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The recent attempts to find a practicable route for of islands belonging to Spain in the Atlantic Ocean, the Darien ship-canal have proved unsuccessful. off the north-west coast of Africa, in list. 27° 40'—

The CANALETTO, or CANA’LÉ, the name of two 29° 25' N., and long. 13° 25'—18° 16' W. Venetian painters, who have acquired a reputation group consists of seven large and several small islets, for their landscapes and views of towns. The having altogether an area of about 3,800 square

The elder, Antonio C., born 1697, was the son and pupil miles, and a population of about 230,000. of a theatrical decorator in Venice. He studied at principal islands proceeding fron east to west, are Rome. Ke painted a numerous series of excellent Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, views in Venice, among which that of the great Gomera, Palma, and Hierro or Ferro. The coasts canal are especially admirable for their fresh colours are steep and rocky, and the surface is diversified ing, faithfulness, and the invention displayed in with lofty mountains (the greatest elevation being accessory objects. He came to England by the attained in the Pico de T'eyde, in the island of advice of Amiconai. He died in 1768, after having Tenerife, which has a height of 12,182 feet), naracquired both wealth and fame by his representa- | row gorges, and fertile valleys. All the islands are tions of English scenes, several of which are in of volcanic origin. On the summits of the highest Buckingham House, and are highly admired. elevations, depressions, like those left by fallen

BERNARDO BELLOTTO, surnamed CANALETTO, nephew cones of volcanoes, are almost everywhere found; and pupil of Antonio, was born at Venice, 1724, and the sterp declivities are marked by deep and attained high excellence as painter, and also fissures, of which, usually, only one penetrates the as an engraver on copper. He practised his art depressed summit, and exposes to view the several

There are numerous in his native place, and afterwards in Rome, Verona, strata of the volcanic rock. Brescia, Milin, and Dresden. Correct perspective, torrents, but no rivers, and fresh water is very powerful effects of light and shade, and beautiful scarce in the southern parts of the islands, and sky-tints, are the most prominent characteristics of especially in Hierro. his works. C. visited England, where, among several

The researches of Humboldt and Von Buch led to other excellent works, he painted a niasterly'interior the division of the botanical geography of Tenerife view of King's College Chapel, Cambridge, He died into five distinct regions. The first, or region of in Warsaw, 1780.

African forms of vegetation, extends to about 1300 CANAMI'NA, a town of Dahomey, Africa, about feet above the sea, and is marked by the growth of 12 miles south of the capital, Abomey. It is situat. the date palm, sugar-cane, dragon's-blood tree, &c. ed in the midst of a cultivated plain, and has a house The second region extends to the hcight of 2800 for the accommodation of white men, set apart by feet, and produces vines, corn, maize, olive, chestthe king. Pop. 10,000.

nuts, &c., in luxuriance. This zone represents the CANANO'RE, a seaport and military station of vegetation of Southern Europe. In the third region, the district of Malabar, in the presidency of Madras rising 1200 feet or so higher, we have laurels and It is in lat. 11° 52' N., and long: 75° 26' E., being 6000 feet, we find vegetation nipped by cold and

evergreens. In the fourth, extending to above about 50 miles to the north of Calicut. The town stands at the head of a bay, which, opening from the year, and only the Pinus Canariensis and other

excessive dryness, snow falling several months of the south, forms its harbor, while the fort and cantonments occupy the bluff headland, which shelters elevation of nearly 11,000 feet.

coniferæ flourishing. The fifth region attains an

Here are found the inlet of the side of the Arabian Sea. pepper, grain, and timber, the neighbourhood pro- zone, with cedrine junipers, and one Alpine plant,

à kind of Spartium (Broom) peculiar to this duces immense quantities of cocoa-nuts, which are

Arabis alpina.

The barren mountain-peaks are largely exported to the northward, where they are said to be scarce.

just below the limit of perpetual snow, although C. has been a British possessioni since 1791, having in that year been taken from in a cavern at the height of 11,000 feet above the Tippoo Sultan by General Abercromby.

sea, snow is said to be preserved throughout the

All the rest of the islands are similar in CA'NARA, the most northerly part of the presi- character, with the exception of Fuerteventura and dency of Madras, on the west coast of the peninsula Lanzarote, which are less elevated, more abundof Hindustan, separating the district of Malabar antly wooded, and more luxuriant in vegetation from Portuguese Goa. It stretches in N. lat. from generally. 12° 11' to 15° 30', and in E. long. from 74° 9' to Minerals are few, and of little importance. Near 75° 44', containing 7720 square miles, and number the sea, the general temperature ranges from ing, in 1852, 1,056,333 inhabitants. The territory is 60°

The territory is 60°—666 F., in the coldest month, January, to divided iuto north and south, the most noteworthy 178°—87° F., in the warmest month, October. The towns being Mangalore in the latter half, and rainy season lasts from November to February; Coomta, a place for the shipping of cotton, in the from April to October, the weather is uniformly former. In consequence of the death of Tippoo fine. The islands, however, suffer much from the Sultan, C. came into the possession of the East cast and south-east winds, which, blowing over India Company in 1799.

the hot deserts of Africa, burn up vegetation, and CANARAC, a town on the Orissa coast, at the generate disease. The annual produce of the north-west angle of the Bay of Bengal, in lat. islands is estimated at 170,000 quarters of grain, 19° 54' N., and log. 86' 10' E., being 235 miles to 54,000 pipes of wine, 300,000 quintals of barilla, and the south-west of Calcutta. It is remarkable chiefly 500,000 barrels of potatoes, besides oil and fruits for the remains in its vicinity of a colossal pagoda. of all kinds. The chief foreign trade is with the The entire area, a square of about 13 acres, is said United States, England, and Hamburg; and an to have been surrounded by walls 150 cubits high active trade between the islands themselves is carried and 19 broad; and the principal materials appear to on. Manufacturing industry is little developed. A have been red granite and black basalt, some of the captain-general rules over the whole, with a governor blocks measuring 15 or 16 feet in length, by 6 or 8 for each of the islands under him. in width, and 2 or 3 in thickness. Most of the TENERIFE, the largest island of the group, has an sculpture embellishments have been removed to the area of 877 miles, with a population of 85,000. In temple of Juggernant, which is in the same district the north-west of this island, which is the princiof Pooree as C. itself.

pal seat of the vine-culture, is situated the famous CANA’RIES, or CANAÖRY ISLANDS, a group i Pico de Teyde, or Peak of Tenerife (q. v.). The chief

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CANARIUM-CANARY GRASS.

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town and port is Santa-Cruz de Santiago (q. v.), on reconciled to its cage-life; but although canaries the north-east coast.

of long domesticated races sometimes excel in Gran Canaria, which is next in importance, has imitative powers and acquired strains, yet they are an area of 758 square miles, with a population of 68,000. Its culminating peak is El Cumbre, with a height of 6648 feet. The capital, Las Palmas (q. v.), on the east coast, is the largest town of the archipelago.

PALMA has an area of 718 square miles, and a population of 33,000. Its highest peak, Pico de los Muchachos, has an elevation of more than 7600 feet. Capital, Santa-Cruz des las Palmas (q. v.), on the east coast.

The area and population of the other islands are as follows: LANZAROTE is 323 square miles, pop. 17,400; FUERTEVENTURA, 326 square miles, pop. 13,800 ; GOMERA, 169 square miles, pop. 11,700 ; HIERRO, 82 square miles, pop. 4400. The chief towns of these islands are small.

The C. are supposed to have been the Fortunate Islands of the ancients. The Carthaginians are said to have visited them, and Juba II., king of the

Canary. two Mauritanias, wrote an account of them that has been transmitted to us by Pliny. In modern surpassed in loudness and clearness of note by times, the first account of them was furnished some of the wild birds, which, when caught and in the first half of the 14th c., by the crew of imported, are occasionally sold for extraordinary a vessel that had been driven among them by prices. Even in confinement, the C. often breeds stress of weather. A Spanish gentleman obtained a four or five times a year, laying from four to six grant of them from the pope; but when an attempt eggs each time. The eggs are pale blue. The male at settlement was made, the Spaniards were driven assists the female in building the nest and in feedoff by the natives. In the beginning of the 15th c., ing the young. Besides seeds of various kinds, the Spaniards succeeded in obtaining a footing in which are their principal food, canaries are very the Islands; but a difference having arisen with fond of bland green leaves, such as those of chickPortugal concerning them, it was not until 1493 weed, a supply of which is very necessary for their that the authority of Spain was finally established. health ; and one of their favourite luxuries is sugar. Since that time, they have remained attached to The C. not unfrequently lives 15 or 16 years. It the Spanish crown. The Guanches, who were the can be taught various notes and airs, and some even aborigines of the islands, have long ceased to exist learn to articulate words. The rearing and training as a separate people, the population being now of canaries afford occupation to no small number quite Spanish. They were a brave and intelligent of persons, particularly in the Tyrol. The C. hybri

dises readily with some other species of finch, proCANA'RIUM, a genus of trees of the natural ducing 'mules,' some kinds of which are valued as order Amyridaceæ, natives of the sonth-eastern parts song-birds.-There are several species very closely of Asia, the Malayan Archipelago, &c. The fruit is allied to the C., one of which, a beautiful little bird, a drupe. The kernel of the fruit of C. commune entirely yellow, with an orange crown, a native of is eaten both raw and roasted ; and in Amboyna, Brazil, is sometimes sold in Britain as a song-bird, bread is made of it, which is generally in the form but its musical powers are very inferior to those of of rolls about a yard long and an inch thick. An the common species. oil is expressed from it, which is used both for the CANARY GRASS (Phalaris Canariensis), a table and for lamps. The tree is about 50 feet high grass of which the seed is much used, under the C. sylvestre also produces eatable kernels. C. com

name of canary-seed, as food for cage-birds, and mune is supposed to be one of the trees which yield which is, on that account, cultivated to some extent ELEMI (q. v.), and C. microcarpum yields an oil in the south of Europe, and in certain districts of very like copaiva, known in ship-building yards as Germany and England. It is a native of the DAMAR (q. v.).

Canary Islands, naturalised in the south of Europe, CANARY, or CANARY BIRD, a beautiful little and in many places in Britain. The chief seats of bird, very

very common a cage-bird, and much its cultivation in England are the counties of Kent esteemed for its musical powers. It is one of the and Essex.

It is one of the and Essex. The seed is sown early, generally in numerous family of finches (Fringillido), and is February, yet the crop is not reaped till after the Fringilla Canaria of Linnæus. Some modern orni- ordinary grain harvest, for which reason the cultivathologists place it in the genus Carduelis, others in of C. G. is seldom attempted in the northern Linota ; it is indeed intermediate between these parts of Britain.— This grass attains a height of two genera, the goldfinches and the linnets. Some make or three feet, and has a crowded, egg-shaped, spikeit the type of a genus or sub-genus, Canaria. It like panicle, from an inch to almost two inches is found in Madeira, the Canary Isles, and the long; the spikelets are one-flowered, very much Cape Verd Isles ; frequents the neighbourhood laterally compressed, a rudimentary scale-like floret of human habitations; builds its nest of moss, on each side of the perfect floret; the glumes feathers, hair, &c., in thick, bushy, high shrubs or winged on the keel, and with two strips of darker trees; and produces four, five, or even six broods green on each side; the paleæ awnless, shining, and

In its wild state, its plumage is at last firmly enclosing the seed. A fine flour is greenish, or greenish-yellow, sometimes tinged prepared from canary-seed, which is employed as with brown, and exhibits less variety and beauty dressing in fine cotton-weaving, and for the finishthan in domestication. It was brought to Europe ing of silken stuffs. The groats and flour .of this in the beginning of the 16th century. It breeds small kind of grain are also used in the Canary readily in confinement, and

thoroughly | Islands, in Barbary, and in Italy, as food, the

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CANARY PLANT-CANCER.

flour being made into bread, which is very nutri- , tricose, the surface reticulated, the mouth large, the tious and pleasant.--Other closely allied species of columella plaited. All the recent species are natives Phalaris produce a similar grain, but are inferior of tropical or subtropical seas, and are found chiefly

on sandy bottoms, at the depth of a few fathoms. The fossil species, amounting to nineteen, occur in the newer strata from the chalk upwards.

CANCELLING OF DEEDS AND WILLS. The word cancel comes from the Lat. cancelli (latticework), and a deed was formerly said to be cancelled when lines were drawn over it in the form of latticework. The word cancel is now used to signify any sort of obliteration.

The Court of Chancery in England gives relief against the effect of improper cancellation; on the other hand, it may order a deed which has been improperly obtained to be delivered up in order to be cancelled. The effect of the cancellation is to make the deed void. If a deed is given up to be cancelled, and the cancellation does not take place, it remains in force at law. But if an obligee deliver up an obligation to be cancelled, and the obligor do not afterwards cancel it, and the obligee happen to get it again into his hands, and sue the obligor on it, the latter cannot plead its voidance, for the deed still remains in force at lawalthough here, too,

eqnity would relieve, and decree according to the Canary Grass.

original cancellation. Where a deed is cancelled by

consent of the parties to it, it is thereby destroyed in productiveness and quality.-A grass, now gene

as to their interest under it, but third parties may rally referred to this genus, and sometimes called still produce it in evidence

. As to a will, its cancelReed C, G. (Phalaris arundinacea), is very common lation may have the effect of revoking it, if done on the banks of lakes and rivers, and in other

with such intention. wet places in Britain, and throughout Southern and Central Europe. It differs very much in appearance and other writings prevents the occurrence of many

In Scotland, the system of registration of deeds from C. G., having a large spreading panicle, gener of the questions that arise in England on this head, ally of a reddish colour; and the glumes are not but the intention and effect of the cancellation or winged at the keel. It is a somewhat reed-like destruction of documents would in most cases he a grass, 4—6 feet high, with creeping roots, which help question of evidence; and where it is necessary to to secure river-banks; and yields a great bulk of know the contents of the destroyed paper, its effect bay, but has been very generally despised as a coarse grass, fit only for littering cattle. The justice of may be judicially declared by a form of suit called this opinion has, however, been called in question, done in an English court of equity by a bill to recover

an action for proving the tenor, as indeed may be and the grass proclaimed to be very nutritious, and the contents of a lost document. In the Scotch law, sufficiently acceptable both to horses and oxen when again, a deed or other writing may be judicially cancut early. - It may be mown twice a year. A variety celled or set aside by an action of reduction, and the with curiously striped leaves is well known in gar; courts in England substantially exercise á similar dens, as Ribbon Grass, Gardners' Garters, or Ladies'

jurisdiction. Traces.

It would appear that where a testator has preCANARY PLANT. See TROPÆOLUM.

scribed certain forms for the authentication of his CANARY WISE, also known as TENERIFE, is the will, and such forms have either not been observed produce of the Canary Islands, and resembles Ma- by him, or if observed, have, in some essential pardeira ; but the name is properly applied only to the ticular, been negatived by obliteration, an intention Bidogne wine, which must be distinguished from the to revoke will be presumed: thus, where a ScotchMalvoisie of the Canaries. The former is made from man, who had long resided in India, executed a will, grapes gathered before they have ripened, and, when concluding, 'In testimony of this being my last new, is crude and unpleasant; but in the course will and testament, I hereto set my hand and seal;' of two or three years, increasing in mildness as in and the document was found in his repositories with age, becomes so much like Madeira, that it is often the part to which the seal had evidently been sold for it. Like Madeira, it is greatly improved affixed cut (not torn) off, the House of Lords held by a voyage to the tropics. It is produced chiefly the deed to be cancelled, because the testator had on the island of Tenerife, and the trade in the wine himself, besides the usual solemnities, prescribed a is mostly carried on at the chief port of this island. seal as necessary to the authentication of his will. The Canary of the island of Palma is inferior to Ten- A will, however mutilated or cancelled by a testator erife, but may be consumed sooner, and has a pleas- during his insanity, would be good, and of course ant flavour.

there is no effectual cancellation when done by a

But all CANA’STER, the name given to a rush-basket in third party without sufficient authority. which tobacco is placed in Spanish America; hence such considerations are questions of evidence. See is said to be derived the name canaster, now applied DEED, WILL. to tobacco of a certain kind.

CANCELLING OF LETTERS-PATENT. The Lord CANCELLA'RIA, a genus of mollusks--class Chancellor may cancel the Queen's Letters-patent, Gasteropoda (q. v.), order Pectinibranchiata—with when granted contrary to law, which,' says Blackunivalve shells, sometimes regarded as belonging to stone, quoting Sir Edward Coke, 'is' the highest

See LETTERS-PATENT, the family Volutido, or Volute Shells (q. v.), but point of his jurisdiction.' now generally placed among Buccinido, or Whelks CHANCELLOR. 19. v.). The spire is prominent, the last whorl ven

CANCER,

disease characterised by slow

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a

CANCER.

alterations of structure, or tumours in various parts | spread. The attempt, therefore, to distinguish these of the body, occurring either simultaneously or in a | from other growths, must always call for the highest certain order of succession, In many cases, an qualities of the surgeon-large experience, guided isolated tumour in an external part is the earliest at every step by consummate science, and, in parsymptom; it is then viewed as the starting-point of ticular, by minute and thorough knowledge of natural the disease, and is termed a malignant tumour (tumor structure. And the difficulties of the inquiry are mali moris), from its presumed tendency to infect such, that eren in the dead body, or in a tumour exthe system, and to cause the reproduction of cised from the living body, all the resources of the growths similar to itself. It is right, however, to anatomist, aided by the microscope, will occasionally remark, that upon the pathology of C. authorities fail in distinctly and surely discovering the true are by no means agreed, some holding that a con. character of the morbid structure. stitutional taint or drathesis must always precede The most common seats of C. are, among external any local development of C., and that the first parts, the female breast, the

, growth in point of time (or primary C.) is there the male genital organs, and the bones; among fore' only the first of the series determined by internal organs, the liver, stomach, uterus, rectum, a pre-existing cause in the blood or general sys- gullet, peritoneum, and lymphatic glands. Some of tem; while others hold that C. is originally a these parts are more liable to primary, others to truly local disease, or even that a growth at first secondary cancer. Thus, the female breast, the simple (non-maligant or benign), may, in conse- neck of the uterus, the lower lip, the scrotum, the quence of local causes, degenerate-i. e., become extremity of the penis, are very often the seats of cancerous, and infect the whole system with the a single cancerous tumour, which in its early stage morbid tendency thus secondarily acquired. The at least seems to be unconnected with any constitndiscussion of this disputed question involves state- tional taint; while the liver, the bones, and the ments of a too complicated kind to be in place lymphatic glands are more frequently the seats of here; but it is a question of considerable importance, secondary or multiple cancerous tumours. There as bearing on the probability or improbability of are also differences in the character of the C. itself, curing the disease by extirpating the primary apart from its anatomical seat, which are to be tumour at an early stage of its development. All taken into account in estimating the probability of authorities are agreed that, when any trace of its being solitary. Some of these differences are secondary C. exists, the removal of the parts regarded by pathologists as amounting almost to affected gives scarcely any hope of a favourable specific distinctions; thus, scirrhus, or hard C., result, and, accordingly, operations under these observed most frequently in the breast, uterus, arid circumstances, unless merely for the relief of local stomach, is more frequently solitary than encephaloid suffering, are discountenanced by all respectable (brain-like), otherwise called medullary, or soft C.; surgeons. The disease, however, is one of which again, melanosis, or melauic C., a variety charged the ignorant as well as the learned have a well with a brown or black pigment, is almost always founded dread, and hence it presents a large field multiple in its occurrence; while epithelial C., or for the practice of imposture, and for that less deli- epithelioma, as it has been recently termed, of which berate, but often not less hurtful kind of quackery examples are frequently found in te lip, scrotum, which is the result of pure ignorance, grafted on a penis, or tongue, is so generally solitary as to have meddlesome desire to do good. We propose to give | led some pathologists to place it in a class altogether such a sketch of the characters and progress of can- apart from the truly cancerous growths, with which, cerous disease as may serve, in some degree, as a pro- however, it presents too many points of affinity in tection against ignorance on the one hand, and decep- its fatal tendency to recur after operation, and to tion on the other.

infect the lymphatic glands and other structures acThe leading character of C. being a tumour or joining the part primarily affected. Again, there morbid growth in a part, it is important, in the are certain varieties of fibrous and of cartilaginous first place, to observe that not all, nor even the tumour, as well as certain tumours of bone, and majority, of morbid growths are cancerous. A very bone-like tumours developed in soft parts (osteoid), large proportion of growths, involving swelling or which must be regarded, in the meantime, as occuchange of structure in a part, are either determined pying a doubtful position between the malignant and by a previous process of inflammation-leading to non-malignant growths. (Paget, Lectures on Surgichronic abscess and induration or belong to what cal Pathology, vol. ii.) is called the non-malignant order of tumours—e. g., Generally speaking, a tumour may be said to fall cysts, fatty and fibrous tumours, siniple hypertrophy | under the suspicion of being C. when it more or less of glandular structures, cartilaginous, bony, calca- completely infiltrates the texture in which it arises, reous, and vascular growths. See TumoUR. Further, and passes from it into the surrounding textures; among the tumours admitted by general consent into when it invades the lymphatic glands adjoining the the order of cancerous, there are widely different de part first affected; when it is attended by stinging grees of malignancy or cancerousness, so to speak; or darting pains, or by obstinate and slowly extendsome having the tendency to spread rapidly, and in- ing ulceration, not due to pressure ; when it occurs fect the system at an early period, while others re- in a person having impaired health, or past the main local for a considerable time, and may be re- middle period of life, and is not traceable to any moved while yet local, with good hope of a permanent known cause of inflammatory disease or local irritii..

tion, nor to any other known constitutional disease, Now, the practical distinction, or diagnosis, to use such as syphilis or scrotula. The probabilities are the technical phrase, of these different tumours, is of course increased if the tumour be in one of the founded upon a very careful and delicate appreciation habitual seats of C., or if it be attended by evidence of the characters of the malignant and non-malignant of disease in some internal organ known to be fritumours, considered as morbid products, and also quently thus affected. But it is hardly necessary upon a thorough knowledge of the anatomy and to point out that the very complex elements of relations of the textures in which they arise. One of diagnosis here referred to ought to be always subthe leading characters of malignant tumours is the mitted to the scrutiny and judgment of a welltendency to involve, by a kind of specific destruc- educated medical adviser, whose skill and personal tion or degeneration, the ultimate elements of the character place him above suspicion, before the textures in which they arise, and in which they disease has assumed such a form as to be beyond

recovery.

CANCER-CANCER ROOT.

the reach of remedial procedure. The patient who development of a constitutional state called the canbroods in secret over a suspicion of C., or who cerous cachexia. M. U. Leblanc of Paris, the best declines to apply for advice from a fear of encoun- veterinary authority on this subject, has shewn that tering the truih, is in all probability only cherishing the dog and cat are most frequently affected the seeds of future suffering; while if, as often hap- with C.; and next in frequency come the pig, ox, pens, the suspicion is unfounded, a few minutes' horse, and mule. It has not been observed in careful examination would suffice to remove a source birds, reptiles, or fishes. Females are more liable of misery which otherwise would poison the mind for to C. than males. It is hereditary, but not transmis. years.

sible from animals to man, or from one animal These remarks apply still more emphatically to the to another. It does not disappear under the influmisguided persons who trust to the non-professional | ence of remedies, but, if possible, the tumours should cancer-curer, or to the quasi-professional specialist. be excised when first seen, and if the knife fail to The charlatan, who pretends to hold in his hands a extirpate the malady, cauterisation should be had rcsecret remedy for this most terrible disease, will in-course to. A relapse is almost certain ; but Leblanc variably be found to pronounce almost every tumour says there is greater chance for the patient, when a C., and every C. curable. By this indiscriminating carnivorous animal, if it is kept on a strictly vegetaprocedure, and by the fallacious promise of a cure ble diet. without an operation, many persons who have never CANCER, the Crab, the fourth of the twelve conbeen affected with C. at all, have been persuaded to stellations of the zodiac, usually represented on the submit to the slow torture of successive cauterisa- globe as a crab, and denoted in works on astrotions by powerful caustics, at the expense of need- nomy by the sign C, which resembles the number less mutilation and no small risk to life. In other 69 laid sideways. It contains, according to Flamcases, truly cancerous tumours have been removed steed, 83 stars, of which the principal is Acubens, a slowly and imperfectly, at the cost of frightful and star of the third magnitude. In the divisions of the protracted sufferings, only to return at the end of a ecliptic, the sign called C. occupies a place between few weeks; and Mr. Spencer Wells has lately shewn 90° and 120° from the vernal equinox; but owing to that in some notorious instances persons were re- precession, the sign and the constellation have not ported as cured, when they had actually died of the coincided for nearly 2000 years. See ECLIPTIC, disease at no long period after the supposed cure was PRECESSION, ZODIAC. Annexed is a representation stated to have taken place. (Cancer and Cancer- of the constellation, which is one of the least strik. curers, London, 1860.)

What is really known as to the cure of C., may be stated in a few words. Modern pathological researches render it probable that a complete suspension of the progress of C. sometimes, though rarely, takes place; and individual tumours are found not unfrequently to undergo partial healing, or even to become entirely metamorphosed into inert cicatrices, while others, associated with them, continue to advance. The degree of rapidity of the advance of C. is also, as we have already stated, exceedingly variable. But these observations modify only to a very slight degree the general doctrine, that C. is a disease tending to a fatal issue, and hardly, if at all, under the control of remedies, as to its ultimate result. The removal of a cancerousing in the zodiac. Besides Acubens, it has two stars tumour, indeed, is still resorted to by surgeons; and of the fourth magnitude, called by the Romans Aselli there appears to be no reasonable doubt that when or the Little Asses; and a nebulous cluster of minute performed early, and in well-selected cases, it has stars about 2° from the Asses, visible to the naked been followed by long-continued exemption. But eve, and which goes by the name of Præsepe or the the occasional spontaneous arrest of such growths. Manger. on the one hand, and the doubtful results of opera

CANCER. See CRAB. tior in it large proportion of cases on the other, hare combined to render surgeons of late years more

CANCER, Troric or. See Tropics. chary of the use of the knife. In aged persons, in CANCER ROOT or BEECH-DROPS (Epiphegus particular, the question often resolves itself into a Virginiana), a parasitic plant of the natural order calculation of the chances of life, founded on a great | Orobancheæ (q. v.), a native of North America, grownumber of conflicting data, and only to be solved by ing almost exclusively on the exposed roots of beecha careful attention to the state of the general health, trees. Like all the other plants of its order, it has as well as to the rate of progress of the local disease. a curious appearance, having scales instead of leaves. Operations are now very rarely performed after the Its stem is branching, and produces distant alterlymphatic glands are involved, or when there is evi- nate white flowers, streaked with purple. The dence of a deteriorated constitution, or of internal dis- whole plant is powerfully astringent; and the root ease; but sometimes great pain, or profuse and ex- is brownish, spongy, and very bitter and nauseous hausting discharge from an external tumour, may in taste. It has acquired, in its native country, the justify its removal, as a palliative measure, even reputation of being a cure for cancer. All parts of under these unfavourable circumstances. For the the plant are used, and externally more than intermode of removal of cancerous and other tumours, nally. This plant, in conjunction with white oxide see TUMOUR.

of arsenic, is believed to have formed a medicine Among the lower animals, this disease is more once famous in North America umder the name of rare; nevertheless, cases are not unfrequent, pre- Martin's Cancer-powder. -Another American plant senting the same malignant characters as those of the same order, Pheliprea biflora, is sometimes observed in the human subject. Usually mani- also called C. R., and is used in the same way; and festing itself in the form of a specific tumour of an infusion of the Common Broomrape (Orobanche some organ or tissue, there is a tendency to the major)-a native of Britain and of the south of invasion of other parts of the system, and the Europe, parasitic on the roots of broom, furze, and

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