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Erin and Ye Mariners of England in his port- | the peninsula of Yucatan, which divides the Caribmanteau ; and shortly after, took up his abode bean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. It is in lat. 19° in Edinburgh, where Locheil's Warning was com 50' N., and long. 90° 33' W. Though it has a shallow posed. In 1803, C. proceeded to London, and haven, yet it is the centre of the trade in logwood; adopted literature as a profession. He contri- it exports likewise cotton and wax. It is a handbuted articles to The Edinburgh Encyclopædia, and some city of 15,000 inhabitants, containing churches, comp'led The Annals of Great Britain from the convents, a cemetery, a theatre, a college, and shipAccession of George II. to the Peace of Amiens, in building docks. 3 vols. In 18016, through the influence of Mr. Fox,
CAMPER, PETER, one of the most learned and C. received a pension of £200 per. annum from acute physicians and anatomists of the 18th c., government. In 1809, he published Gertrude of was born at Leyden, 11th May 1722, and studied Wyorning, which bears the same relation to The medicine there. In 1750, he became professor of Pleasures of Hipe that the Castle of Indolence medicine at Franeker; in 1755, at Amsterdam ; and bears to The Seasons-a less brilliant and striking, in 1765, at Groningen. In 1773, he resigned his post, but more mature and finished performance. In resided some time at Franeker, and then travelled. 1818, C. was again in Germany, and on his return, On being elected a member of the state council in he published his Specimens of the British Poets, in 1787, he removed to the Hague, where he died, 7th 7 vols. In 1820, he delivered a course of lectures April 1789. C. was distinguished not only for the on poetry at the Surrey Institution. From this
services he rendered to anatomy, surgery, obstetrics, date to 1830, C. edited The New Monthly Maga- and medical jurisprudence, but also as a promoter zine, and contributed thereto several poems, one of the fine arts. He was remarkably skilful in of which, The Last Man, is in some respects pen-and-ink drawing, painted in oil, embossed, and the loftiest of all his performances. In 1824, he even acquired considerable experience as a sculptor. published Theodoric and other Poems. In 1827, he For his observations on the facial angle, see article was elected Lord Rector of the university of Glas- ANGLE. His work on the connection of anatomy gow, and received the unusual honour of re-election with the art of drawing was an important conthe two following years. He published The Pilgrim tribution to the theory of art. Another work, of Glencoe and other Poems in 1812. His later Description Anatoinique d'un Eléphant Müle, edited publications did not add to his fame. He died at by his son, G. A. Camper, and published at Paris Boulogne in 1814, and was buried in Westminster in 1802, is also worthy of notice. Co's collected Abbey, Macaulay, Dean Milman, and other cele- writings, with plates, appeared under the title, brated persons bearing the pall.
Euvres qui out pour Objet l'Histoire Naturelle, la C. is an established English classic. With the Physiologie et l'Anatomie comparée, 3 vols. (Par. young, The Pleasures of Hope will ever be a chief
1803). favourite ; while readers of maturer years will
CAMPERDOW'N, a village of Holland, 27 miles linger with delight over the silvan scenery and
north-west of Amsterdam, celebrated on account tender domestic scenes of Gertrude. It is in his lyrics, however, that C. has ascended highest into Duncan over the Dutch fleet, October 11, 1797.
of the victory obtained off its coast by Admiral the heavens of song--H»henlinden, Ye Mariners of The Dutch fleet, consisting of 11 sail of the line
. England, and The Battle of the Baltic, cannot be and other smaller vessels, under the command of paralleled in the language. Than these lyrics, the gallant Admiral de Winter, had stolen out of nothing can be more simple and spirited. read, they cannot be forgotten. They will fan the the Texel during a storm, with the view to join the
French fleet at Brest, when they were attacked patriotism of many generations.
by Admiral Duncan with 16 ships of the line. After an obstinate combat, attended with great loss on both sides, the Dutch admiral was compelled to strike, leaving 8 sail of the line and some smaller vessels in the hands of the English.
CAMPHENE, or CAMPHILENE, is an artificial variety of camphor obtained from turpentine, by
acting thereon with the dry vapour of hydrochloric Campbell's Autograph.
acid, and keeping the whole at a low temperature
by immersing the vessel in a freezing mixture. A CAMPBELL ISLAND, a lonely spot on the solid substance is produced, which separates in white South Pacific, in lat. 52° 33' S., and long. 169° 9' E. crystalline prisms, and has the taste and agreeable Though it is mountainous, and measures only 36 aromatic smell of common natural camphor. As miles round, it is yet valuable on account of its prepared, it is strictly a hydrochlorate of C.; but the harbours. It is also scientifically interesting, being latter can be obtained free from hydrochloric acid, volcanic, and displaying a rich and rare flora. by passing the vapour of the compound substarce CAMPBELTON, a royal horough and seaport, over dry heated quicklime, when the acid is held
It is not so on the east coast, near the south end of the penin- | by the lime, and pure C. passes over. sila of Cantire, Argvleshire, and the most important similar to ordinary camphor when thus freed from town in that county, is 65 miles west-south-west the hydrochloric acid. of Glasgow, on a fine harbour or sea-loch, 2 miles CA'MPHINE, a term applied in commerce to putlong, and 1 mile broad. It is noted for the number rified oil of turpentine, obtained by carefully distill
-between 20 and 30--of its whisky distilleries. ing the oil over quicklime, or by rectifying it over It unites with Ayr, Inverary, Irvine, and Oban to dry chloride of time to render it quite free fronu return one member to parliament. A sculptured rosin. It was formerly much used in lamps, burning granite cross stands in the principal street, and is with a very brilliant light. Being apt to smoke, it supposed to have been brought from Iona. Pop. required a lamp of peculiar construction. It has 6880. The chief exports are whisky, herrings, and been almost entirely superseded by coal oil, and more Highland cattle and sheep. In 1858, 2912 vessels, recently by kerosene distilled from petroleum. of 238,360 tons, entered and cleared the port. C.
CAMPHOR is a solid essential oil which is is a favourite summer resort.
found in many plants, and may be separated from CAMPEA'CHY, a seaport on the west side of many essential oils. It particularly abounds in
certain species of the natural order Lauraceve (q. v.). , as an article of commerce.-The Dryobalanops aroAlmost all the C. of commerce is the produce matica yields also a pale-yellowish limpid Auid, of the C. Laurel or C. tree (Camphora officinarum, which gushes out when deep incisions are made in formerly known as Laurus Camphora), a native the tree with an axe, and which is generally called of China, Japan, Formosa, and Cochin-China, and LIQUID C. or C. Oil. It is sometimes imported into which has been introduced into Java and the Europe. It has a smell somewhat resembling that West Indies. The genus Camphora differs from of Co, but more aromatic, like oil of cajeput. It is Cinnamomum (see Cinnamon) chiefly in having a supposed to be from this fluid that the crystalline thin instead of a leathery calyx. The C. Laurel Hard C. is deposited. See BORNEENE. is a tree of considerable height, much branched, with lanceolate, evergreen leaves on short stalks, Cremona, in the middle and near the close of the
CAMPI, a family of artists, who founded at and small yellowish-white flowers in axillary and terminal panicles. The fruit is in size and appear-that founded by the family Caracci (q. v.). Giulio
16th c., an eclectic school of painting, parallel with ance not unlike an imperfectly ripened black currant. Every part of the tree, but especially the C. (1500–1572) was the head of the school. He
studied painting, sculpture, and architecture under flower, smells strongly of camphor. The wood is
Giulio Romano. He also imitated the works of light and durable, not liable to be injured by Tritian (at least in colouring) and Pordenone with insects, and much valued for carpenter's work. the extraction of C. from the C. Laurel, the wood ascribed to both of these artists. His female heads,
such success that his pictures have sometimes been of the stem and branches is chopped up into frag; like those of his brothers, are remarkably beautiful. ments, and introduced into a still with water, and
-ANTONIO C. studied, under his brother, both heat applied, when the steam generated carries off
His knowledge of the the C. in vapour. These vapours rise, and in pass- latter was very serviceable in several of liis paint
painting and architecture. ing through rice-straw, with which the head of ings; for example, that of the sacristy of St. Peter. the still is filled, the c. solidifies, and is deposited He was also a plastic artist, an engraver, and the round the straw in minute grains or particles, some historian of his native place.- VINCENZO C. (b. before what about the size of raw sugar or coarse sand. 1532, d. 1591) seems to have followed the guidance These grains of impure C. are detached, and being of Antonio rather than that of Giulio, and excelled introduced into a large globular glass vessel in quantities of about 10 lbs., are reheated, when first more in small figures than in large pictures. His the water rises in steam, and is allowed to escape C. (b. 1522, d. about 1590), a kinsman of the three
paintings of fruits are highly valued.—BERNARDINO at a small aperture; and thereafter, this aperture brothers c., was the most famous of the whole. being closed, the C. sublimes and resolidifies in the Lanzi term's him the Annibale Citracci' of the interior upper part of the flask, as a semi-transpa- school.
school. He studied first under Giulio C., but soon rert cake, leaving all the impurities behind. The
excelled his master. Afterwards, he chose Giulio flasks are then cooled and broken by throwing cold water on them, and the C. taken out, and sent into Romano, Titian, and Correggio as models, but market. The glass globes employed are called chiefly followed Raphael
, yet without servile imitaby an Italian name, bomboloes, the sublimation of tion. Many of his works are found in Milan and c. having been first practised in Venice.-C. was choir in the church San-Gismondo is Bernardino's
In the latter place, the cupola of the unknown to the Greeks and Ronians, and was master-piece. He was distinguished as a portraitfirst brought to Europe by the Arabs.
painter and engraver. white tough solid, slightly lighter than water, and
It is very sparingly soluble in CAMPION. See LYCHNIS, and SILENE. water, but freely soluble in alcohol, ether, acetic, CAMPLI, a town in the province of Abruzzo acid, and the essential oils. It fuses at 347°, and Ultra, Naples, about 5 miles north of Teraino. boils at 399°, and when set fire to, is very in- has a cathedral, an abbey, and several convents. flaminable, and burns with a white smoky flame. Pop. 7125. Tlırown upon water, it floats, and may be set fire
CAMPOBA'SSO, a fortified town of Naples, in the to, when the currents generated alike from the so- province of Molise, about 53 miles north-north-east lution in water and the irregular burning of the of the city of Naples. It has a fine cathedral, a pieces, cause a curious rotatory motion. It has a ruined castle, some convents, and palaces belonging peculiar hot aromatic taste, and an agreeable char- to resident nobles. It has manufactures of cutlery,
which enjoy a considerable reputation for excelC. is used in medicine, both internally and exter- lence. Its situation, though far from inviting as renally, as a temporary stimulant.
It is frequently gards scenery, is favourable for trade, which is facilemployed in gout and rheumatism. In small doses, itated by good roads. Pop. 10,400. it acts as an anodyne and antispasmodic; in very large doses, it is an irritant poison. It is generally situated at the mouth of the Passamaquoddy Bay,
CAMPOBE'LLO, an island of New Brunswick, reckoned an anaphrodisiac. Its alcoholic solution and liniments in which it is the principal ingredient; being 9 miles long, and from 1 to 3 miles broad;
in lat. 44° 57' N., and long. 66° 55' W. It is small, are much used for external application in sprains and but it is decidedly valuable, possessing some good bruises, ch'lblains
, chronic rheumatism, and paraly- harbours, and, at its north end, a light-house of 60 sis.—The effluvia of C. are rery noxious to insects
, feet in height. and it is therefore much used for preserving specimens in natural history.
CAMPO' DE CRIPTA'NA, a town of Spain, in The BORNEO C. or SUMATRA C. of commerce, the province of, and about 50 miles north-east of
It has manufactures of sometimes called Hard C., is the produce of Dryo- the city of Ciudad-Real.
. balanops aromatica, a large tree of the natural order coarse cloths, and some trade in corn and fruits. Dipteraceæ (1. v.). The C. is obtained by cutting Pop. 5250. down the tree, and splitting it into small pieces ; CAMPO-FO'RMIO, a village in the province of being found in crystalline masses in natural cavities Friuli, Northern Italy, about 7 miles south-west of of the wood. To this substance, the Chinese ascribe the city of Udine, 'is celebrated for the treaty of extraordinary medicinal virtues, so that it is sold peace here concluded, October 17, 1797, hetween among them at more than fifty times the price of Austria and the French Republic. After subjugatcommon camphor. It is seldom brought to Europe ing Italy (179C), the French army had crossed the
It is a
Noric Alps, and threatened Vienna, Austria, there, they represent the passion of Christ, his resurrection, fore, hastened to arrange preliminaries of peace. and other sacred subjects. These remarkable paintIn the treaty which was concluded by Bonaparte ings are supposed to date before the middle of the with the Count of Coblenz, 17th October 1797, 14th c., and are ascribed to Buffalmaco. But the Austria ceded the Netherlands, Milan, and Mantua, most marvellous productions are those of Giotto, and received as compensation the districts Istria, | (q. v.), of Simone Memmi, the friend of Petrarch, and Dalmatia, and the left bank of the Adige in the of Andrea and Bernardo Orcagna. As a museum of Venetian states, and the capital, Venice; while classical antiquities, the C. S. is perhaps even more France took the remaining territory of Venice, its remarkable than in any other point of view. Altars, possessions in Albania, and the Ionian Islands. In sarcophagi, bas-reliefs, statues, inscriptions, everythe secret articles of the treaty, Austria, in ceding thing that is interesting or curious which has come the left bank of the Rhine, was to receive as com- into the possession of the Pisans for centuries, they pensation Salzburg and the Bavarian district on have accumulated within its walls. the Inn; and promises were held out to the Duke
CAMPVE'RE, now called VERE or VEERE, a of Modena, and other Italian houses, that their concessions should be compensated at the cost of small fortified town of the Netherlands, in the
province of Zealand, in Walcheren Island, 4 miles Germany.
north-north-east of Middleburg. It has a port on CAMPOMA'NÉS, PEDRO RODRIGUEZ, Count of, the Veersche Gat, a tract of water separating WalSpanish minister and dictator of the Royal Academy cheren from North Beveland. The town is now in a of History at Madrid, founded by Philip V. in 1738, state of deplorable decay, but it still possesses remwas born in Asturias in 1723. His talents and learn- nants of its early prosperity in its town-house of ing were devoted to the advancement of his native white freestone, remarkable for its elegant tower, country. By his enlightened views of state policy, and in its beautiful cathedral. C. has now one calicoas well as by his writings, which ranked him among factory. Its population had dwindled down to a few the most eminent Spanish authors, he obtained a hundreds. great reputation throughout Europe. He gave effec- From a historical point of view, C. is a city tual assistance to Count Aranda in his difficult of great interest. In the year 1304 it was the enterprise of driving the Jesuits out of Spain. scene of a battle between Guy, Count of Flanders, He died February 3, 1802. C.'s chief works are and William, governor of Holland and Zealand, Antiguedad Maritima de la Republica de Cartago in which the first was victorious. In 1572, it was con el Périplo de su general Hannon, traducido del delivered from the Spanish garrison; and, a century Griego y ilustrado (Madrid, 1756); Discurso sobre el later, it was the first to proclaim the Prince of fomento de la Industria popular (1771); Discurso Orange, William III., stadtholder. But C. is chiefly sobre la Educacion popular de los Artisanos y su interesting for the trading relations subsisting furento (1775); Apéndice a la Educacion popular between it and Scotland for nearly four centuries. (1775–1777). These writings contained his opinions Wolfaard Van Borssele, Lord of Vere, Sandenburg, on politics, taxation, agriculture, manufactures, and &c., having married Mary, the sister of James I.
The best known of his financial pro- of Scotland, the Scotch staple was transferred ductions is Tratado de la Regalia de Amortizacion from Bruges to C. in 1444.
C. Owed its name to (Madrid, 1765).
the circumstance, that there originally existed CAMPO SA'NTO (Holy Field) is now the Italian of Campen, in North Beveland, a village situated
a ferry (Dutch, veer) from thence to the village designation for a cemetery or burying-ground, but
on the spot where now lies the hamlet of Kampermore especially for an enclosed place of interment,
The Scotch staple-right at Vere consisted receive the remaius of persons of distinction. The Scotland to the Netherlands, brought to that city;
eestined to most famous C. S., and that from which the others and they could not be transferred to another place derived their name, is that of Pisa—in the neigh- before they had been sold there. The numerous bourhood of the Dome, and consecrated to the Scotchmen living at Vere were under the rule memory of men who had deserved well of the of a “Conservator of the Scotch nation, and had republic. It was founded by Archbishop Ubaldo, towards the end of the 12th century. The arch- many privileges conceded to then, including the , out
right to be governed by the law of Scotland. The Saladin, brought his fifty-three vessels
, which had last treaty respecting those rights was in 1741, after bren destined for the conquest, laden with the earth rendered the renewal of sucli partial arrangements
which time the increasing prosperity of Scotland of the Holy Land. This he deposited on the spot unimportant. which was thence called the Holy Field, and which, held as a sinecure long after the necessity for the
The conservatorship, however, was as we have said, gave its name as a generic term to office had ceased, the name of Sir Alexander Ferrier the burying-grounds of Italy. the existing building was Giovanni Pisano, under appearing in the Edinburgh Almanac as 'Conse:whose superintendence it was completed in 1283.
vator at Cumpvere’so lately as 1847, after which It contains an area of 400 feet in length, and 118 in time the office seems to have been abolished. The
Scotch formed a separate religious community, breadth; and is surrounded by a lofty wall, on the inner side of which a wide arcade runs around the which, from 1613 until the French Revolution, had whole enclosure, giving to it the character of one served by the minister of Vlissingen, when it ceased
a minister of its own, and afterwards, till 1809, was magnificent cloister. At the smaller eastern side, there is a large chapel, and two chapels of smaller size on the northern side. The lofty circular arches CAMTOO'S, or GAMTOO'S, a river of the east of the arcade are filled with the richest Gothic division of the Cape Colony, of 200 miles in length. tracery, which belongs however, t) a later date- It rises in the Niewveld mountains, near lat, the latter half of the 15th c.--and consequently | 32° S., and, flowing through the inland district of formed no part of the original desigai. The walls Beaufort, and the maritime one of Uitenhage, falls are adorned with frescoes, which are of great interest into that inlet of the sea which is immediately to and value, both absolutely and with reference to the west of Algoa Bay. It is valuable as an aid the history of art. The oldest of those which have to irrigation. For instance, Hankey, a station of been preserved adorn one side of the castern wall: 'the London Missionary Society, on its banks, is
thorougļily watered by means of a splendid tunnel, world: from it, it is supposed, the vessels for the carried through solid rock at the expense of the as- marriage-feast were filled ; and near the fountain sociation just mentioned.
are also lying the fragments of a Roman column. CAMUCCI'NI, VINCENZO, one of the most dis- | A house is still shewn as that in which the miracle tinguished modern historical painters in Italy, was was performed; and some earthen jars sunk into born in Rome 1775. The school of which he becanie the floor are said to be the very jars in use on that the head was founded on the theatrical antique style day. A church was built over the spot, but it is now of the French painter David. The first important in ruins. works by C. were the ' Assassination of Cæsar’and the
CANAAN. See PALESTINE. • Death of Virginia ;' both painted for Lord Bristol at the commencement of the present century. His CA'NADA, the most valuable province of British picture of 'Unbelieving Thomas' was copied in mo-America, and perhaps the most important colony saic for St. Peter's Church. For the church of San of the United Kingdom, is situated chiefly in the Giovanni in Piacenza he executed a Presentation in basin of the St. Lawrence, including in that term the Temple,' which was greatly admired. These both the lakes and the river. On the left side of works were followed by many scenes from Roman the stream, it covers from end to end the whole history; among them, the pictures of Horatius depth back to the height of land which sends its Coeles,' and 'Romulus and Remius' as children. C. northerly tribute into Hudson's Bay. But on the who, as a man and an artist, was highly honoured right side only a portion of the lower basin belongs during his career, died at Rome, September 2, 1844.
to Canada. Beginning at the west, the boundary, CAMUS, ARMAND Gaston, a prominent char- the mid-channel of the lakes and the river to the
line between C. and the United States runs along acter in the French Revolution, was born in Paris, point where it meets the parallel of 45°; it then April 2, 1740.
On account of his superior knowledge follows that parallel for about 150 miles, after of ecclesiastical law, he was elected Advocate which it bends northward nearly along the boundary general of the French clergy. He was a zealous which it bends northward nearly along the boundary and ascetic Jansenist, and possessed of extraor
of the basin, and finally eastward to the Bay of dinary firmness of character. He hailed the move
The most important tributaries of the St. Lawrence ments of 1789 with joy, and was elected member of the States-generaľ by the people of Paris. In The Ottawa, the St. Maurice, and the Saguenay are
are all from the left, and therefore belong to Canada. this position, he appeared as the resolute foe of the rivers of the first magnitude, according to European ancient régime. He gained possession of, and published, the so-called Red Bock, giving accounts of analogies. The only affluents from the right worth court expenditure, which was highly disadvantage- Chaudiere, and even of these subordinate streams,
naning are the Richelieu, the St. Francis, and the to the court and its ministers. After the the last two are totally Canadian, while the first, flight of Louis XVI., C., with Montmorin, Lafay.
as the outlet of Lakes Champlain and George, belongs ette, and Bailly, accused the king of treason and conspiracy, and insisted on the suppression of all timated to contain 350,000 square miles, being about
to the United States only in part. C. has been esorders and corporations based on hereditary rights, I thrice the size of the British Isles; it stretches in As conservator of the national archives, he rendered W. long. from about 64° to about 90°, and in N. lat. an important service by preserving from destruction from about 42° to about 53°. It has been cut into the old documents of the abolished corporations and from about 42° to about 53o. institutions. He was absent in Belgium during the
two tolerably equal sections-West and East, or king's trial, but sent his vote for death. In March Upper and Lower. The Ottawa, which joins the St. 1793, when he was commissioned to make prisoners
Lawrence a little above Montreal, is the dividing-line, of Dumouriez and other generals suspected of excepting that the immediate fork has been trans
ferred from Canada West or Upper to Canada East treason, C. hiniself and his four colleagues were
or Lower. taken prisoners and delivered over to the Austrians (April 3); but, after an imprisonment of two and visited by the French in 1534.
C., as far up the St. Lawrence as Montreal, was
In 1609 they founded a half years, he was exchanged for the daughter of Louis XVI. On his return to Paris, he was made Quebec; and after holding the country rather as a member of the Courcil of Five Hundred, of which military possession than as a colonial dependency he became president, January 23, 1796, but resigned the English under Wolfe and Amherst in 175:
for a century and a half, they were supplanted by 20th May 1797, and devoted his time to literature. Remaining, however, true to his principles he 1760. In 1763, immediately after the conquest had voted, July 10, 1802, against Napoleon's proposed been ratified by cession, a small portion of the consulship during life. C. died of apoplexy Forem- recently acquired territory was organised by royal
proclamation under English laws. În 1774, the new ber 2, 1804.
province was extended by parliamentary enactment, CAʼMWOOD, or BA'RWOOD, a dyewood which and that under French laws, down the Ohio to its yields a brilliant but not permanent red colour, and is confluence with the Mississippi, and up the latter used along with sulphate of iron to produce the red
stream to its source. Finally, C. receded to its colour in English Bandana handkerchiefs. It is the present limits in 1783, giving up to the American wood of Baphia nitida, a tree of the natural order republic the sites of six sovereign states-Minnesota, Leguminosae, sub-order Ccesal piniece, a native of Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. Angola. It is preferred to Brazil Wood (q. v.), as In 1791, it was divided, under separate legislatures, producing a finer and richer red.
into two sections—the eastern retaining French CANA OF GA'LILEE, called by the natives institutions, and the western receiving those of "Kefr Cana.' This place, celebrated in Scripture England; and these sections, again, after political as the scene of our Lord's first miracle, when he discontent had in each ripened into armed insurturned water into wine, is now a small village of a rection, were re-united for legislative purposes in few hundred inhabitants, who are principally Greek | 1840. Christians or Nazarenes, situated about 13 miles In 1763, the French population amounted to about west of the Sea of Galilee, and 6 miles north of 65,000, occupying the immediate banks of the Lover Nazareth. At the entrance of the village there is a St. Lawrence and its tributaries. Excepting within fountain of the clearest and most delicious water- the cities of Montreal and Quebec, the immigrants the best, say the Christians of Palestine, in the l of a different origin, whether from the old colonies VRE
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