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CANADA.

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or from the niother-country, scarcely attempted to commencement on the Lower St. Lawrence to the establish themselves among the ancient settlers; shores of Lake Huron. Below Quebecto say thus producing a kind of reciprocal isolation, which nothing of the precarious nature of the crops—there eren down to the present day, has not been mate- may always be seen, on one or on both sides, the rially disturbed. Generally speaking, therefore, the primeval forest. Between that city, again, and the two grand elements of the provincial population are basin of the Ottawa, a gradual improvement shews locally distinguished from each other relative itself, even on the north side; and towards the position which has happily excluded, as between south, there stretches away to the frontier of the them, nearly every difficulty as to education and United States a broad belt of generally undulating religion. The settlers of French origin, almost character, probably the best field in the country for entirely confined to East C., occupy the banks of the blending of pasturage and agriculture. From the St. Lawrence and of the lower courses of its the basin of the Ottawa inclusive, the parallel of tributary streams; all the rest of East C. and the the south end of Lake Nipissing may be said to cut whole of West C., so far as they are reclaimed at off, towards the south-west, the entire residue of all, belong to colonists of English race. According the practicable soil, in the shape of a roughly defined to the census of 1851, the former numbered about triangle, which, as a whole, is at least equal, in the 700,000; while the latter, including a small pro- growth of grain in general and of wheat in parportion neither English nor French, amounted to ticular, to any region of the same extent in North about 1,110,000. The population of French origin | America. according to the census taken in 1861, amounted to As C. slants southwards eight or nine degrees 880,902; natives of Canada not of French origin, ( from the mouth of the St. Lawrence to that of the 1,037,541 ; all others, 589,214. The way in which Detroit, which communicates between Lakes St. the population was divided, in 1851, in respect of Clair and Erie, the climate of the west must be creed, will be seen from the following table:

warmer than that of the east. In addition to this

cause of difference, it holds as a general law over the

Canada East. Canada West. Church of England

45,402 223,190

continent that the climate improves in advancing Church of Scotlind,

4.047

57,542 westward, even on the same parallel. Besides, the Church of Rome,

746,966 167,095

lakes of Upper C. appear, in a good measure, to Free Presbyterians, . .

65.807 Other Presbyterians, .

neutralise aud mitigate the extremes of a Canadian .

29,021 .

80,799 Wesleyan Methodists,

5,799 96,610 climate. While Quebec in winter ordinarily enjoys Episcopal Methodists,

43,891 five or six months of sleighing, the corresponding New Connection, .

3,442

7,5-17 Other Methodists,

11,9.5 .

59,585

season in Toronto ranges from five or six days to Congregationalists,

3,927

five or six weeks. As to summer, the difference in Baptists, . . .

4,493 45,353 favour of Toronto is rather in point of duration than Liitherans,

19
12,089

of intensity. As indications of the climate of C., it Quakers, .

103

7,460 Jews,

343 :

103

may be stated that the isle of Orleans, immediately Others not

34,326

76,063 below Quebec, is famous for its plums, and the island Totals,

of Montreal for its apples; and from the neighbour. . . $90,261 952,004

hood of Toronto to the head of Lake Erie, grapes and The two divisions of the province present a peaches ripen without any aid whatever. Melons, striking contrast in their rates of progress. To take, again, of large size, come to maturity, through for instance, the growth of towns: In Lower C., the settled parts of the province, in the open air; Sherbrooke, the capital of the Eastern Townships, and pumpkins and squashes attain enormous size, with about 1,500 inhabitants, forms almost the only some of them near Toronto haring weighed 300 lbs. addition to Quebec, Three Rivers, and Montreal - The climate of C., though, as a whole, vastly steadier the three French foundations; in Upper C., besides than that of the British Isles, is yet occasionally five cities, to be immediately noticed, there are liable to such changes as among us are all but already six-and-thirty towns at least equal, on an impossible. Montreal, for instance, may be said, on average, to Sherbrooke. With respect, again, to an average, to have an extreme cold of 24° below cities, properly so called, the growth of Montreal zero, and an extreme heat of 96° above it. Now on and Quebec, remarkable enough in itself, has been short notice, a thaw nay surprise the former tenowing rather to their commercial facilities with perature, and a frost the latter; so that there is. regard to the country at large than to the agricul- room, in winter and summer respectively, for a comtural resources of their immediate vicinities; while paratively sudden rise or fall of about 60°. Toronto, London, Kingston, and Hamilton--each In the matter of communications, C. is unrivalled. nurtured chiefly by its own locality-have an The St. Lawrence, with its lakes, puts it in connecaggregate population of about 100,000; the first tion at once with the most commercial sections of two having quadrupled their numbers respectively the United States, and with the onen ocean. The within the last 20 and 10 years.

navigation of this great water-system has been Great part of C., more especially the shores of greatly assisted by art. Below Montreal, Lake St. Lake Superior, is valuable only for mineral resources, Peter has been deepened ; and above that city, a such as iron, zinc, lead, copper, silver, gold, cobalt, series of cuts, skirting the rapids, admit sea-going manganese, gypsum, marl, granite, sandstone, lime- vessels into Lake Ontario. Beyond this, the stone, slate, and marbles of nearly every imagin- | Welland Canal lifts the maritime nivigation round able colour. Considerable portions, also, though the Falls of Niagara into Lake Erie. Without heavily timbered, chiefly with pine, are yet but little reckoning, therefore, the American, works between adapted to settlement and cultivation. Towards the Huron and Superior, the Canadian settlement at gulf of the St. Lawrence, again, a considerable section the foot of Sault Ste. Marie, now a free port, is derives importance mainly from the fisheries, being, virtually, as it were, washed by the tides of the with partial exceptions in Gispe, comparatively | Atlantic. The government has subsidised a line worthless for every other object. Thus the area for of steam-ships, running weekly to England from the profitable production of ordinary cereals cannot the St. Lawrence in summer, and from Portland, materially exceed 40,000 square miles, containing in the state of Maine, during winter. In addition however, within this space a singularly small proporto the navigation of the main artery, there are tion of irreclaimable surface. This cultivable block numerous canals and navigable streams and lakes increases regularly in width and fertility, from its throughout the province. The chief canal is the

CANADA.

Rideau, connecting the river Ottawa with Lake: In 1868, the ordinary revenue from all sonrces Ontario.

reached $12,432,748, or about £2,568,700 sterling. Over and above all these facilities in the way The public debt was not less than £14,148,418 sterof navigation, C. is not deficient in roads of every ling. description. To say nothing of the snow and ice, The larger half of the provincial trade namely, with which, at least in the north and east of the that with the neighbouring republic—is the result country, the winter paves the length and breadth chiefly of a Reciprocity Treaty between C. and the of land and water alike, or of the macadamised United States. To say nothing of the mutual thoroughfares in the older localities, the government advantages of such intercourse to the parties interlias recently laid out, in the newer and remoter ested, the compact in question places in a new townships, two great systenis of highways, seven light the commercial relations between the motherlines for the upper province, and five for the lower, country and the colonies. Within less than 100 subsidising, as it were, the same by free grants of years, Great Britain selfishly and heavily fettered 100 acres to each holder on both sides of every even the internal economy of its American dependroute, under condition of residence and cultivation. encies, issuing penal prohibitions against the making As to railways, C. has more miles in proportion to of hats and the working in ironagainst everything, population than any country in the world. Exclu- in a word, that threatened a practical abridgmont sive of the Grand Trunk Railway, there are fourteen of imperial monopoly ; and now C., besides enjoying of these works of the aggregate length of 1006 absolute immunity within its own borders from miles, of which the Great Western from Niagara such extraneous interference, is permitted to negoFalls to Detroit, including its branches to Guelph tiate with the nations, as freely as they negotiate and Toronto, forms upwards of a third. The Grand with one another, on the subject of commerce and Trunk, which extends from Detroit to below Quebec, manufactures. In this respect, the colony of C. with an extension to Portland, in the United States, may challenge comparison with the neighbouring in order to secure an ocean port in winter, has a sovereign states. lengoh (exclusive of that extension) of 870 miles. Even politically, C. is virtually its own master as The Victoria Bridge (q. v.), by which this railway to its domestic concerns. Responsible government, crosses the St. Lawrence at Montreal, is one of the as recommended by Lord Durham in 1838–1839, vonders of the world.

necessarily led to this result. In addition to the In the face of the severe competition of ener- rule of a common sovereign, the single tie that still getic rivals. who were sooner in the field. C. now binds the colony to the mother-country is that of presents the shortest and cheapest and speediest protection, military and diplomatic. In other words, route, whether for goods or for passengers, between the subordination of C. to the empire, so far from Europe and the north-western states of the American being a badge of subjection or an instrument of Union. Hitherto, whatever may have occasioned oppression, is a guarantee at once of external indethe shortcoming, the incidental outlay has been pendence and internal tranquillity. The provincial very far from repaying itself. But, in the hope constitution rests on the broadest basis. The elecof ultimate success, the legislature has hesitated tive franchise is nearly universal. Every man who at no sacrifice. On the St. Lawrence canals, which pays 30 dollars of honse-rent in city or town, or 20 cost fully £1,500,000, it has entirely remitted, on in a rural district, is entitled to vote. Neither creed behalf of provincial interests, all tolls and dues; nor colour is any disqualification ; while, by a resiand to the Grand Trunk Railway it has handed dence of three years, a foreigner may acquire the a virtual donation of more than £3,000,000. At right of suffrage. the rate of even 5 per cent. a year, the two sunk Parliament prior to 1867 consisted of two houses capitals are equivalent to an annual payment in per--the Council and the Assembly; while the authority petuity of £225,000.

of the crown is represented by a governor, who The following table will exhibit the trade of C. I is at the same time Governor-general of the other with G. Britain, the U. States and other countries: North American colonies. The Council, at present 1868.

in a state of transition between royal nomination Exports. Iniports.

Total.

and popular election, has 54 members in all--30 Great Britain, . . $21,329,000 $36,663,895 $57,992,905 B. N. A. Colonies, . 3,352,629 2 ,563.321

nominated and 24 c'ected equally between the two

5,915,950 United States, . . 27.534,292 26,315,052 53,849,341 sections of the colony. The Assembly, again, conOther countries, . . 2,390,235 3,965,612 6,355,877 tains 130 representatives---65 for Upper C. and 65 The principal exports were :

for Lower Canada. Lower C. returns 8 for four Produce of mines. $1.446,857 : of fisheries, cities and towns, and 57 for as many counties ; $3.357.510: of the forest, $18.262,170: animals, while Upper C., with 9 for eight cities and towns, $6,893,167 ; manufactures, $1,572,546 ; agricultural apportions 56 between twenty-five counties and the products, $12,871,055 ; and ships, $837,892. Total, thirty-one ridings of fifteen more. The parliament $54,606,137.

is elected for four years. Before the union, the The trade of the dominion of Canada is chiefly separate places of meeting were Quebec and Toronto. with the United States and Great Britain. In conse Since then, the united parliament has been sucquence of the abrogation (1866) of the Reciprocity cessively held in Kingston, Montreal, and Toronto; Treaty with the United States, there was a reduction and at present (1860), it provisionally sits at Quebec, in the imports from the latter country in the year en till Ottawa, lately chosen as the capital, where the Kling June 30, 1868.

Prince of Wales has just laid the foundationWoollen and cotton manufactures are the chief ar- stone of the requisite buildings, may be ready to ticles imported into Canada from G. Britain. The receive it.' average amount of the former imported into Canada | Detailed statistics with respect to so extensive a in the five years, 1864–68, was £1,250,000, and of country, the intending emigrant must not expect to the latter £1,000,000.

find in so brief a summary as this; suffice it io

say, that, whatever may be his means and views, The vear 1858, partly from a failure of crops, and he will meet in C. all the main elements of comfort partly from an augmentation of duties, fell far short and prosperity-the civilisation of Europe with the of 1857, and still more so of 1856. The year 1859, cheaper land and higher wages of America. Besides so far as its returns are accessible, exhibited an im- the free grants already mentioned along the newly provement as compared with 1858.

Topened highways, he may at reasonable rates, and CANADA BALSAM-CANAL.

under easy terms of payment, select, from many It is the finest kind of turpentine obtained from millions of acres, such allotments as may suit his , any of the coniferoe, and is much employed foi resources, purchasing not only from the government, medicinal purposes, particularly as a stimulant for but also from either of the great companies—the the cure of mucous discharges, and as a detergent British American for the lower province, and the application to ulcers. It is also used for a variety of Canada for the upper. If he has carried with him purposes in the arts—as an ingredient in varnishes, capital, or has acquired it on the spot by his skill or in niounting objects for the microscope, in photolabour, he will always be able to secure a ready-graphy (q. v.), and by opticians as a cement, par. made homestead for less than it would cost him to ticularly for connecting the parts of achromatic erect it. If he has substance to spare beyond the lenses to the exclusion of moisture and dust. Its immediate demands of his own location, he may value for optical purposes is very great, and depends invest it in duly registered mortgages at 8 per not only on its perfect transparency, but on its cent., or else buy blocks of about 50,000 acres possessing a refractive power nearly equal to that each, at prices varying from 9d. sterling to 28. an of glass. acre, and that on not very onerous conditions of

CANADA GOOSE. See Goose. survey and settlement. Places of worship abound in all but the youngest and wildest localities. The CANA’L, an artificial charnel for water, formed Church of England, besides 2 bishops in each pro- for purposes of drainage, irrigation, or navigation, vince, numbers 315 clergymen. The Church of but now usually employed to designate only such Rome, with 8 bishops in all, has about 540 priests. cuts as are intended for the passage of vessels.* Among Presbyterians and Methodists respectively, Canals date from a period long anterior to the of all known denominations, there are 325 and 743 Christian era, and were employed as a means ministers. Other sects, dividing among them 359 of irrigation and communication by Assyrians, preachers of the gospel, make up a total of 2294 Egyptians, and Hindus; also by the Chinese, whose pastors; or, on an average, one pastor to little more works of this kind are said to be unrivalled than a thousand of the population. In the eye in extent; one of them, the Imperial C., having a of the law, all denominations are equal, for the length of about 1000 miles. For the most part, tithe payable in Lower C. by the flocks of the however, these early canals were of one uniform Church of Rome is not a real burden on the level, and hence exhibit no great skill or ingenuity ; property, as such, but merely a personal liability and the moderns were content to follow the rudi. on the part of the occupier, as a Catholic. In mentary efforts of the ancients in this way until facilities for education, too, C. presents great advan- the 15th C., when the invention of the Lock tages to the intending emigrant. In the upper |(q. v.), shewing how canals might be generally and province—there were, in 1858, 12 universities and advantageously used for inland navigation, in colleges, and 4242 schools-121 grammar, 255 private countries whose surface was irregular-gave a great and 3866 common; while the pupils attained the inpulse to this branch of engineering. The Italians aggregate of 306,626. In the lower province, again, and Dutch, for both of which nations the invention during the same year, there were, besides 2 univer- of the lock has been claimed, were the first to sities and colleges, 2985 schools---10 superior, 170 develop this kind of engineering in Europe. In secondary, 3 normal, 2 special, and 2800 primary; France, the first C., that of De Briare, to form a while the pupils numbered 156,872. It thus appears communication between the Loire and the Seine, that Lower C. mustered a far smaller attendance was opened in 1642. In 1681 was completed the than Upper C., whether in proportion to seminaries greatest undertaking of the kind on the continent, or to population. While the population must have the C. of Languedoc, or the C. du Midi, to connect been about 3 to 4, the attendance was a fraction the Atlantic with the Mediterranean. The length more than 1 to 2; and the respective averages to of this C. is 148 miles, it has more than 100 locks, each seminary were about 52 and 72.

and about 50 aqueducts, and in its highest Every year some new movement marks the pro- part it is no less than 600 feet above the sea. gress of affairs in C., where but for political con. It is navigable for vessels of upwards of 100 tentions, and the occasional but angry brawls of tons. It was not until nearly a century later that the British and French races, we should have to C. navigation assumed importance in England, report a state of unalloyed peace and prosperity. through the sagacity, energy, and liberality of the

On the 1st of June, 1867, the provinces of Canada, Duke of Bridgewater (q. v.), and his celebrated N. Scotia and N. Brunswick were federally united as engineer, James Brindley (q. v.). The success of the Dominion of Canada, for further notice of which these works stimulated other public persons to see Art. CANADA in supplement to this work, 10th vol. engage in similar undertakings. Speculation in C.

CANADA BALSAM is a kind of turpentine shares became a mania similar to that which over(q. v.) obtained from the Balm of Gilead Fir (Abies took the people in connection with railways at a or Picea balsamea), a native of Canada and the more recent period, and a crash ensued on the northern parts of the United States. See Fir. It prospect of war in 1792. It would be an endless exists in the tree in vesicles between the bark and task to pursue the history of canal development in the wood, and is obtained by making incisions, and | Britain, which speedily became intersected with attaching bottles for it to flow into. It is a trans- these wate:y highways to an extent unequalled in parent liquid, almost colourless, and with an agree- any European country save Holland. In the space able odour and acrid taste. It pours readily out of a vessel or bottle, and shortly dries up, and becomes solid. When fresh, it is of the consistence of thin

* In the fen-districts of the east coast of England, | however, the large channels required for drainage are

hoi honey, but becomes viscid, and at last solid by

scid, ana at last solid Dy made subservient to purposes of inland navigation by age. It consists mainly of a resin dissolved in an sluices at the mouth--one to keep out the tide at high essential oil, and its composition is as follows: water, and another acting in the opposite direction, to

retain water of depth sufficient in the channel to float Essential Oi!.

18.6 such boats as make use of it. These combinations Resin, soluble in Alcohol, ..

40.0

of drain and canal are commonly called navigations ; Resin, sparingly soluble, . .

33.4 Elastic Resin,

hence the workmen employed in their construction

4.0 Bitter Extractive and Salts.

4.0

were called navigators, which, contracted into navvy, is

now applied indiscriminately to persons engaged in any 100.0 kind of earth-works.

CANAL.

remaining at our disposal, we shall briefly consider , On the Morris C. (United States), boats are conthe several kinds of canal.

veyed on a carriage up a railway inclined plane, Canals may be divided into three general heads— from one reach to another; on the Chard C., viz., 1. Canals proper, i. e., entirely artificial chan- Somersetshire, and on the Monkland C. near Glasgow, nels, having no water running through them beyond they are taken afloat in a caisson, or waterwhat is necessary for their own purpose ; 2. Tidal, tight vessel, up or down an inclined plane-in the i. e, affected by the rise and fall of the tides; and latter case, empty boats of 60 tons burden are raised 3. Rivers rendered navigable by weirs built across or lowered 96 feet. them to increase their depth, and having a lock at Other matters engineers have to consider are an one end for the ascent or descent of vessels ; and aniple supply of water, by means of feeders and occasionally, when there is much fall, or any fornid- reservoirs, to the summit-level; stop-gates at conable obstruction in the river, by lateral cuts, with venient distances, to shut off the water in case of locks for part of their course.

| damage to any part of the C.; means of drainage Another division may be made (1) of ship-canals when repairs are necessary; and provision against for the transit of sea-going vessels generaliy, from leakage through the banks, by puddling or othersea to sea ; these are necessarily of large dimensions, wise. The floor-line or bottom of a C. is usually and must be crossed by swing or draw bridges ; made twice the width of the largest boat likely to and (2) of canals for the passage of mere boats or enter the C., with an addition of 6 or 8 inches barges, generally without masts, so that they for play at each side, and the depth 12 or 18 inches may be crossed by stone or other solid bridges. more than the draught of the boat. The largest ship C. in Europe is the Great North The introduction of railways has materially interHolland C., completed in 1825, which has a breadth fered with C. traffic, and some canals have been of 125 feet at the water-surface, and of 31 feet at altogether abandoned. Many, however, still conthe bottom, with a depth of 20 feet. It extends tinue to prosper, as, for instance, the Grand Juncfrom Amsterdam to the Helder, a distance of 51 tion, which in 1840 conveyed 924,259 tons, and in miles ; it thus enables ships of as much as 1400 1856, 1,187,201 tons, shewing an increase of tons burden to avoid the shoals of the Zuyder Zee. 262,942 tons; Lea Navigation, which increased The surface of the water in this C. is below the from 214,927 tons in 1851 to 269,044 in 1856 ; and high-water level of the German Ocean, from which the Trent and Mersey, which rose from 1,284,222 in it is protected by embankments faced with wicker- 1855 to 1,558,027 in 1857. There are in Great work. The locks on this C. are 297 feet long, 51 Britain 2172 miles of C. proper, which have been feet broad, and 20 feet deep. There is a similar C. established at a cost of £28,400,000 ; and 1315 from near Rotterdam to Helvoetsluis, to avoid the miles of improved river-navigation, formed at a shallows of the Brill at the mouth of the Maas. cost of £6,270,000. In France, in the same year, Another great ship C. is the Caledonian C. (q. v.). there were 1974 miles of C., the cost of which had The Forth and Clyde C. is also one on a smaller been about £12,250,000; and in the United States, scale for the passage of sea-going vessels. Its 2000 miles, costing £9,200,000. length is 35 miles; its medium width is 56 feet at Among the works of extraordinary magnitude, exthe surface, and 27 feet at the bottom, and its pense and utility which have been projected and comdepth 9 feet. It has 39 locks, each 75 feet long, pleted, the Suez canal is one of the most remarkable. and 20 feet wide, and a rise of 155 feet. In con- Through it an uninterrupted communication has been structing ship-canals, it is important to secure a established, whereby sailing-vessels and steamers of sheltered entrance, one not likely to become silted heavy tonnage may pass from sea to sea, and thus up, and of sufficient depth to admit vessels at all avoid the long and dangerous voyage around the Cape times of the tide ; and towing-paths on both sides of Good Hope. The Suez C. extends from Port Saïd, are desirable.

on the Mediterranean, nearly south, through a series Among the principal canals in England for the of lakes, the bell of ancient watercourses, and artipassage of barges, some of which run to very great

ficial cuttings through a plateau to the Red Sea at

Suez. It is about 100 miles in length, though the elevation, are the

distance from sea to sea is but 75 miles, 62 miles of Length.

Rise.

the C. passing through a series of lakes, in a portion

Feet Grand Junction,

128

of which it requires embankments. Its width is Leeds and Liverpool, . .

128

433 | 328 feet in the lower levels, with a base of from 200 Trent and Mersey, . . .

326

to 246 feet, and depth of water 26 feet, but this has Kent and Avon

402

not been attained at the deep cuttings at mid-listance The C. of the Loire is one of those aiding the from either sea. At Port Saïd two piers have been navigation of a river, it has a width on the water constructed 2726 and 1962 yards long, respectively, afline of 33 feet, and a depth of 51 feet. the locks fording a safe and comninodious harbour. These piers being 17 feet broad, and 100 feet long. The river are made of huge blocks of concrete, measuring 12 Lea and the Mersey and Irwell Navigations in

cubic yards, and weighing 22 tons each. From a misEngland, and the Welland C. in Canada, formed to erable sand bank Port Said has grown to a flourislı. connect Lake Erie with Lake Ontario, and avoid ing seaport of 12,000 inhabitants, while Suez now the Falls of Niagara. are also among the most contains 25,000, and is rising in importance. noteworthy works of this class ; the river Thames,

A subsidiary canal, 50 miles long, extending fron. above the first lock at Twickenham, partakes also

takes also the Nile eastwardly to Ismailia, the midland port of of the nature of a canal.

the Suez Canal, supplies the district with fresh water Many canals pass through long tunnels, some very

To the enterprise and indomitable energies of Ferlow and without towing-paths, in which case the

dinand de Lesseps this great work owes its inception mode of propulsion is by the boatmen lying on their

and completion. In 1854 he organized the company, backs and pushing with their feet against the roof

and entered into agreement with the Egyptian Govof the tunnel.

ernment upon favourable terms. He commenced the The great expenditure of water and time in

work in 1859, and after many discouragements, the ·locking' have led to the trial of various other P

persistent energy of De Lesseps fought its way to plans for overcoming differences in level. On the

success, and the work was opened with imposing cere Great Western C., boats are raised and lowered by

monies Nov. 17, 1869. means of machinery, called a perpendicular lift. !

See SUEZ CANAL in supplement to this work.

Miles.

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