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other leguminous plants-has been employed as a | the useful to so large an extent as in their candledetergent application to foul sores.

sticks and lamps. Candelabra usually stood 01 CANDAHA'R, or KANDAHAR, the capital of the ground, and were of considerable height--from Central or Southern Afghanistan, situated about 2004 to 8, or even 10 feet.

4 to 8, or even 10 feet. The most common were of miles to the south-west of Cabul.' It is in lat. 32° 37' wood; but metals of all kinds, N., and long. 66° 20' E., and has an elevation of including the precious metals, 3184 feet above the level of the sea. It is said to be were used for their construcan oblong square, while all its streets run straight, tion, and sometimes they and cut one another at right anglesman alleged regu- were even adorned with gems. larity which can hardly be reconciled with Elphin. The candelabra found at Herstone's avowed inability even to guess the extent of culaneum and Pompeii are

In the the city or the number of its inhabitants, which has mostly of bronze. been variously estimated at from 25,000'to 100,000. temples and palaces of the C. is well watered by two canals drawn from a emperors, they

freneighbouring river, which send to almost every street quently of marble, and of its own adequate supply; and the same means great size and richness. They of irrigation have covered the immediate vicinity have usually a capacions cup with gardens and orchards. C. is a place of great at the top, either for the purtrade, attracting dealers from Bokbära, and even pose of containing oil enough from Samarcand. Among its permanent residents, to feed a large flame, or that C. has a larger proportion of Afghans, chiefly of the they might be used for burnDooraanee tribe, than any other city of Afghanistan. ing incense. Though varying About 2 miles to the northward rises a precipitous greatly in details, a general rock, crowned by a fortress impregnable to every- design runs through the forms thing but heavy artillery. Here, amid all the dis- of the candelabra of antiquity.

Ancient Roman asters of the Afghan war, the British maintained They have all a foot or feet, Candelabra. their ground. C. has been a pivot for the history a shaft and a plinth on which of Central Asia during more than 2000 years. It is a lamp is placed, or which is furnished with a supposed to have been founded by Alexander of socket for a candle. The base often consists of Macedon, owing, most probably, its name to the three feet of a lion, goat, griffin, or other animal real oriental corruption of Iskender or Scander, as in Scanderoon or Iskenderun of Syria. A comparative blank of upwards of 13 centuries in the history reaches to the famous Mahmoud of Gbiznee, who wrested the stronghold from the Afghans. From that epoch down to 1747, when the native rule was permanently established, C., with brief and precarious intervals of independence, was held by Tatary, India, and Persia in turn.

CANDEI'SH, a collectorate in the presidency of Bombay (lat. 20° 10'-21° 58' N., and long. 73° 37' -76° 20' E.), and containing 9311 square miles, with a comparatively scanty population of 778,112. It lies chiefly in the valley or basin of the middle part of the Taptee, which enters the Gulf of Cambay below Surat; and it is bounded mostly by territories of nearly all the powerful native princes--the Nizani, Scindia, Holkar, and the Guicowar. Through its situation, it necessarily suffered much from the long contest between the Mohammedans and the Malırattas, and also from the struggles among the rival chiefs of the latter. Accordingly, when, in 1818, it fell to the East India Company on the overthrow of the Peishwa, it presented little better than a scene of desolation, with ruined mansions, dismantled towns, and dilapidated temples. The difficulties of the new government were considerably aggravated by the Bheels, a more than half-savage race, that formed about an eighth of the population; and even beasts of prey, particularly tigers, had, under the constant influences of human strife, multi

Candelabrum, with suspended Lamps. plied to an unusual extent. But the improvement was regular and steady. Peace and security reigned; so

or imaginary. Sometimes a figure was introduced that roads, formerly hazardous for armed parties, either into the body of the shaft, or placed on the were traversed in safety by unarmed individuals. top of it, in either case supporting the superincumThe staple productions are cotton, wheat, and other bent portion of the C. on its head. Sometimes it grains, and also a little indigo. The cultivators are figure was substituted for the shaft altogether, the generally in a progressive condition, more especially receptacle for the oil being placed in one hand. in the cotton districts, and the well-watered talooka others, the shaft is a sliding one, like that of a musicof Baglan.

stand, the object being, of course, to raise or depress CANDELA'BRUM, a Latin word signifying prop- the light at pleasure. erly a candlestick (from candela, a candle), but

In addition to the various kinds of candelabra more frequently employed to mean a support for a which, from their height, seem to have stood ou the lamp. There were, perhaps, ro articles of furniture floor, the ancients had others intended to be placed in which the ancients combined the beautiful with on a table. These consisted either of a pillar or of a

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tree, and from the capital of the former, or the CA'NDIDATE (Lat. candidatus). Among the Robranches of the latter, lamps were suspended, as in mans, a suitor for the office of consul, quæstor, prætor, the accompanying illustration, which we copy from &c., was named C. because, in appearing before the Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. people, he wore a white (candida) toga without a The C., in this instance, including the stand, is only tunic. His dress was chosen partly as an ostentation three feet high. From the size of the stand in of humility, and partly as it served to display wounds proportion to the rest of the C., it would seem to received in battle. The candidature commonly lasthave been used for some other purpose.

ed two years: in the first year, the C. was proved by CA'NDIA, in Turkish, “Kırı'n,' called in the the senate, whose decision, if favourable, was ratified most ancient times Idæa, afterwards Crete, one of by the popular assemblies; and, in the second, his the largest islands of the Mediterranean, is situated name was entered in the list of candidates. During at the entrance of the Archipelago, in long. 23° 40' this period occurred the ambitio, or canvassing of -26° 40' E., lat. 34° 50'_35° 55' N. It is very voters, which often gave occasion to enormous bribirregular in form, its length being about 160 miles, ery, in spite of the severe enactments passed to pre.. and its breadth varying from 6 to 35 miles. The vent the corruption of the electors. The elected C. history of C. conimences with Greek mythology, and was styled Designatus. historians and poets say that it was governed by

In the early Christian Church, newly baptized conits own king, among whom were Saturn, Jupiter, verts were styled CANDIDATES, on account of the white and Minos, 1300 years before Christ. C. was con garments worn during eight days after baptism. In quered by the Romans under Metellus, who, on that modern times, a German probationer or theological account, had the title of Creticus;' on the division student who has been approved before the highest of the empire, it fell to the share of the eastern ecclesiastical authorities, is called a C. ; but å still monarchs. In 823 A.D., it was conquered by the broader signification is also attached to the word, an Saracens, who built the city of C. on the ruins of applicant for any office whatever, religious or secular, Heraclea. In 1204, it was sold by Pope Boniface being termed a candidate. -to whom Baldwin I. gave it- to the Venetians. CANDLE, a cylinder of wax or fatty matter with The Venetians divided the island into four provinces a wick, intended for giving light. Candles are made -Sitia, Candia, Retimo, and Canea. In 1645, the principally of tallow; also of the solid portion of Turks besieged Canea, and in 1669 conquered the palm and cocoa-nut oils, of bleached wax, and of island, after a war which lasted 24 years, and spermaceti. They are either dipped, moulded, or a blockade of 13 years--30,985 Christians, and rolled. “Dips' are made by stretching a number of 118,754 Turks being killed or wounded in the siege. wicks upon a suitable frame, so that they may hang At present, the island belongs to the Sultan of down at a distance from each other equal to about Turkey.

double the intended thickness of the C.; these are The island of C. is for the most part mountainous, then dipped in a trough of melted tallow, and hung the mountains being chiefly composed of freestone or upon a rack until cooled, then dipped again and of marble, which is either gray or white. Towards again, until the required thickness is obtained. The the south side of the western part of the island, there dipper has a number of frames prepared before is a chain of high mountains, extending in length commencing, and by the time he has dipped the about 374 miles, which, from their appearing white, last, the first is cool enough to dip again. The talespecially at the west end, were anciently called Leuci. low in the trough has to be kept only a little above Mount Ida, now called by the natives Upsilorites, is its melting point, for if it were much hotter, it would one in a chain of mountains extending to the north- melt away å portion of the tallow already on the west of the island almost to Retimo; the mountain is wick, instead of adding to it. Tallow-candles are of gray' marble, and the surface loose stones : there much improved by being kept a year or a winter beis no verdure on it except a few small shrubs. Jupiter fore using. is said to have passed great part of his youth amongst Moulds, or mould-candles, are cast by pouring the these mountains in the exercise of hunting and draw- tallow down a pewter tube, along the axis of which ing the bow.

the wick has been previously fixed. These tubes are The island abounds in springs and fountains, which well polished in the inside, and several are fitted in are found even by the sea-side; most of the rivers a frame, the upper part of which forms a trough, are dry in summer, but in winter many of them into which the moulds all open; and thus by are very dangerous torrents. The island does not pouring into the trough, all the moulds are filled at produce any minerals of importance. The soil of c. once. is fertile, and produces wheat in abundance. The Wax-candles are not moulded, on account of the exports, which consist chiefly of oil, wood, linseed, great amount of contraction which wax undergoes and fruit, in 1857 amounted in value to £402,656, in cooling, and the difficulty of drawing it from and the imports to £435,628.

the moulds. The wicks are warmed, and suspended C. had once, according to Homer in his Odysscy, over a basin of melted wax, which is poured over 90 cities; there are now only 3 principal towns: them until they acquire the proper thickness; they Megála Kástron or Candiit, pop. 12,000, of which are then rolled, while hot, between two flat pieces 8000 are Christians: Retimo or Rhithymnos, pop. of smooth hard wood, kept wetted to prevent ad3200, of which 1500 are Christians; Canea or Khania, hesion. pop. 6000, of which 3800 are Christians. The total Great improvements have recently been made in population of the island does not now number 200,000 the manufacture of candles, and these are especially

- less than half its amount at the outbreaking of the interesting from being the direct results of the Greek revolution in 1821,

progress of scientific chemistry—of theory applied The language spoken by both Christians and in practice. All oils or fats are composed of one Moslems in c. is modern Greek. The whole rural or more fatty, acids combined with a base, called population may be said to have a common descent glycerine. The fatty acids constitute the combusfrom the Cretans of the middle ages-the worldly tible and more solid portion of the compound. Both advantages which used to result from embracing acid and -hase are very weak, and it is a general Islamism, induced whole districts to 'abandon the law in chemistry, that a strong base, under favourfaith of their forefathers—but a mere change of able conditions, will separate a weaker one from religious faith was unaccompanied by any change of its acid, by combining with the acid, and taking language.

the place of the weak base; and a strong acid will CANDLEBERRY-CANDLEMAS.

in like manner displace a weaker one. Lime is a ing-sheet, and regarded as a sure omen of death in the strong base, and being cheap, is used to separate the family. A bright spark at the candle denotes that the glycerine from the fatty acid of tallow, palm-oil, &c. party directlv opposite is to receive a letter. Windy This it does when the melted fat is stirred for some weather is prophesied from the waving of the flame lours with a mixture of lime and water.

The lime without visible cause, and wet weather if the wick forms a hard insoluble soap, by combining with the does not light readily. Lights appearing to spring up fatty acid, and the glycerine remains in solution with from the ground, or issue out of a house, and traverse the water. This lime-soap is then broken to powder; the road or air by invisible agency, the superstitious and the weak fatty acid separated by means of sul- in Wales and elsewhere call corpse-candles. They phuric acid, which combines with the lime, forming are ominous of death, and their route indicates the sulphate of lime. The whole being heated, the fatty road the corpse is to be carried for burial. The size acid floats on the top, is skimmed off, and the can- and colour of the light tell whether the fated person dles made from it. These are called composite can- is young or old. It is or was customary in some dles; they give a purer light than ordinary tallow, places to light a candle, previously blessed, during from being freed from the glycerine, which not only the time of a woman's travail. C. were supposed to softens the fat, but diminishes its combustibility. he efficacious after death as well as before birth, Pure stearic acid, or stearine, the chief fatty acid of for they were placed on the corpse. The oliject tallow, is a hard crystalline substance, perfectly dry, was doubtless to ward off evil spirits, who were and free from any greasiness, with a somewhat supposed to be always on the alert to injure souls pearly lustre. Its crystalline structure presents a on entering and on quitting the world. See also difficnlty in the manufacture of candles, for when CANDLEMAS. cast in moulds, it contracts on cooling, and leaves

CA'NDLEBERRY, CANDLEBERRY MYRTLE, WAX small spaces between the crystals. This has been obviated by mixing a little arsenic with it ; but this TREE, WAX MYRTLE, Tallow Tref, or BAYBERRY method is now abandoned, on account of the poison- feet high, but generally a low spreading shrub, a ous gas evolved by the combustion of such candles, native of the United States of America, but most and the desired effect is obtained by mixing the abundant and luxuriant in the south. It belongs to stearine with a little wax, and pouring it into hot the natural order Amentacec, sub-order Maricece, moulds.

To obviate the necessity of snusfing candles, according to some, a distinct natural order, distinseveral contrivances have been adopted; in all of guished by naked flowers, with 1-celled ovary, a them, the object is effected by causing the wick to fleshy-and a single erect seed. The genus Myrica

drupaceous fruit (stone-fruit)—the scales becoming bend over and its end to fall outside of the flame, has male and female flowers on separate plants; and thus, by coming in contact with the oxygen of and the scales of the catkin in both male and female the air, to be completely burned-for such combus

flowers are concave. tion cannot take place within the flame. See FLAME. lanceolate leaves, with two small serratures on each

The C. has evergreen oblongoThis bending over is variously brought about. One side at the point, sprinkled with resinous dots. The method is by twisting the wick with one strand bark and leaves when bruised emit a delightful frashorter than the rest, which is strained straight while the candles are being cast; and when released about the size of peppercorns, and when ripe, are

grance. The drupes--popularly called berries-are hy the melting of a portion, it contracts, and bends covered with a greenish-white wax, which is collectthe wick. Another method is by adding on side of the wick a paste, consisting of a mixture of ed by boiling them and skimıning it off, and is aftercoating one of the threads of the wick with a candles, which burn slowly with little smoke, and borax, bismuth, flour , and charcoal. Another, by wards melted and refined. A bushel of berries will

It is used chiefly for metallic envelope, by dipping it in fused bismuth ; the metal fuses at the end of the burning wick, and cinit an agreeable balsamic odour, but do not gire forms a small globule, which bends the wick over, from it.-M. Gale is the Sweet Gale of the moors

a strong light. An excellent scented soap is made and is itself readily combustible at a red heat. and bogs of Scotland, well known for its delightful These are called metallic wicks. contrivances have been adopted for the same ob- fragrance, a native of the whole northern parts of the

world. Several species are found at the Cape of ject. Candles of this improved kind, in which the wick Good Hope, one of which, M. Cordifolia, bears the

name of Wax Surub, and candles are made from its disappears in burning, and that bear a general resemblance to candles of wax, are now manufactured on an extensive scale, the progressive use of gas CA'NDLEMAS, in its ecclesiastical meaning, is the making apparently little impression on this branch feast of the Purification of the Virgin Mary, and of trade. Price's manufactory of 'patent' candles, is observed on the 2d of February. This festival is as these improved candles usually are called, is per- very strictly kept by the Roman Catholic Church, haps the largest in England. It is situated at Vaux- there being a procession with many lighted candles, hall, in the neighbourhood of London, and its eco- and those required for the service of the ensuing nomic arrangements have attracted not a little public year being also on that occasion consecrated; hence

the name Candlemas Day. In Scotland, this day is Candles were early introduced-with symbolical one of the four term-days appointed for periodical signification—into Christian worship, and are still annual payments of money, interest, taxes, &c., and so employed in the Roman Catholic Church. In the of entry to premises-the three other term-days there Church of England, candles are sometimes placed on being Whitsunday, Lammas and Martinmas. See the altar; but the practice is a subject of contro- TERM-DAYS.

The numerous superstitious notions and ob- An old document of the time of Henry VIII., servances connected with candles and other lights in preserved in the archives of the Society of Antiquaall countries had a more remote origin, and may be ries, London, concerning the rites and ceremonies considered as relics of the once universally preva- in the English Church, speaks thus of the custom lent worship of the sun and of fire. Numerous omens of carrying candles: On Candlemas Daye it shall are taken from them, and they are also used as be declared that the bearyinge of candles is done in charms. In Britain, a portion of the tallow rising the memorie of Christe, the spirituall lyghte whom up against the wick of the candle is called a wind- I Simeon dyd prophecye [“ a light to lighten the






Gentiles”], as it is redde in the churche that daye.' and extending its aggressive efforts. Since the death But an older and heathen origin is ascribed to the of Dr. Chalmers, he has been the most active and practice. The Romans were in the habit of burning influential worker in the Free Church, and the candles on this day to the goddess Februa, the man to whom, above all others, it is most deeply mother of Mars; and Pope Sergius, seeing it would indebted. As a debater in church courts, he is be useless to prohibit a practice of so long stand- unequalled; as a preacher, he is noted for earnesting, turned it to Christian account by enjoining ness, strength, and acuteness of mind. His writings a similar offering of candles to the Virgin. The have not made the same impression on the comcandles were supposed to have the effect of frighten-munity as his actions, but they are nevertheless ing the devil and all evil spirits away from the highly respectable in point of ability. The prinpersons who carried them, or from the houses in cipal are-Contributions to the Exposition of the which they were placed. An order of council in Book of Genesis, An Examination of Mr. Maurice's 158 t prohibited the ceremony in England. There is Theological Essays, and Life in a Risen Saviour. a tradition in most parts of Europe to the effect

CA'NDY. See CEYLON. that a fine C. portends a severe winter. In Scotland, the prognostication is expressed in the following and Persians over their other garments. It was

CA'NDYS (Gr.), a loose gown, worn by the Medes distich:

made of woollen cloth, which was either purple or of If Candlemas is fair and clear, There'll be twa winters in the year.'

some other brilliant colour, and hade wide sleeves.

In the sculptures at Persepolis, nearly all the Christ's Presentation, the Holyday of St. Simeon, personages are represented as so attired. A gown and, in the north of England, the Wives' Feast-day, of a very similar kind is still worn by Arabians, were names given to Candlemas Day. See Brand's Turks, and other orientals. Popular Antiquities, Bohn's edition.

CANDY-SU'GAR is the popular name applied CA'NDLE-NUT (Aleurites triloba), a tree of the to ordinary sugar when procured in large crystals natural order Euphorbiacece (q. v.) a native of the by the gradual and slow cooling of a concentrated South Sea Islands, Madagascar, Molucca, Java, &c., solution of sugar. See SUGAR. which produces a heart-shaped nut with a very CA'NDYTUFT (Ibéris), a genus of plants of the hard shell, and a kernel good to eat when roasted, natural order Cruciferce, distinguished by unequal although in a raw state it possesses in a slight petals, the largest being towards the circumference degree some of the active properties so common in of the dense corymbs in which the flowers grow, the Euphorbiaccæ, and is apt to cause purging and by an emarginate pouch with the valves keeled and colic. It is about as large as a walnut. An and winged, the cells one-seeded, and the cotyleexcellent bland oil is procured from it, used both dons accumbent. See COTYLEDON. The species for food and as a lamp oil. The inhabitants of the are chiefly found in the countries surrounding the Society Islands after slightly baking these nuts in an Mediterranean Sea, and the name C. is supposed oven, and removing the shell, bore holes through to be derived from that of the Island of Cardia, the the kernels, and string them on rushes, hanging name Iberis from Iberia (Spain). One species, I. them up in their houses, to be used for torches, amara, remarkable for its bitterness, is a doubtful which are made by enclosing four or five strings native of England. Some species are slightly in a leaf of the screw-pine (Pandanus). These shrubby, some are herbaceous perennials, sonie torches are often used in fishing by night, and annuals. Some are among the most familiar ornilburn with much brilliancy. The lampblack used ments of our flower-gardens, as the annual White in tattooing was obtained from the shell of the and Purple C. (1. umbellata), the Sweet-scented candle-nut. C. tree, whicho A gummy substance exudes from the C. (I. odorata), and two slightly shrubby species,

1. sempervirens and I. semperflorens, the latter of CA'NDLESTICK. The ordinary C. is so well which, in favourable situations, continues to blossoin known that no description is needed. The most throughout the whole winter, and pleases the eye at important modern improvement in the C., is a con

all seasons, both by the abundance and the perfeit trivance for maintaining the candle at a uniform whiteness of its flowers. height, by means of a spring placed below the CANE, or KEN, à river rising in Bundelcuna, candle, and confined in the cylindrical body of the near lat. 23° 54' N., and long. 80° 13' E., and, after C.; this spring presses the candle upwards with a north-north-east course of 230 miles, entering the sufficient force to drive it completely out, but for Jumna in lat. 25° 47' N., and long. 80° 35' E. It a collar at the top, against which the surface around is too rapid and rugged for navigation; and is the wick bears, and thus, as the candle melts, it remarkable for the matchless beauty of its pebbles. yields to the pressure of the spring, and maintains a CANE, a term sometimes indiscriminately applied uniform height. The collar, when properly adjusted, to any small and smooth rod, of the thickness of a also prevents the guttering to which composite walking-stick or less; but more correctly limited Candles are liable when exposed to currents of air to the stems of the smaller palms and the larger or moved about.

We thus speak of Sugar C., Bamboo C.,

&c., among the latter; whilst among the former, nent Scottish divine, was born in Glasgow, in of the genus Calamus, also called Rattan. To this CANDLISH, Robert SMITH, D. D., an emi-fi, among the latter; whilst

this name is particularly appropriated to the species 1807, entered the university of his native city in 1822, and was licensed as a preacher in connec- genus belong the canes largely imported from the tion with the Established Church in 1831." In 1834 tropical regions of the east for making bottoms of he becanie minister of St. George's, Edinburgh.

chairs, couches, &c. See RATTAN. From this period, his public career may be said

CANE SUGAR. See SUGAR. to have commenced. Wita intense zeal, he advocated CANE'A, or CA'NNA, called Khania (Chaniá) the justice and necessity of ecclesiastical reforms, by the Greeks, is the capital of the island of Candia and became one of the boldest and most vigorous or Crete, and situated on the northern coast, in lat. leaders of the popular or non-intrusion' party. After 35° 28' N., and long. 24° 2' E. It occupies the site of the Disruption (see FREE CHURCH), he co-operated the ancient Cydonia. The present city is of Venetian with Dr. Chalmers and other chiefs of the newly origin, and dates from 1252 A. D., when a colony was formed denomination in organising, consolidating, sent from Venice to occupy it.' The object of its

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foundation was to keep down the Greeks, who had Naro, is well built, and has sulphur mines. The been in arms, and at open war with their Italian inhabitants, 18,000 in number, are principally enlords, alınost without intermission from the day when gaged in agricultural pursuits. the Venetians first set foot on their shores. Venetian

CANI'CULAR, CANICULAR DAYS, coats of arms are still observed over the doorways DOG-DAYS, CANICULAR YEAR. Canicular of some of the principal houses. C. is surrounded

was an old name of Canis Minor (q. v.); it was also by a strong wall and deep ditch, both of which, used

used to denote Sirius or the Dog-star, the largest however, are in a state of great dilapidation; it and brightest of all the stars, and which is situated has a good, but very shallow harbour. C. is the in the mouth of Canis Major (q. v.). From the principal mart for Candian commerce, and exports Heliacal Rising (q. v.) of this star' (Sirius), the to France and Italy, oil, soap, wax, &c. Consuls ancients reckoned their dog-days, or Dies Canicufrom all nations are stationed here, and it is the lares, which were 40 in number—20 before, and 20 residence of the Turkish governor of Candia, and after the rising of the star. The rising of the dogof the Greek bishop. Pop. about 6000, of whom a star was in ignorance supposed to be the occasion seventh are Christians and Jews. The language of the extreme heat and the diseases incidental to spoken is modern Greek. The environs of C. are these days. It was by mere accident that the very beautiful.

rising of the star coincided with the hottest season CA'NE-BRAKE (Arundinaria macrosperma), a of the year, in the times and countries of the old large kind of reed or grass, indigenous to the warmer astronomers. The time of its rising depends on the parts of the United States of North America. It latitude of the place, and is later and later erery grows in marshy situations. It is of a genus allied year in all latitudes owing to precession. In time, to the bamboo. The flowers are in panicles.

the star will rise in the dead of winter. The CaniCANE’LLA (Canella alba), a small tree common and Ethiopians. It was computed from one rising

cular Year was that known among the Egyptians in the West Indies, where it is often called WILD of Sirius to the next, and consisted ordinarily of 365 CINNAMON. Its place in the botanical system has not yet been exactly ascertained, but it seems to days, and every fourth year of 366. This year was

sometimes called the Heliacal Year. The reason be allied to Pittosporaceæ. The fruit is a small black berry. The whole tree is very aromatic, and for computing the year from the rising of Sirius,

seems to have been that, at the time, the heliacal its flowers are extremely fragrant. The bark of the young branches is the C. Bark of apothecaries

, rising coincided with the greatest swelling of the also known in commerce as Whitewood Bark, and sometimes called White Cinnamon. It forins a

CA'NIDÆ (Lat. canis, a dog), a family of the considerable article of export from the Bahamas. Digitigrade (q. v.) section of carnivorous mammalia, It has an aromatic fragrance, regarded as inter- which, as now generally defined, is less extensive mediate between that of cinnamon and that of than the Linnæan genus Canis, the hyænas being cloves, and a bitterish, acrid, puingent taste.

It is excluded from it, and referred to the family Viveremployed as a stomachic and stimulant tonic, and ridae (civets, ichneumons, &c.). These families are, as an aromatic addition to tonics or to purgatives, indeed, closely connected, and hyenas may be said in debilitated conditions of the digestive organs.

to form a connecting link between them, the denti

tion, however, making a nearer approach than in CA'NÉS VENA'TICI (Lat. Hunting Dogs), a either of them to that of the cats or Felidce.The constellation of the northern hemisphere, added by C. have two flat tuberculous molar teeth or grinders Ilelvetius, and known generally as the greyhounds on each side, behind the great carnivorous cheekof Helvetius. The dogs are distinguished by the tooth-the last præmolar names of Asterion and Chara.

On the celestial of the upper jaw, a globe, they are represented as being held in leash dentition resembling that by Bootes, and apparently pursuing Ursa Major of the bear family, or (q. v.) round the pole of the heavens.

Ursidae, to which they CANG, CANQUE, or KEA, an instrument of exhibit a further resem

Dentition of Canidæ. degrading punishment in use in China. It consists blance in their power of of a large wooden collar fitting close round the adapting themselves to the use of vegetable food. neck, and the weight of which is usually from 50 Their whole organisation fits them to be less exto 60 pounds. Over the parts where the C. fastens clusively carnivorous than the feline tribe. They are pasted slips of paper, on which the mandarin have generally three incisors or cutting teeth, with places his seal, so that the culprit may not be one large canine tooth, and four præmolars on each relieved until the full term of his sentence has side in each jaw, two true molars on each side in expired, which sometimes extends to 15 days. On the upper jaw, and three in the lower. The true the C. is also inscribed, in large letters, the offence molars are adapted for crushing either bones or and the duration of the punishment. The criminal vegetable food. The last præmolars in the upper having been paraded through the streets by the jaw are remarkably large, and particularly adapted police, is then left exposed in some thoroughfare of for cutting flesh. See Dog, FENNEC, Fox, JACKAL, the city. As he is incapable of using his hands, he Lycaon, WOLF, &c. has to be fed during the time he is suffering the CANIS MA'JOR, the Greater Dog, a constellapenalty

tion of the southern hemisphere, below the feet of CANGAS DE O'NIS, a town of the Asturias, Orion. It contains Sirius, the brightest of all the Spain, about 35 miles east-south-east of Oviedo. stars, and its place may be found by means of this It is a poor place, but in its vicinity are one or star, which is on the continuation of the line through two interesting monastic structures, and the cave the belt of Orion. According to Flamstead, it whence the Goths filed and hid themselves, after the contains 31 stars. battle of G1..dalete, in 711, and from which, in 718, CA'NIS MI'NOR, the Lesser Dog, is a constellathey issued, and annihilated the Moorish invaders. tion of the southern hemisphere. It is near Canis Pop. 6380.

Major, and just below Gemini. Procyon, of the CANICA'TTI, a town of Sicily, in the province first magnitude, is its principal star, and lies in a of Girgenti, and 15 miles east-north-east of the city direct line between Sirius and Pollux; so that the of that name. It is situated on the banks of the position of the constellatioa may be found by means


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