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appointed dictator a second time. He achieved a great achievements of Portuguese heroism are decisive victory over the invaders, rebuilt Roine, represented. Among the most famous passages are and obtained new victories over the Volsci, and the tragical story of Inez de Castro, and the appariothers. Iu 386 3. c., he was elected dictator for tion of the giant Adamastor, who appears as the the third time, but refused the office. In 381 Spirit of the Storm to Vasco de Gama, when crossB. C., C. was victorious in the war of Rome against ing the Cape. The versification of The Lusiad is Præneste and other Latin towns; and in 368 extremely charming. Patriotic sentiments pervade B. C., he was elected to his fourth dictatorship, but the whole work. Besides his epic poem, C. wrote abdicated during the same year. In 367 B. C., sonnets, odes, elegies, eclogues, epigrams, satires, when war broke out with the Gauls, C., though 80 epistles, and three comedies-Os Amphitryoes (after years old, accepted the dictatorship for the fifth Plautus), King Seleucus, and Filoderno. The latest time, defeated the barbarians near Alba, and made and best complete edition of his poems appeared in peace between patricians and plebeians. After three volumes (Hamburg, 1834). The best edition this, he erected near the Capitol a temple to of The Lusiad was published in Paris (1817), Concord, and having retired from public life, died reprinted in 1819, and again, with emendations by 365 B. C., of the plague, lamented by the whole Berdier, in 1823. The Lusiad has been translated Roman people.
into Spanish, French, Italian, English, Polish aud CAMISARDS. See CEVENNES.
German. CA'MLET (from Arab. chamal, fine) is properly a Gulf of Genoa, about 13 miles east-south-east of the
CAMO'GLIA, a town of Northern Italy, on the fabric made from the hair of the Angora-goat (q. V.): city of that name. The camlets made in Britain are either wholly of
Its inhabitants, amounting to wool, or of wool mixed with cotton or linen, and 5899, are chiefly engaged in fishing.
CAMOMILE. See CHAMOMILE. CAMOENS, LUIS DE, the epic poet of Portugal,
CAMOUFLET, in Military Pyrotechny, is a was born about 1524, at Lisbon, and studied the stinking composition enclosed in ‘paper-cases. It ancient classics at Coimbra. On his return to
is used in siege-works, to blow into the faces of the Lisbon, he fell in love with a lady of honour, sappers and miners, when hostile parties come withCatharina d'Atayada. This affair was the begin- in reach of each other, and thus to distress and conning of all the poet's misfortunes.
Having been fuse them. banished by royal authority to Santarem, C. joined CAMP (Fr., from Lat. campus, a plain, or level the expedition of John III. against Marocco, and field). The signification of this word in English is lost his right eye in a naval engagement with rather that which belongs to the Latin castrum, an the Moors in the Strait of Gibraltar. On his encampment, or castra, a collection of tents, huts, return to Lisbon, his bravery as a soldier was no and other structures, for the accommodation and more honoured than his genius as a poet. Dis- protection of troops, than that which its etymology appointed in all his hopes, he determined to leave would more directly indicate. The regular system for ever his native land, and sailed for Ivdia, of encampment ultimately adopted by the Romans, 1553. Offended by certain abuses of the Portuguese was forced upon them by degrees. The most comauthorities in India, C. ventured to expose them plete account of it is furnished to us by Polybius, in a satire, entitled Disparates na India, *Follies in A plan will be found in Dr. Smith's Dictionary India,' in which he treated even the viceroy with of Greek and Roman Antiquities, constructed for ridicule. For this offence, the poet was banished, the purpose of illustrating his description. When 1556, to Macao, where he lived several years, and a Roman army was about to encamp, a tribune was engaged in writing Os Lusiadas. Here and several centurious were sent on before, to held the unpoetical but probably lucrative post select a suitable site for the purpose. administrator of the effects of deceased persons; as the locality was determined on, they chose the and having saved, as he thought, a competency spot for the prætorium or general's tent, and marked for his future life, was recalled from his banish- it with a white flag. Around the prætorium, as a ment, 1561. Unhappily, in returning to Goa, he sort of centre or heart to the whole system, the rest suffered shipwreck, and lost all his property, of the C. was laid out. It was generally placed excepting his epic poem. After other wanderings on an elevated position, in order that the general and misfortunes, c. took ship for Lisbon, where might have the rest of the encampment under bis he arrived in 1569, with no other wealth but his eye, and be able to transmit his orders with greater epic. He dedicated The Lusiad to the young king, facility. Polybius himself tells us, that the best Sebastian, who was very gracious; but, nevertheless, conception which can be formed of a Roman C. of all the real patronage bestowed on' C. consisted the more permanent kind is by regarding it as a of a very small pension (about £1), and permis- military town, resembling in many respects no sion to remain at the court of Lisbon. Even this doubt that which has recently grown up at Aldersmall pittance was taken away after the death of shot (q. v.). The streets were broader than those Sebastian, and C. was left in such poverty, that a usually to be found in towns, the wider ones faithful Indiän servant begged in the streets of measuring 100, and the narrower 50 feet; and the Lisbon for the support of the great epic poet of forum, as its name indicates, was a sort of public Portugal. C.'s lyric poems, written during this time market-place. A space of 200 feet was left vaeitit of destitution, contain many pathetic lamenta- all round between the tents and the ramparts, tions. He died obscurely in the hospital at Lisbon, partly to afford space for the arrangements of the 1579; and sixteen years afterwards, when it was army, and for stowing away any booty that might proposed to erect a splendid monument to his be captured, but chiefly to protect the soldiers' memory, there was some difficulty in finding his huts from incendiary attempts from without. In burial-place.
form, the Roman C. was square, except in the case The Lusiad (Os Lusiadas, 'the Lusitanians') in which it was intended to embrace within its celebrates the chief events in the history of Portu- ramparts four legions, or two consular armies, when gal, and is remarkable as the only modern epic it became an oblong rectangle. The C. was surpoem which is pervaded by anything like the true rounded by a fosse or trench (fossa), wbich was national and popular spirit of ancient epic poems. generally 9 feet deep and 12 broad. On the top It is a gallery of epic pictures, in which all the l of the rampart, which was of earth, there were
CAMP EQUIPAGE-CAMPAGNA DI ROMA.
stakes. The labour of constructing the rampart of those which retained the form of the simple and the fosse was divided between the allies and encampment, is that at Ardoch in Strathearn, Perththe Roman legions, the former making the sides shire, in the grass-covered mounds and ridges of along which they were stationed, and the legions which most of the divisions of the C. have been disthe rest. The task of superintending the construc- tinctly traced by antiquaries. For further information tion of the C. amongst the Romans was intrusted to on this subject, the reader is referred to General the tribunes; amongst the allies, to the præfects. Roy's Military Antiquities in Great Britain, and the Before the arrival of the troops, the different parts Caledonia Romana of the late Mr. Robert Stuart. In of the C. were so distinctly marked out and these works will be found ample accounts of some measured off, that they at once proceeded to their of the more remarkable Roman camps in Britain ; respective stations, as if they had entered a well- those described by Roy being rendered intelligible known city, and were marching to their quarters. by large engravings. The discipline of the C. was of the strictest kind. It is believed that, during the middle ages, the The tribunes administered an oath against theft plan adopted by the Romans in tlieir camps was both to freemen and slaves, and two maniples were more or less adhered to, seeing that the weapons chosen to keep the via principalis, which was a emplored, which mainly determined the character place of general resort, clean and in good repair. of the troops, were nearly the same. In Britain, The other occupations connected with the C., too before the arrival of the Romans, and also during numerous to be mentioned here, were portioned the Saxon and Danish periuds, the camps, usually ont in like manner; and the superintendence of the circular in form, appear to have been somewhat whole was intrusted to two tribunes chosen by lot rude in character, with the cavalry grouped round from each legion, and appointed to serve for two the standard in the centre, and the infantry placed months. The præfects of the allies possessed a near the front. similar authority, which, however, seems to have The principles of castrametation, or camp-formabeen limited to their own troops. Every morning at tion, underwent much change after the invention of daybreak, the centurions and horsemen presented gunpowder, owing to the necessity for defending the themselves to the tribunes, and these, in their turn, C. from artillery. Modern camps, of different kinds, received their orders from the consul. The watch will be found described under ENCAMPMENT. word for the night, marked on a four-cornered piece CAMP E'QUIPAGE is a general name for all the of wood, was given out with much formality: The tents, furniture, fittings, and utensils carried with an night was divided into four watches, each of three army, applicable to the domestic rather than the warhours' length; and there was a curious arrange- like wants of the soldier. In the days when armour ment for ascertaining that guard was kept with was worn, the C. E. was enormously heavy and comvigilance. The soldiers of the watch companies plicated. In the present day, a certain amount of received from the tribune a number of small C. E. is provided for a given number of troops. See tablets, with certain marks upon them, and these ENCAJPMENT, TENT, &c. tablets were collected during the night by the
CAMP FOLLOWERS are the sutlers and dealers borsemen whose duty it was to visit the posts, in small-wares who follow an army. In India, owing from such of the guards as they found on duty. to the peculiar habits and customs of the Hindus, Where these inspectors found the guards asleep or and the large number of servants retained by English absent, they called upon the bystanders to witness the fact, and then passed on to the next.
officers, the C. F. are in immense number; comprising morning, the inspectors appeared before the tribunes,
servants, sutlers, cantiniers, hostlers, water-carriers, and gave up the tablets they had received, when snake-charmers, dancers, conjurors, and women. In the guards whose tablets were not produced were left Shikarpoor for Afghanistan, it was accompanied required to account for them. A regular scale of hy no fewer than 85,000 C. F.: the commander rewards and punishments was established in the took with him six weeks' food for the whole 100,000.
In comparing the encampments of the Romans with those of his own countrymen, Polybius All English commanders in India find this regulation tells us that the Greeks trusted mạiply to a judicious
a very burdensome one. Even in European armies, selection of their ground, and regarded the natural however, C. F. are regarded as necessary; they are advantages which they thus secured as supplying urder the control of the commanding officer, and in a great measure the place of artificial means of are subject to the Articles of War-not, however, defence. The Greeks, consequently, had no regular
in cantonments, only in the field. French armies form of C., and no fixed places were assigned to the are accompanied by women much more largely than different divisions of the army. When the practice
English. of drawing up the army according to cohorts, intro
CAMPAGNA, a town of Naples, in the province duced by Marius and Cæsar, was adopted, the inter- of Principato Citra, is situated between high mounnal arrangements of the C. experienced a corre- tains, about 20 miles east of Salerno. It has a fine sponding change. Latterly, even the square form cathedral, several convents, and a large annual fair. was abandoned, and the C. was made to suit the Pop. 8192. nature of the ground. It was always held to be of CAMPAGNA DI ROMA, an undulating, uncultiimportance, however, that the C. occupied a defensi- rated, and unhealthy plain of Italy surrounding ble position; that it could not be overlooked; and Rome, including the greatest part of ancient Latium, that it had a command of water.
and now forming the papal delegation of Frosinone When stationary camps (castra stativa) came into and a great part of the Comarca di Roma. Its more general use, we hear of several parts which length is variously stated, arising from the fact are not mentioned by Polybius, for example, the that different authorities measure it from different infirmary (valetudinarium), the farriery (veterina- points. But supposing the name to apply to the rium), the forge (fabrica), &c.; and as a great variety district extending from Cape Linaro, sonth of Civita of troops then came to be employed, they must, of Vecchia, to Terracina, beyond the Pontine Marshes, course, have had new stations appointed to them in its length is about 90 miles; and its breadth inland, the camp. Many of the stationary camps ultimately to the Alban and Sabine hills, is stated at from 27 became towns, and to this is ascribed the origin of to 40 miles. A broad strip of sandy plain skirts most of the towns in England the names of which the Mediterranean. The ground, which never rises end in cester or chester. Amongst the most perfect above 200 feet above the sea, is almost entirely
volcanic, and the lakes are formed by craters of | 1568, at Stilo in Calabria, and studied at Naples and extinct volcanoes. The vapours rising from this , Cosenza. The writings of Telesius first awakened district, and especially from the Solfatara (q. v.), his doubts respecting that pile of artificial dogmus produce the pestilential atmosphere styled Aria styled the 'scholastic philosophy. The results of Cattiva. The number of inhabitants is very small, his studies were given in his Philosophia Sensibus and in summer they are driven from the C. by its Demonstrata, &c. (Naples, 1591), which contaived a pestilent air, and seek shelter in Rome and other defence of Telesius. His superiority in disputations neighbouring places. In autumn, herdsmen descend exposed him to the hatred and false accusations of from the Appenines to the C. with their herds, the the orthodox monks and schoolmen. He was in pasturage in some parts being rich and abundant. consequence compelled to flee from Naples to Rome, This district was not always uncultivated and depop- and thence to Florence, Venice, and Bologna. Afterulated, as we now find it, for Domitian and Hadrian wards, he returned to Calabria, but having involved built here their splendid villas. Wars and devasta- himself in a political conspiracy, he was seized and tions, the black death' (q. r.) in the 14th c., which confined in a Neapolitan dungeon for 27 years; tried greatly thinned the population, and inundations from five times, and tortured seven; accused of lieresy; the Tiber, have been the main causes of the present and declared the author of a book which had been state of the C.; but, according to Livy, it was published thirty years before he was born. In 1626 always an unhealthy district, even when well culti- Pope Urban VIII. Had bim brought to the prison of vated. Some of the popes, especially Pius VI., have the Inquisition at Rome, but immediately liberated endeavoured to drain the Pontine Marshes, and, him, and treated him in a very generous manner. during the dominion of the French in Italy, General After being again persecuted by the Spanish governMiollis made great improvements in drainage, tim- ment, C., who had formed the friendship of the ber-planting, and cultivation in the campagna. French ambassador at Rome, the Duc de Noailles, CAMPAI'GN generally means a connected series obtained a letter of introduction to Cardinal Riche
lieu, and secretly left for France, where he was of military operations, forming a distinct stage or
He died in the Dominican step in a war. Under the old system of warfare, graciously received. when armies kept the field only during the summer of his works- De Gentilismo non Retinendo (Paris,
monastery of St. Honoré, near Paris, 1639. Most months, a C. was understood to include all that was done by an army from the time it took the field till 1636), Astrologicorum Libri VII. (Lyon, 1629), Proit went again into winter quarters. Now that winter dromus Philosophie Instaurandu (Frankfort, 1617), is no longer allowed to arrest military operations, it Exordium Metaphysicæ Nove, De Sensu Rerum et is more difficult to say where one C. ends and another Magia (Frankfort, 1620)—were written during his begins. Some writers make a c. include all the imprisonment. His pliilosophical views give expres
sion to that confused fermentation of new ideas steps taken to accomplish some one immediate
which was characteristic of the close of the 16th object.
and opening of the 17th c.-bold and clear opinions CAMPAN, JEANNE LOUISE HENRIETTE, reader strangely mingled with commonplaces, and with to the daughters of Louis XV., was born in Paris, astr jiogical dreams and fancies. It may seem October 6, 1752. She was favoured by Marie strange that C. should have been patronised by the Antoinette, and gave her royal patroness numerous pope; but this favour was gained, not by his specuproofs of her fidelity. When the unfortunate queen lative works, but by several wrotings in defence was conveyed to the Temple, she wished to share of the Roman Catholic Church. His De Monarchia her captivity, but was refused entrance by Petion. Hispanica Discursus is a work of great power and During the Reign of Terror, she remained concealed value, comprising a sketch of the political world at Combertin. After the fall of Robespierre, she of c.'s time, with special reference to Spain. It opened a boarding-school at St. Germain-en-Laye, was translated into English during Cromwell's which was patronised by Josephine Beauharnais, Protectorate. who sent her daughter Hortense to it. In 1806, Napoleon appointed her lady-superintendent of the
CAMPANIA, anciently a province of Central Institution at Ecouen for the education of the Italy, having Capua as its capital (now known daughters of the officers of the Legion of Honour. Í as the province Terra di Lavoro, Naples), was After the Restoration, this institution was sup
bounded on the S. by Lucania, E. by Samnium, pressed, and Madame C. retired to Mantes, where N. by Latium, and w. by the Tyrrhenian Sea. she died, May 16, 1822 She is chiefly remembered It was one of the most productive plains in the on account of her interesting works-Mémoires sur world, producing in extraordinary abundance corn, la Vie Privée de la Reine Marie Antoinette (4 vols., / wine, and oil; 6th ed., Par. 1824), Journal Anecdotique (Par. 1824) writers is celebrated for its soft and genial climate, and Correspondance Inédite avec la Reine Hortense the beauty of its landscapes, and the excellence (2 vols., Par. 1835)-giving recollections of the of its harbours. It was the regio felix of the court of Louis XV., of Marie Antoinette, the Revo- Romans, who built here many of their most splendid lution, and some traits from the private character of villas, &c. Through it passed the Appian Way, Napoleon.
the greatest high-load of Italy. The promontory ated on the Madre-Viega, a tributary of the Guadal. Herculaneum, Pompeii
, Nola, Salernum, Capua, &c.; CAMPA'NA, LA, a town of Andalusia, Spain, situ- Misenum, Mount Vesuvius, the river Vulturnus
towns Baiæ, Cumæ, Linternum, Puteoli, Naples, quiver, about 37 miles east-north-east of Seville. The inhabitants, numbering 5380, are engaged chiefly settlement in Italy, having been colonised, according
belonged to Campania. It was the oldest Greek in agricultural pursuits, and in weaving and brick- to the later chronologers, about 1050 B. C.; but this making.
is in all probability too early a date. It was next CAMPANARIO, a town of Estremadura, Spain, conquered by the Etruscans, and several of the towns about 62 miles east-south-east of Badajos. It is an above mentioned, such as Capua and Nola, were ill-built place, with narrow, uncared-for streets. It founded by that people. The Etruscans then suchas manufactures of linens and ropes, and a trade cumbed to the more warlike and hardy Samnites, in the agricultural produce of the neighbourhood. who, in their turn, yielded to the irresistible valour Pop. 5400.
of Rome (340 B. C.). Through all these vicissitudes CAMPANELLA, Touma'so, a Dominican monk cf conquest, the substratum of the people remained celebrated for his philosophical ability, was born in les at the beginning. The mass of the Campanians
were essentially of Oscan race, and Oscan they familiar to every one as the most common fieldremained. Indeed, it is mainly from them that our flowers. It is a native of the central parts of knowledge of the Oscan language is derived, and Europe.-Medicinal virtues were formerly ascribed one of their towns-Atella, between Capua and Naples had the honour of introducing upon the early Roman stage a species of popular drama or comedy, which was greatly relished for its quaint and vigorous humour. See ATELLANÆ.
CAMPÁNILE (Ital. from Mid. Lat. campana, a be!), a name adopted from the Italian to signify a bell-tower of the larger kind, and usually applied only to such as are detached from the church. Scarcely any of the existing bell-towers of England answer to the Italian conception of the C., but it is said that there was a very fine one at Salisbury, 200 feet in height, which was destroyed by Wyatt. In Italy, they are found everywhere-at Bologna, Padua, Ravenna, Cremona, Venice. Perhaps the most remarkable are the so-called 'leaning tower' of Pisa, and the C. of Florence. The former, which is circular in form, is decorated with columns and arcades to the summit of its eight stories, and presents a very imposing appearance, reminding the traveller of the Coliseum at Rome, from which, and the now destroyed Septizonium, the idea of it is said to have been taken by the architects Bonano of Pisa, and Wilhelm of Innspruck. But though less curions, the famous C. of
Harebell (Campanula rotundifolia). Giotto is perhaps even more worthy of the travellers's attention. It was erected in 1334, with the express object of surpassing, both in height and in to some species, particularly in affections of the richness of workmanship, any of the remains of throat, wherefore C. Trachelium, frequent in woods antiquity. In form, it is a parallelopiped, and is of in England, has received the name of Throatwort; the same dimensions from bottom to top. Though but they are now regarded as inert.—The roots of it is very lofty—267 feet-it consists of only four some are reckoned among esculents, as those of the stories, of which the tallest are the uppermost and RAMPION (q. v.), (C. Rapunculus), occasionally cultiundermost, and the windows in the upper story are vated in Britain, and much more generally in some rat::er larger than those in the two beneath, the parts of continental Europe. object being to counteract the diminution to the CAMPANULACEÆ, a natural order of exoeye occasioned by the greater distance. The effect genous plants, herbaceous or half shrubby, with of this arrangement has been much praised by archi- a bitter milky juice; leaves without stipules, and terts; but there seems ground for scepticism as to generally alternate ; the calyx usually 5-lobed, its its advantages. The style is the real Italian Gothic, tube adhering to the ovary; the corolla monowhich unites simplicity with great richness of orna- petalous, inserted into the top of the calyx, usually mentation. The original design of Giotto was that 5-lobed and regular; the stamens inserted into the a spire of 100 braccia in height should have sur calyx, and alternate with the lobes of the corolla ; mounted the present structure, and on the summit the fruit with two or more many.seeded cells, may be seen the four great piers from which it was crowned with the withered calyx and corolla, and intended that it should have risen. The splendid C. opening by division of the cells (loculicidally;); the of Florence, in its present condition, must thus be seeds fixed to the axis, and having fleshy albumen. regarded only as a fragment. There is a fine C. About 500 species are known, natives chiefly of the at Seville, 350 feet in height, which was built by temperate and colder climates of the northern hemiGuever the door in 1568. It is called La Giralda, sphere, where their blne or white flowers are among from a hrazen figure, whick, though it weighs a ton the finest ornaments of fields and woods. The roots and a half, turns with the wind.
and young leaves of some species are eatable, as is CAMPA'NULA (Lat., a little bell), a genus of the half-fleshy fruit of Canarina Campanula, a native plants of the natural order Campanulacece (q. v.),
of the Canary Islands. distinguished by a bell-shaped corolla with five CAMPBELL, the family name of the Lords of broad short segments, filaments dilated at the Argyle. The origin of the family has not been base, a 2—5-cleft stigma, and a top-shaped capsule satisfactorily ascertained. One theory makes it of with' 2–5 cells, opening by lateral clefts below the Anglo-Norman origin ; another traces its descent calyx segments. The species are very numerous, through a long line of Celtic chiefs to King Arthur. chiefly but not exclusively abounding in the northern It first appears in record towards the end of the parts of the world, and the more elevated districts 13th c., when it held lands in Ayrshire and Argyle. of the tmperate zones. They are mostly herbaceous, The chiefs of the family having taken a prominent some of them annual. The name BELL-FLOWER is part in public affairs, the most distinguished are common to many of them, and is often extended to noticed under the head ARGYLE. all. The flowers are in general beautiful, and many CAMPBELL, SIR COLIN, LORD CLYDE, of the species are therefore frequent ornaments of of the bravest soldiers and most distinguished flower-borders. Of the native British species, the generals of modern times, was born in Glasgow, in mo-t common, and one of the most beautiful, is 1792. His father was a cabinet-maker, named the HAREBELL (q. v.) or BLUEBELL (C. Rotundifolia). John Macliver, but Colin assumed the name of The CANTERBURY Bell (C. Medium) is a very bean- Campbell, to gratify an uncle on the mother's tiful annual, which has long been so generally sown side. He entered the army as an ensign in 1808 ; in flower-borders in Britain, that it is almost as fonght through the war in the Spanish peninsula
with distinction, and took part in the expedition to sound sense, and unpretending activity and derotle United States in 1814. In 1842, he attained tion to business were awarded with an extensive the rank of colonel, and in the same year he was common-law practice, and, after a time, with profespresent at the attack on Chusan, in China, and for sional promotion. The silk gown of a king's counsel his services there received honourable mention was conferred upon him in 1827. Three years afterin the Gazette. He next served in the Punjab, wards, he entered Parliament, actuated, he tells us, commanding the left at the battle of Chillian- in the preface to one of his works, by a desire to wallah. For his conduct in this battle, Lord Gough obtain for England the benefits of a national registry awarded him the highest praise in his dispatch to of titles to land. The effort, at the time, was the governor-general of India. He next commanded unavailing, as the landlords, wliom it was destined in the Peshawur district with uniform success more immediately to benefit, completely misunderagainst the hill-tribes. On the breaking out of the stood the purport of the project. C. was promoted Crimean war in 1854, he was appointed to the by the Whig party, to which he had attached himcommand of the Highland Brigade, and took a self, to the Solicitor-generalship in 1832, and to the prominent part at the battle of the Alma ; and Attorney-generalship in 1834. In the same year, afterwards at Balaklava, where, with the 93d he was chosen the representative in parliament for Highlanders, which he did not even form into Edinburgh. He continued to represent Edinburgh square, he beat back the Russian cavalry, who down to 1841, and remained in the office of Attorneywere swooping down on the port, with its accumu- general during that period, with the exception of lation of shipping and stores. His services in this the short time in 1835, when the Conservatives were war were rewarded with promotion to the rank of in power. In 1841, he was made Chancellor of major-general, and he was also created a Knight Ireland and a peer of the United Kingdom ; but held Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, and received the office of Chancellor for only a few months, when the Cross of the French Legion of Honour. He the Melbourne cabinet left office, necessitating C. was appointed Inspector-general of Infantry, and also to resign. For the first time since boyhood, in 1857, commander of the forces in India, then he found himself without regular daily labour, and engaged in quelling the Indian mutiny, which by at the mature age of 60, set to work to win the his energy and judgment was soon utterly subdued. literary fame which he professes always to have One of the most notable characteristics of C.'s secretly coveted. His first publication was a collecgeneralship, is the care he takes of the lives of his tion of his speeches at the bar and in the House men, all his victories being won with the minimum of Commons. For three or four years after the expenditure of the blood of his soldiers. For his publication of his speeches, C. was engaged in the exploits in India, C., in 1858, was created a peer preparation of the lives of the Chancellors, the first of the realm, with the title of Baron Clyde, and series of which appeared in 1845. In 1846, he joined appointed a general, the East India Company the Russel cabinet in the capacity of Chancellor of granting him an annuity of £2000. C. arrived in the Duchy of Lancaster. His ministerial duties Britain from India in July 1860. He died in 1863.
not sufficiently arduous to interrupt his CAMPBELL, George, D. D., an eminent theo- Lives of the Chancellors, and to publish a supple
literary labours, and he proceeded to complete the logical writer, was born at Aberdeen in 1719. He mental series of Lives of the Chief-justices of Engwas educated for the law, but abandoned that land. Both works have enjoyed great popularity, profession for the study of divinity. In 1746, he but leave no doubt that the author was niore fitted was ordained minister of Banchory Ternan, a parish for a practical lawyer than for a man of letters. C. lying some miles south-west of Aberdeen ; and in 1759, he was appointed Principal of Marischal Col- then appointed to succeed Denman as Chief-justice.
returned to more congenial labours in 1850 ; he was lege. His first work was his famous Treatise on
He held the office for nine years, at the end of Miracles, in answer to Hume. The dispute concerning 'miracles has assumed a new form in the obtained by a member of the legal profession—the
which he received the highest honour that can be meet all the objections which the modern school Chancellorship of England. He died June 1861. of rationalists urge; but the work in its own day
CAMPBELL, THOMAS, a distinguished English was greatly admired, and characterised as one of poet, was born in the city of Glasgow, 27th July the most acute and convincing treatises that has 1777. His father was a merchant, and the poet was ever appeared on the subject.' It was speedily the youngest of ten children. He was sent to the translated into French, Dutch, and German.
In university of his native city, and remained there 1771, c. was elected' Professor of Divinity in six years. During his collegiate course, he received Marischal College. In 1776, he published his several prizes, and was particularly distinguislied Philosophy of Rhetoric, which is still a standard work for his knowledge of Greek literature. On leaving on the subject. His last work was a Translation the university, C. went to reside as a tutor for å of the Gospels, with Preliminary Dissertations and year in the island of Mull. The scenery of the Notes. He died April 6, 1796. After his death West Highlands made a deep impression on his appeared his Lectures on Ecclesiastical History.
mind, and to his abode in these grand and desolate
regions we are indebted for many of the touches CAMPBELL, JOHN (CAMPBELL), LORD, High of sublimity which occur in his verses. Returning Chancellor of England, son of a minister of Cupar, from Argyleshire, C. meditated the study of law, , in the county of Fife, Scotland, was born in 1779. and repaired to Edinburgh; but he could not He was
at first destined to follow his father's shake off his recollections. In his eyes, the mists profession, and was sent, while still a mere boy, were folded on the hills of Morven, the roar of to the neighbouring university of St. Andrews. C. Corrievrekin was in his ears, and instead of prohimself had no inclination for a clerical life, and secuting the study of jurisprudence, he wrote The when he had completed his studies in the Faculty Pleasures of Hope. The poem was published in of Arts, he left for London, being then about 19 1799, and went through four editions in a twelveyears of age. He obtained employment on the month. After its publication C. went to the constaff of the Morning Chronicle, where, in due time, tinent; and on December 3, 1800, witnessed from he was intrusted with the care of the theatrical a Bavarian monastery the battle of Hohenlinden, criticism and the reports in the House of Com-fought between the French and Austrians. In
He was called to the bar in 1806. His / 1801, he returned to England, with The Exile of