faringdon, the lished by Pistorius (Nürn, 1731 ; Bresl. 1813), which breed being one of the best in England. Property is furnishes an excellent picture of the social life and very much divided, and the number of gentlemen's manners of the period, and on which Goethe grounded seats and villas is very great. The farms are gene- his drama of Goetz von B., translated by Sir Walter rally of moderate size. The county is traversed by Scott. the Great Western Railway and its branch-lines, and BERLI'N, the capital of Prussia, and one of the by two canals. B. is divided into 20 hundreds, largest cities in Europe, is situated on the Spree in 151 parishes, and 12 poor-law unions. It returns lat. 52° 30' N., long 13° 24' E. It shews throughout 9 members to parliament, 3 for the county, 2 each evidence of a comparatively modern origin. Although for Reading (the county town) and Windsor, and 1 /it is ascertained that so far back as the 13th c., the each for Wallingford and Abingdon. Besides these central spot of the present city was inhabited, B. towns, there are the municipal boroughs of Newbury was long little more than a fishing-village, scattered (the scene of two severe conflicts in the civil war) on some small islands in the Spree, and upon its and Maidenhead, and the market-towns of Faringdon, right bank. The derivation of the name is disputed; Hungerford, Wantage, Workingham, East Ilsley, and but it is most probably deduced from a Slavonic Lambourn. Pop. 176,256. Education is well pro. word, Berle, indicative of its site in the middle of an vided for: schools, 507; scholars, 22,649. Places of extensive sandy plain. The growth of the city is by worship, 435 (Church of England, 206; Wesleyan no means to be attributed to the natural advantages Methodists, 125). The county has no manufactures of its situation, for, in winter, it is cold and exposed; of any importance. The British and Roman remains and in summer, notwithstanding that the surroundare numerous, including Roman roads, and many ing country is now cultivated, the reflected heat is camps and barrows. Of the old castles, the principal oppressive, and the clouds of dust which rise render relic is Windsor (q. v.); of monastic establishments, the residence unpleasant enough, without taking into the abbeys of Abingdon and Reading. The churches account sundry inconveniences which testify that, are small, and from the scarcity of building-stone, on a perfect level, proper sanitary arrangements

many Norman churches, erected in the 12th and 13th elector, Frederick Williain, had united the separate centuries.

duchies of which Prussia is now formed, that B. BERLE'NGAS, a group of rocky islands in the

| became of consequence as the most central town, and Atlantic, off the west coast of the Portuguese

the capital of a large state. His successor, the first province of Estremadura, 10 miles north-west of

king of Prussia, followed the footsteps of his prePeniche. The principal one, Berlenga, is fortified,

decessor in enlarging and beautifying the capital ; and and has been used as a state-prison.

| at the close of his reign, in the end of the 17th c.,

the population numbered about 50,000. In the BERLICHINGEN, Goetz or GOTTFRIED von, I next century, it received accessions of French and

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BERLIN-BERLIOZ.

Bohemian colonists, driven into exile by religious which has been the means of bringing within it a persecution. Every inducement was then held out literary and scientific circle of unexampled brilto bring foreigners to settle in the rising city. Under liancy. The philosophers Fichte, Hegel, and SchelFrederick the Great, B. continued to prosper. At his ling; the theologians Neander and Schleiermacher; death, the inhabitants numbered. 145,000. The rate the jurist Savigny; Humboldt and the geographer of progress has been enormously accelerated in the Ritter; and the physiologist Muller--all made it present century. The population, inclusive of a gar- their residence. At present, the university cannot rison of 22,626 men, amounted, in 1867, to 702,437. boast such great names; but Raumer and Ranke, the The greater number of these are Protestants, there historians, still adorn it; and Encke in astronomy; being only some 15,000 Roman Catholics, and about Mitscherlich and Rose in chemistry ; Dove in physics; the same number of Jews.

Ehrenberg in natural history; Hengstenberg in The city is chiefly composed of long straight theology; Casper in medical jurisprudence; Stahl, streets, succeeding each other with monotonous regu- | Gneist, and Keller in law-are men of high reputalarity. It occupies a large space in proportion to its tion. The number of students exceeds 2000. The population, its area being nearly 7000 acres. The largest faculty is that of law, which numbers 600 houses and public buildings are built of brick, plas- students. In connection with the university are tered or stuccoed outside, and they soon acquire a various museums of natural history, botany, &c.; faded appearance. The Unter den Linden,' which and the magnificent Royal Library, containing is the principal street and fashionable promenade, is 500,000 volumes, and nearly 5000 MSS. As interin design one of the handsomest streets in Europe. mediate schools, there are provided six gymnasia, Long rows of lime-trees--which bear marks, however, or high schools ; and in special branches, there of a not over-fertile soil-extend down the broad are provided schools of technology, architecture, street which enters from the public park by the artillery, military engineering, and veterinary surstately Brandenburg gate, built after the model of the gery. Learned societies of all kinds exist, as well Propylæum at Athens, and leads--flanked on either as academies for the cultivation of the fine arts. side by many of the principal public buildings, The laws for the censorship of the press prevent including the palaces of the Prince of Prussia and newspapers from being numerous; but there are the Prince Frederick-William, the University, the several magazines, and a large number of literary Arsenal, the Opera-house, the Academy of Arts, and and scientific books are published annually. the Russian and English embassies to the Palace The trade and commerce of B. are extensive. The Bridge, with its white marble statues. This bridge city has long been famous for beautiful castings in crosses a branch of the Spree to a garden bounded iron, and the porcelain manufactured has a good on three sides by the Royal Palace, the Cathedral, reputation. Manufactures of cotton and linen exist; and the Old Museum. The present Royal Palace, and paper, carpets, surgical, optical, mathematical, within which are incorporated the remains of and musical instruments are made in some quantity. older buildings, was begun by Schlüter in 1699, These different manufactures, although many of and completed in 1716. It is imposing only from them were much injured during the convulsions of its mass. Within, it contains some fine rooms, and 1848, have recently received a considerable impulse some valuable paintings; but since 1848, has been from the railways, which have placed the city in almost deserted by royalty. The Old Museum, communication with all parts of Central Europe. which was designed by the great Prussian architect, The charitable institutions are numerous; the most Schinkel, has in front a beautiful colonnade, adorned important being the two magnificent hospitals of by the frescoes of the painter Cornelius. This the Charité and the Bethunien. Since 1808, the museum serves to contain the picture-gallery, which city has possessed a municipal constitution; but the is very rich in paintings by the early Italian and powers of the magistrates are very limited. German masters, collected under the art-critic BERLIOZ, HECTOR, a fertile musical composer, Waagen ; and also the collections of ancient sculp- was born December 11, 1803, at La-Côte-St.-André, ture and other antiquities placed under the superin- in the department of Isére, France, where his father tendence of the distinguished archæologist Gerhard. was a physician. Against his father's wishes, who Behind the Old Museum stands the new, not exter- intended him to follow the medical profession, nally attractive, but internally fitted up with great he devoted himself to music, and proceeding to magnificence. The staircase is decorated with fres- Paris, studied at the Conservatoire de Musique coes by Kaulbach. The chief part of the contents under Lesuer and Reicha. In 1828 the second is formed of the Egyptian antiquities brought home prize at the Conservatoire was awarded to him; by the expedition under Lepsius, the ethnological and in 1830, his cantata of Sardanapalus won collection, and the fine collection of engravings. the first. He now went to Italy, where he resided The cathedral is a building of no beauty. A new about two years; and on his return, published cathedral, upon an immense scale, was projected; several compositions, the merits of which were but after making a little progress, was stopped for much canvassed. His works are too numerous want of funds; and its unfinished fragments dis- for specification; bnt among the most successful figure the otherwise remarkable island upon which are the symphonies of Harold, Romeo et Juliette, the buildings just mentioned are situated. In the and the Symphonie Funèbre et Triomphale, the immediate neighbourhood is the Arsenal, considered requiem for the funeral of General Damrémont, by the Prussians to be one of the best examples of 1837; the overture to Carnaval Romain, and the renaissance architecture. Of Gothic architecture, Hymne à la France, performed August 1, 1844, by B. possesses few examples. It has no ancient an orchestra of almost a thousand musicians. B. churches, or other buildings, of any value in an has since conducted many concerts in Russia, architectural point of view--or even in a historical; | Germany, and England. În 1839, he was made and though one or two churches have recently been a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour; and in 1856, erected in modern Gothic, their effect is not very was elected a member of the Institute at Paris. successful. Throughout the city, a large number of He is also librarian to the Conservatoire. The statues of military heroes are distributed, the most peculiarity of the compositions of B. consists in remarkable among them being the equestrian statue their endeavour to make instrumental music the by Rauch, erected in 1851 to the memory of Frederick exponent of particular feelings as well a: general the Great.

emotions. Some critics are of opinion that this Since 1810, B. has been the seat of a university, notion has led the composer into extravagance and BERM-BERN.

incoherence; while others speak in high terms of under tillage of every description only 1227 acres; the freshness and individuality which characterise in grass for cattle-fodder, 33; and in wood or pasture, his style, and look upon him as the chief of the 10,339. Of the cultivated grounds, the main crops romantic school of music.

are potatoes, onions, and other garden-vegetables, BERM, in Fortification, is a ledge or pathway,

var arrow-root, maize, &c. Besides being useful as a from 3 to 8 feet in width, at the bottom of the

station for those British vessels of war which are outside of a rampart, where it joins the scarp or

charged with the care of the West Indies on the inner side of the ditch. It is almost on a level with one side, and the northern provinces on the other, the natural surface of the ground; and serves in

s in B. forms an important depôt for convicts, who are part as a passage-way for the troops of the garrison, ongea

ons of the carrison lodged in a large prison, and employed in various and in part as a means of preventing the ditch

kinds of labour. Between B. and Halifax, Nova from being filled with earth and rubbish, when the

when the Scotia, there is a regular steamer carrying the mails. rampart is battered by the besiegers.

In 1861, the population was about 11,000; 4700 BERN-BERNARD.

white, and 6300 coloured. In both races, the pre BERMO'NDSEY, a south-east suburb of London, I ponderance of females was somewhat remarkable. on the south bank of the Thames, and traversed being 739 in the former, and 759 in the latter. by the Greenwich Railway. It has extensive tan- | The above census confined itself to residents, yards and wharfs. Pop. of parish, 48,128.

excluding the servants, whether civil or military, BERMU'DAS, or SO'MMERS'S ISLES, were so of the government, and the convicts brought from named respectively from Bermudez, a Spaniard, who England; and, as those two classes amounted to first sighted them in 1527, and from Sir George 1535, the grand total would reach 12,600-as nearly Sommers, an Englishman, whose shipwreck here in as possible a mouth to an acre. In the B., emanci1609 was the immediate occasion of their being pation has been decidedly beneficial, though here, as colonised from Virginia---itself only 4 years old in Antigua, it was carried at once into full effect in 1611. This low and lonely archipelago is a without the intermediate stage of apprenticeship. mere group of specks, for, though it numbers The group is under the authority of a governor, a perhaps 500 islets, yet it measures only about council of 9 members, and an assembly of 36. 12,000 acres in all; the whole occupying a space of There are 12 free, and 9 private schools. With about 20 miles in length by little more than 6 in regard to religion, more than three-fourths of the breadth. The value of this natural fortress, which population belong to the Church of England, which can hardly be overrated, arises from its situation. | has 4 clergymen. The Presbyterians, Wesleyans, In lat. 32° 20' N., and long. 64° 50' W., the B. and Roman Catholics, have one minister each. occupy, commercially and politically, a singularly BERN, or BERNE, the most populous, and cornmanding position. At à distance of 600 miles next to that of the Grisons, the most extensive from Cape Hatteras, in North Carolina, they are canton of Switzerland; its area being nearly 2600 about equally remote from the north of Maine and square iniles. It lies between lat. 46° 20' and 47° from the south of Florida ; again, between the two 30' N., and long. 6° 50' and 8° 27' E. It has grand divisions of British America, they form an France on the north ; on the other three sides, it almost indispensable bond of union; and lastly, is surrounded by its sister-cantons. B. is one they flank, on either side, the two living highways of the three governing cantons of the Swiss Conwhich respectively lead from the North Atlantic to federation (since 1849, it has been the permanent the Gulf of Mexico, and from the Gulf of Mexico to seat of the Swiss government), and had, in 1860, a the North Atlantic. The four principal islands are population of 468,516—about one-fifth of the total St George's, 37 miles in length; Bermuda, 15; Somer- inhabitants of Switzerland. Of these 54,000 were set, 3 ; and Ireland, 3—the breadth ranging between Roman Catholics, the rest Protestants. The fertile 2 miles and 1 furlong. The minor islands of St. valleys of the Aar and the Emmen divide the David, Cooper, Smith, Long-Bird, Nonsuch, &c., mountainous Alpine region in the south from the form numerous picturesque creeks and bays of great Jura mountains in the north. The valleys of size and depth, such as the Great Sound, Castle Simmenthal, Lauterbrunnen, Grindelwald, and Hasli, Harbour, Harrington Sound, and others. Most of in the south, called the Bernese Oberland, are the other members of the group are individually celebrated for their beauty. The lakes of Thun, insignificant, many of them indeed without name or Brienz, Neuchatel, and Bienne are in B., which is inhabitant. Sc. George's Isle, the military station of watered by the Aar and its several tributaries. The the colony, commands the entrance of the only climate, from the great difference in the elevations passage for large vessels--the narrow and intricate of the territory, is necessarily very variable, and channel, which leads to its landlocked haven, being subject to sudden changes, and frequent rains and defended by strong batteries. From the strange fogs, but it is generally healthy. The districts shapes of most of the islands, and the number of of the Aar and the Emmen are the most fruitful, spacious lagoons, the communications are almost as producing corn and fruits of various kinds, and necessarily by water as those of Venice; while the affording excellent pasturage for cattle, which, cedar-boats glide under the bluest sky, through an with dairy produce, form the chief agricultural element so clear as to reveal, even to its lowest wealth of Bern. Corn and potatoes are not raised depths, the many varieties of excellent fish sporting in sufficient quantities for home consumption. among the coral rocks, and the exquisitely varie The vine grows in some districts, and hemp and gated shells. On the structure and formation of flax in small quantities are raised. The horses the archipelago, it is necessary merely to add, that of the Emmenthal are much prized. The lakes it is the most northerly point on the globe where abound with salmon and trout. Iron, lead, and the living zoophyte still piles up its submarine archi- copper are found in the canton, which has also tecture. The climate may be said to complete the quarries of gypsum, marble, freestone, and granite. paradise, resembling that of Persia, with the pecu- Its manufactures, which are not extensive, consist liar addition of a constant sea-breeze. Between chiefly of linen, coarse woollens, leather, iron and December and March, the thermometer ranges from copper wares, articles of wood, and watches. The 60° to 66o ; in June, from 83° to 86o ; and between canton is traversed by good roads, and its lakes and April and September, from 750 to 79o. As the dew- the river Aar are well supplied with steam-packets. point ranges high, the air is moist at all seasons. The educational condition of the canton is good. With respect to productions, the entire soil presents B. entered the Swiss Confederation, in which it now

holds the second rank, in 1352. In the 15th and of Christendom. He was honoured with the title of 16th centuries, it added to its possessions Aargau the 'mellifluous doctor,' and his writings were termed and Vaud, which it lost during the wars of the first l'a river of paradise.' He rejected the doctrine of Napoleon ; but it received in return Bienne and its the immaculate conception, which had been introterritory, and the greatest part of the bishopric of duced into the French Church, and rose above Basel. It furnishes a contingent of 5824 men to the cruel prejudices of his age in repressing the the federal army.

monkish persecutions of the Jews in Germany. BERN, capital of the above canton, is situated in

B. is perhaps most widely known in connection

with the disastrous crusade of 1146. Charged by lat. 46° 57' N., and long. 7° 26' E., on a lofty sandstone

the pope to excite the religious zeal of the people promontory, more than 1700 feet above the sea,

of France and Germany, he accomplished his formed by the winding Aar, which surrounds it on

mission with fatally memorable success. three sides, and is crossed by two stone-bridges,

Fields,

towns, cities, and castles were in many places one of which is a magnificent structure, upwards of 900 feet long, with a central arch 150 feet wide

almost depopulated, and innumerable legions, fired and 93 feet high. The fourth side was defended

by his prophetic eloquence, hurried to the East,

nine-tenths of whom never saw their homes again. by fortifications, but these have been converted

Regarding B. in his more spiritual aspect, we into public walks. B. has an imposing appearance from a distance, and a nearer view discloses

practical, Christian doctrine was a wholesome antione of the best and most regularly built towns

dote to the dry and cold scholasticism which prein Europe, as it is the finest in Switzerland. The

vailed among the churchmen of his age, although houses are massive structures of freestone, resting

the intolerance with which he treated Abelard (see upon arcades, which are lined with shops, and

ABELARD) and Gilbert de Porrée must be reprobated. furnish covered walks on both sides of the street.

Luther says of St. B.: “If there ever lived on the Rills of water flow through the streets, which are

| earth a God-fearing and holy monk, it was St. B. also adorned with numerous fountains. There

of Clairvaux. In the course of his life, he founded are many fine public promenades in the environs,

160 monasteries. and the view of the Alpine peaks from the city |

His writings are exceedingly

y numerous. They consist of epistles, sermons, and is magnificent. The principal public buildings are

theological treatises. Of the first, we possess 439; a Gothic cathedral, founded in 1421, with some

of the second, 340; and of the third, 12. They are interesting tablets and relics; a new and magnificent

all instinct with genius, though it is difficult for structure, designed to accommodate the Swiss diet |

us now to appreciate their extraordinary influence. and administration; the mint, the hospital, and the university.

The best edition of the works of St. B. is that of B. has an interesting museum, Mabillon printed at Paris in 1690 10 vols for and a valuable public library of 40,000 volumes.

reprinted at Venice in 1750 (6 vols. fol.), at Paris The manufacturing industry of B. is not great

in 1835-1840 (4 vols. 8vo.), and again in 1854 gunpowder, firearms, leather, straw-hats, and paper, are the chief articles. It has a considerable trade 1

|(4 vols. 8vo). The monks of the reformed branch

of the Cistercians, which he instituted, are often in the produce of the surrounding districts. Pop. 29,016. B. was founded by Duke Berthold V.,

called, after him, Bernardines. He gave name also, in 1191, who gave it the name B., because he

in France, to the nuns of the Cistercian order, of

which his sister, St. Humbeline, is said to have been had killed a bear on the spot. A charter from Frederick II., in 1218, made it a free imperial

the founder. city, and it gradually extended its possessions

BE'RNARD, GREAT Saint, Mons Jovis, a famous until it became an independent state: and between mountain-pass in the Pennine Alps, between Pied1288 and 1339, successfully resisted the attacks

mont and the Valais. The pass attains an elevation of Rudolf of Hapsburg, Albert his son, and Louis

of more than 8000 feet above the sea-level; and of Bavaria. When the French entered B. in 1798,

almost on its very crest, on the edge of a small lake, they found 30,000,000 of francs in the treasury.

which is frozen over nine months out of the twelve, The corporate property of B. is very large-suffi

stands the hospice, founded in 962, by Bernard de cient to defray all municipal expenses, provide the

| Menthon, a Savoyard nobleman, for the benefit of whole of the citizens with fuel gratis, and besides, pilgrims to Rome, and now largely taken advanto leave a surplus for annual distribution among tage of by travellers across the Alps. The hospice, them. B. is the residence of foreign ministers: | said to be the highest habitation in Europe, is and since 1849, the permanent seat of the Swiss occupied by ten or twelve St. Augustine monks, who, government and diet. Haller, the distinguished with their noble dogs of Saint Bernard breed, have physiologist, was born at Bern. Owing to a tradi- rescued many hundred travellers from death by tion which derives the name of the city from bären exposure to cold, or burial in the snow, which in (the German for bears), bears have for several cen- winter ranges from 10 to 40 feet in depth. The turies been maintained in B. at the expense of humanity of the monks shortens their own lives the community. The French, when they captured very considerably, the rigorous cold-which has B. in 1798, took possession of the bears, and sent been known to be 29°, and is frequently as low them to the Jardin des Plants. Paris; but the as 18' and 20° below zero F.--and the difficulty Bernese have since secured other specimens of their of respiration, often compelling them to leave favourite animals, which are one of the sights' of with ruined health before they have completed the city.

the period of their vow-fifteen years. They enter BERNADOTTE. See CHARLES XIV.

on their humane mission at the age of eighteen.

The hospice is a substantial stone-building, capable BERNARD, Saint, of Clairvaux, one of the most of affording sleeping-accommodation to 70 or 80 influential theologians of the middle ages, was born travellers, and shelter to about 300. As many as at Fontaine, near Dijon, in Burgundy, 1091; became 500 or 600 persons have taken advantage of the a monk of Citeaux in 1113; founded a new branch hospitality of the monks in one day, and it is calcuof that order at Clairvaux, in Champagne, and him. lated that 8000 or 9000 travellers are annually self became its first abbot in 1115 ; died August indebted to their kindness. The resources of the 20, 1153 : and was canonised by Alexander III., monks are mainly derived from voluntary subscrip1174. His ascetic life, solitary studies, and stirring tions and gifts, but they draw some trifle from indeeloquence, made him, during his lifetime, the oracle 'pendent property. Formerly, they had much more

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