Images de page
PDF
ePub

CANISTER SHOT_CANNIBAL.

of this stur. According to Flamstead, it contains in seed, and hooked or spiral embryo. But only two all 11 stars.

plants of the order or sub-order are known, both of CA'NISTER SHOT. See Case Shot.

them valuable, HEMP (q. v.) and the Hop (q. v.). CANKER, a disease of plants, especially fatal to CA'NNÉ (ancient Cannce), a town of Naples, in fruit-trees in many gardens. It is a kind of gan- the province of Terra di Bari, 8 miles west-southgrene, usually beginning in the young shoots and west of Barletta, not far from the mouth of the branches, and gradnally proceeding towards the Ofanto, formerly the Autidus. It is celebrated on trunk, killing the tree in the course of a few years. account of the great victory here gained by Wet subsoils seem in many cases to induce it, and it Hannibal over the Romans in the summer of 216 begins most readily in shoots that have been imper- B. C. Hannibal crossed the Aufidus at å ford, fectly ripened and injured by frost, or which have and attacked, the Romans, who in a short time received some accidental wound. Those varieties of were almost annihilated by the terrible Numidian fruit-trees which have been long propagated by cavalry. Among those left on the field were grafting and budding are most liable to it. It is Paulus Æmilius, the consul of the previous year; sometimes cured by heading down the tree, and Minucins, the late Master of the Horse; and a causing it to throw out new branches.

vast number of Roman knights. The loss of the CANKER, a vague term applied to various dis- | Romans is stated by Livy at 45,000 infantry and eases of the lower animals, characterized by their 3000 cavalry. As Hannibal lost in the battle 8000 chronic nature, and cousisting chiefly in ulceration, men, he did not think it prudent to follow the suppuration, and the development of fungoid excres- advice of Maharhal, and advance rapidly on Rome. cences in the parts affected.

Twenty thousand Romans were made prisoners, CANKER, in the foot of the horse. This malady, partly on

partly on the field of battle and partly in the believed by Gerlach of Berlin to be truly cancerous,

camp. is observed in two different forms: in the acute CANNES, a seaport town of France, in the stage, when the malady is chiefly local; and in the department of Var, pleasantly situated on the chronic stage, when the constitution suffers; and all Mediterranean, on the road to Nice. It is famed local remedies fail to restore a healthy function of. for its salubrity, which has induced a number of the structures of the foot.

English families to make it a winter residence; Symptoms.—It usually commences by discharge Lord Brougham, among others, las a fine villa from the heels, or the cleft of the frog of the horse's here. Latterly, the town has been much improved. fod The horn becomes soft and disintegrated, the It has fisheries of anchovies and sardines, and a vascular structure beneath become inflamed, and trade in the produce of the district. After his the pain which the animal endures is intolerable. escape from Elba, Bonaparte landed about a mile It is therefore very lame on one, two, or all feet, and a half to the east of C., March 1, 1815. Pop. according to the number affected. Though there is 5000. no constitutional fever, the horse becomes emaciated, and unfit for work. During wet weather, spelling of Caribs, the original inhabitants of the

CA'NNIBAL (derived from a variety in the and on damp soil, the symptoms increase in severity, West India Islands, who were reputed to be manThe sore structures bleed on the least touch, and considerable fungoid granulations, commonly called eaters, and some tribes of whom, having no r in

their language, pronounced their name Canib), proud flesh, form rapidly.

like the Greek word anthropophagos, Causes. This disease is occasionally hereditary, and it is most frequently seen in low-bred dranght which is often used instead of it, one who feeds or coach horses. Dirt , cold, and wet, favour the by classical and early Christian writers to races

The practice is often attributed production of the disease, and there is always a whose practices they denounce as abominable ; tendency to relapse when once an animal has been but the denunciation is often better evidence of affected. Treatment.—Pare away detached portions of horn, the accusation than of its practice by the accused.

the abhorrence of cannibalism by those making and, in mild cases, sprinkle powdered acetate of copper over the sore ; apply over this pledgets of Homer makes Polyphemus eat men, but only as tow, fixed over the foot by strips of iron or wood one of his other unnatural attributes as a monster. passed between shoe and foot. In severe cases, tar cannibalism to the unconverted. St. Jerome gives

The early Christian writers frequently attributed and nitrate acid, creasote and turpentine, chloride his personal testimony to the practice, stating that of zinc paste, and other active caustics, have when he was a little boy living in Gaul he beheld to be used for'a time with the regular employment the Scots—a people of Britain-eating human flesh; of pressure on the diseased surface. The animal requires to be treated constitutionally by periodical and though there were plenty of cattle and sheep

at their disposal, yet would they prefer a ham purgatives and alteratives. Good food, fresh air, and exercise often aid much in the treatment of of the herdsman or a piece of female breast as

a luxury. Statements in old author's still more

absurd induced some thinkers to believe that canniCA'NNA, one of the islands of the Hebrides, off balisin is unuatural, and to deny that it was ever the west coast of Scotland, 7 miles south-west of practised by human beings except under the presSkye, and 3 miles north-west of Rum. It belongs sure of starvation. The accurate observation of to Argyleshire, and is 41 miles long from east to late travellers has, however, put it beyond doubt west, and 1 mile broad. The surface stands high that cannibalism has been and is systematically above the sea, and consists of trap (claystone, practised. Comte, as part of his system of positive porphyry, and clap conglomerate, with fragments philosophy, accepting of cannibalism as a condition of old red sandstone and bituminous wood), which of barbarism, maintains that the greatest step in has overflowed thin laminæ of coal and shale. The human civilisation

human civilisation was the invention of slavery, island has a hill of basalt, called Compass Hill, since it put an end to the victor eating the vanwhich reverses the magnetic needle.

quished. The facts, however, which we possess, CANNABINA'CEÆ, a natural order of Dicoty- shew that the people systematically addicted tó Jedonous plants, or, according to many, a sub-order human flesh are not the most degraded of the of URTICACEÆ (q. v.), differing from the proper human race. For instance, in the Australian contiUrticacce chicfly in the suspended exalbumivous nent, where the lirger animals are scarce, the people,

ineans,

[ocr errors]

the disease.

CANNIBAL-CANNING.

who are of an extremely degraded type, feed on agamst Mr. Tierney's motion regarding peace with worms and herbs, and have only been known in the French Directory, the latter of which, especasual and exceptional conditions to feed on human cially, was regarded as a master-piece of eloquence, flesh. The New Zealanders, on the other hand, alike by the House and the country. In the who are the most highly developed aboriginal debates on the Habeas Corpus Suspension Act, race with which late European civilisation has had the union with Ireland, and other important questo compete, were, down to a late period, systematic tions, C. gave valuable assistance to the ministry, feeders on human flesh, despising the inefficient not only by his voice in parliament, but by his food which satisfied the native of Australia. In pen in a satirical paper, called the Anti-Jacobin, Angas's New Zealand Illustrated, there is a picture in which he especially lashed the “New Philosoof the country mansion of the accomplished chief phy,' as it was called, promulgated by the French Rangihaeta, “one of the finest specimens,' says the republicans. The knife Grinder is one of the author, of elaborately ornamented dwellings yet best known and happiest of his efforts in this extant.' Its name is Kai Tangata, which means, line. In 1801, Pitt resigned office, and C. joined Eat man; and it had been so called in pleasing the opposition against the Addington ministry. niemorial of the feasts held within its walls. It When Pitt again became premier in 1804, C. was has been supposed that the reason why, among the made treasurer of the nary, an office which he held Jews and several eastern nations, the eating of until Pitt's death in 1806. His opposition to the swine's flesh was forbidden as an unclean food, was short-lived Grenville ministry which succeeded, its resemblance to human flesh, and the danger that savoured of the bitterness of party feeling, and his persons accustomed to the one might not retain treatment of Fox in his last days, and of his memory their abhorrence of the other. In the Crusades, the after his death, was far from generous. When the Saracens charged their Christian enemies with eating Portland ministry was formed in 1807, C. was unclean food, including flesh of men and of swine. appointed Minister for Foreign Affairs, a position In the old romance of Richard. Cour de Lion, he is for which he was specially qualified, and his disrepresented, on recovering from sickness, as longing patches, written at this time, are models of manlifor a piece of pork; but that not being procurable, a ness and lucidity. In 1812 all his eloquence was piece of a Saracen's head was substituted for it, and enlisted in favour of Catholic emancipation. During pronounced by him to be infinitely more palatable. the same year he was elected for Liverpool, for which There have been many sad instances where people he was again returned three successive times. In who naturally had a horror of such food, have been 1814 he went as ambassador to Lisbon, returned in driven by starvation to eat human flesh-as in 1816, and was made President of the Board of rieges and shipwrecks. Besides these instances Control, and supported the Liverpool ministry in all 1:owever, and the systematic cannibals, there is no their arbitrary and repressive measures until 1820, doubt that people not otherwise habituated to the when he resigned, in consequence of the action of practice, have been excited by ferocity and revenge the government against Queen Caroline. Nominated to eat, and with relish, the flesh of enemies. În Governor-general of India in 1822, he was on the many of the cannibal countries, only the flesh of cre of departure when the suicide of the Marquis of cnemies is consumed. As an instance that this is a Londonderry called him to the head of Foreign 11:1tural development of ferocity in degraded natures, | Affairs. In this capacity, C. conferred lasting benefits we may take the fate of the Princess Lamballe in on his country. He infused a more liberal spirit the French Revolution, whose heart was plucked into the cabinet, he asserted the independence of out by one of the savages of the mob, taken to a British politics against the diplomacy that would restaurant, and there cooked and eaten by him. have entangled the nation with the Holy Alliance, The great Highland chief, Sir Ewen Cameron of and gave a new direction and impetus to commercial Lochiel, in a death-struggle with an English trooper, affairs by a gradual laying aside of the prohibitive l.illed him by biting a piece out of his throat, and system. He arranged the relations of Brazil and used to say it was the sweetest morsel he had ever Portugal; drew the French cabinet into agreement tasted.

with the British respecting Spanish American CANNING, GEORGE, distinguished British affairs; was the first to recognise the free states of statesman and orator, was born in London, April Spanish America; promoted the treaty combining 11, 1770. His father, who was descended from an England, France, and Russia, for a settlement of the ancient family, incurred the displeasure of liis affairs of Greece, and which was signed July 6, relatives for marrying beneath his station, and died 1827; protected Portugal from Spanish invasiou ; in poverty when his son was only a year old. His contended earnestly for Catholic emancipation ; and mother (who for a subsistence tried the staye, with prepared the way for a repeal of the corn-laws. but little success, married an actor, and subse- In February 1827, a stroke of paralysis forced the quently a linen-draper) lived to rejoice in the success Earl of Liverpool to resign, and Mr. C. was called and participate in the good-fortune of her boy, upon to form a new administration. His health, whose education was liberally provided by an uncle, however, gave way under the cares of office, and he C. was first educated at Eton, from which he died 8th Auglist of the same year.

His remains passed, at the age of 17, to Christ's Church College, were interred in Westminster Abbey, near those of Oxford, where he greatly distinguished himself, Pitt. As a parliamentary orator, C. holds a promiespecially in classics. While here, he cultivated the nent place in British annals. His acuteness of mind, friendship of the Hon. Charles Jenkinson (after- power of expression, and well-pointed wit, were wards Lord Liverpool), who was of considerable remarkable; but, on the whole, he was inferior service to him in after-life. From Oxford he went to Pitt, Burke, and Fox. Ile lacked the imposing to Lincoln's Inn, but on the suggestion of Burke, as characteristics of the first, the overpowering enthuit is said, he soon relinquished the bar for a parlia- siasm of the second, and the winning address of the hentary career.

He entered the House for New- last. He was intensely Briaslı, and his foreign port, Isle of Wight, in 1793, as the protégé and policy was of the character best calculated to prosupporter of the minister, Pitt. In 1796, he was mote British interests. appointed an under-secretary of state.

It was not,

His speeches have been reprinted in 6 vols. 8vo. however, until 1798 that C. made a reputation as by Therry, and several memoirs, including one

orator and a statesman, hy his speeches in by his private secretary, Mr. Stapleton, have been favour of the abolition of the slave-trade, and published.

[ocr errors]

an

CANNING-CANNON.

1812.

Case

1828.

CANNING, CHARLES John, Viscount, second | Indian mutiny was decried at the time by many son of the above statesman, was born December as weak and pusillanimous; but the general opinion

Educated at Eton and Oxford, he suc- now, when all the circumstances of the ceeded to the peerage as Viscount C. on his mother's are better known, is that he acted with singular death in 1837, his elder brother, who was a captain courage, moderation, and judiciousness. Died 1862. in the navy, having been drowned at Madeira in

CANNING. Sir STRATFORD. See STKATFORD DE In 1841 he became Under-secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in Sir Robert Peel's govern

REDCLIFFE, VISCOUNT. ment, and afterwards Commissioner of Woods and CA'NXON, is a general name for large pieces of Forests. When Lord Aberdeen came into office, he ordnance or artillery, as distinguished from those was made Postmaster-general; and in the begin- pieces which can be held in the hand while being ning of 1856, he succeeded Lord Dalhousie as fired. No military weapon in use before the invenGovernor-general of India, an office which he still tion of gunpowder can fairly come under this holds. His conduct during the awful crisis of the il designation; they were more generally of the kinds

[graphic][ocr errors][merged small][graphic][ocr errors][merged small]

Kind.

Name.

wit.

10
8

Calibre,
Inch.

12
10

8 6.4 5.8 53 4.6 4.2

90 81 60 56 47 42

24 13 12 9

| 12

9 6 6 3 1

4.2
3.7
3.7

[ocr errors]

described under Balista. At what exact date C. | ordnance now, or rather recently, in use in the were first used is not known ; but C., called 'crakys | British service, army and navy : of war,' were employed by Edward III. against the Scots in 1327, by the French at the siege of Puy

Length. Weiglate Guillaume in 1338, and by Edward III. at Crecy, and at Calais in 1346. Figs. 1 and 2 represent early

12 inch, forms of English C., and fig. 3 a mode of mounting Iron Shell Guns, the C. on carriages. The first C. or Bombards were

32-pounders, clumsy, wider at the mouth than at the chamber, and made of iron bars hooped together with iron Long Iron Guns, rings. The balls fired from them were first made of stone, afterwards superseded by iron. In the 15th

“ (medium), 4:6 c. various kinds were known by the names of C.,

" (heavy), bombards, culverins, serpentines, &c. Bombards of Long Brass Guns,

(light), great length and power were employed by Louis XI.

* (colonial), 2.9 during his Flemish campaign in 1477, some with stone balls, some with iron. About this time, C. Iron Howitzers,

10 inch, began to be made by casting instead of with hooped

32-pounders, bars; and bronze or brass as a material began to Brass Howitzers, be used as well as iron. The C. of the 16th c. were generally smaller, but better finished, than those of the 15th. The largest C. made in the 17th c., so

Iron Carronades, far as is known, was the Bejapoor cast-iron gun, ,

Malick é Meidan,' or Lord of the Plain,' made either by Aurangzebe or by the Mahrattas; it was

13 inch, 14 feet long, 28 inches bore, and required a ball Iron Mortars, of 1600 lbs. weight. From the time of the great

59% European wars in that century, C. have undergone Brass Mortars,

42 vast improvements, as well as the science and art of artillery necessary for their management. Major Straith, a leading authority on this matter, gives It must be borne in mind, however, that many of the following tabular view of the chief kinds of l the novelties introduced within the last few years

Feet. Inch,

4
9 4
8 9
9 5
9
9
9 0
8 6
6 7
6 0
8 6
5
4 0
5 0

0
4 0
5 3
4 9
3 9
5 2
4 4
4 0

9
3
2
3 1

4
1 11
1 3
1 0

8

2.0 10. +

8:0 6:3 5.0 4.6 8.0 6.8 6.2 5.7 5•2 45 13:0 10:0 8.0 5.5 4.6

24 12 68 42 32 24 18 12

23 18 13 23 6 3 2 40 2) 17 12

6 29 22 17 13 10

6 36 16

8 150 lb. 104

10
8

CANNON-CANNON-BALL TREE.

Some

88 to 12.

are not here included. Nevertheless the table will hollow or solid; whether to be made for breechbe useful for occasional reference. The apparent loading or for muzzle-loading; whether for smooth inconsistencies in length and weight are due to the bore or rified bore—these are points on which elabogreat differences in thickness of metal; and if we rate and costly experiments are being made. were to go beyor d the limits of the table, we should of the results will be noticed under the particular find that, during half a century, iron 32-pounders kinds of ordnance to which they more especially have varied frorn 63 down to so low as 25 cwt., relate. and 24-pounders from 50 to 33 cwt. ; in each case When the earlier guns, made of hooped bars, were the length and weight varying, while the calibre superseded by cast guns, the latter were always remained constant. In the above table, the calibre cast hollow; but a French founder, io 1749, disis not always precisely the same for the same weight covered a mode of boring guns cast solid. Ever of bull; as instanced by the 32-pounders, which since that time, canuon have been more frequently have 6-2, 6:3, and 6.4 inches calibre; this is due to cast solid than hollow, under a belief that the the fact that some guns have more windage, or texture of the metal is rendered closer by this pace round the ball, than others.

arrangement. This, as well as many other questions In England, during the last few years, great relating to the manufacture of large ordnance, is at expense has been incurred in replacing old C. the present day undergoing reconsideration. by others of larger power and calibre; while the British iron cannon were wholly made by conFrench are gradually bringing about a limitation in tract until within the last few years, mostly at the number of kinds and sizes, for the sake of the great works in Yorkshire and Staffordshire, simplicity.

and at Carron in Scotland; but a large factory This being merely a general or collective notice has recently been established within the arsenal at of all kinds of C. as a class, particulars concerning Woolwich, and the government has to some extent each kind will be found under such headings as acquired the power of lowering the price and expeARMSTRONG GUN, CARRONADE, Gun, HOWITZER, diting the supply. The casting does not differ LANCASTER GUN, MORTAR, SHELL Gun, &c.

much in detail from that of other large masses of

iron-work. There is a central pattern or model CANNON, ALLOYS FOR. The material generally of well-seasoned wood, or of iron; there is an exteused for the manufacture of ordnance is bronze (q. V.), rior casting-box, or jacket of iron; and there is a consisting of about 90 parts of copper to about 10 mass of well-compacted sand and clay, or sand parts of tin. In the casting of small C., such as and coke-dust, in the annular space between the 8-pounders, the alloy used contains 924 parts of pattern and the jacket. The jacket and the copper to 73 parts of tin; while in the larger C. annulus of sand are built up piecemeal, so that the the tin is increased until the proportion reaches mould shall be vertical in the casting-pit, with

The presence of the tin increases the the muzzle upwards. At Woolwich there are hardness of the alloy, but this is obtained at the furnaces, each of which would contain moulten metal expense of the tenacity. Great care must be taken enough for a large gun, such as a 68-pounder; but 10 insure the purity of the copper and the tin. If it is deemed better to melt in two furvaces for lead is present the alloy is always more or less soft, the larger castings, and to let the two streams flow and, moreover, liable to fuse after repeated explo- together into the mould. An additional mass of sions; while the presence of a mere trace of sulphur, iron is left at the top, to compress the metal of the arsenic, phosphorus, &c., renders the alloy very cannon by its weight when in the liquid state. brittle. The finest and best kinds of tin are those After a due length of time for cooling, the jacket known as Cornish or as Banca tin, which are almost is opened and removed, the annulus of sand is free from lead, &c. It is customary, in the casting knocked off, and the cannon is bored within and of C., to use up old C. or other bronze implenients, turned without, until the proper degree of smoothso as to form a beginning of the fused metal in the ness is attained. In boring, according to some furnace, and then to add little by little the extra plans, the gun revolves, while the cutter is stationamount of copper and tin. This mode of procedure ary; in others, the cutter revolves, while the gun is is followed, owing to the difficulty found in getting stationary. The cutter is a strong sharp steel tool copper and tin to amalgamate readily, so as to yield at the end of a long bar; and a train of mechanism an alloy of uniform composition. This point is of drives it onwards as fast as the bore is made. If great importance in the casting of ordnance, as the the gun be cast hollow, the boring is only a kind of netals, when not properly alloyed, are liable to scraping of the interior ; but if solid, the whole separate during cooling, and yield a C. of variable calibre is formed by a long-continued action of the composition throughout.

cutter, which brings off the metal in fine fragments. CANNON FOUNDING is

very in
important
All the brass guns for British service are made

The metal is manufacture, requiring a careful application of by the government at Woolwich. metallurgic processes. In 1856, the government in reality bronze, not brass (see preceding article). invited iron smelters to send specimens of iron to The general processes are similar to those for iron the Royal Gun Factory at Woolwich, to test the ordnance, with modifications depending party on ci pabilities of English metal for the manufacture the smaller size of the guns, and partly on the of good guns.

In France, brass guns After three years of almost inces- characteristics of the metal. sant experiments it was announced, in 1859, that are used much more largely than in England; Netherton and Parkhead iron froní Staffordshire, they are lighter, stronger, and more durable than Bowling iron from Yorkshire, Blaenavon iron from those of iron; and it is a question now largely Monmouthshire, and some other kinds, possess as

discussed among military men, whether brass guns many good qualities for the purpose as any foreign are or are not worth the greatly increased cost which iron whatever--a decision which was as unexpected as they involve. it was welcome.

Certain peculiarities in the manufacture of special There are now many important questions under kinds of ordnance are noticed in the articles relating discussion concerning the manufacture of large to them. ordnance. Whether cast-iron, or wrought-iron bars CA'NNON - BALL TREE (Courospita Guianbound together with iron-hoops; whether iron, or ensis), a tree of the natural order lecythidacece, a steel; whether steel outside of iron, or iron outside native of Guiana, of great size, the trunk being of steel; whether iron or brass ; if cast, whether cast often more than two feet in diameter.

It has large

a

5350.

CANNSTADT-CANON.

ovate-oblong leaves; the flowers are produced in | In the opinion of Fuseli, he excelled all his contemracemes, they are white and rose-coloured; and the poraries except Velasquez. His eminence in the three fruit is large, about the size of a 36-pound shot,' departments of the fine arts——sculpture, painting, nearly round. The hard woody shell of this fruit and architecture, obtained for him the hyperbolical is used for drinking vessels.

honour of being called the Michael Angelo of CANNSTADT, a town of Würtemberg, beauti Spain. His pictures, marked by graceful design and fully situated on the Neckar, about three miles north- pleasing colouring, are very numerous, and are precast of Stuttgart. It owes its origin to the served in Granada, Seville, Madrid, Malaga, and other Romans, of whose presence there are still found Spanish cities. many traces. It has numerous mineral springs,

CANOE',* is a boat made of a hollowed trunk of a discharging 800,000 cubic feet of water in the 24 tree, or of the bark shaped and strengthened. Canoes hours, which are much frequented during the season; have been made large enough to carry twenty or manufactures of woollens, cottons, tobacco, &c.; | thirty hogsheads of sugar. Some have decks, and and a large trade by means of the Neckar. Pop. carry sails of rush or silk-grass; but they are gene

rally open boats, rowed by paddles, and steered by CA'NO, Alonso, an illustrious Spanish painter, an oar.

an oar. They are seldom wide enough for two men the founder of the School of Granada, in which city to sit abreast, but vary greatly in length. Near he was born, March 1601. He received his first sea-coasts, canoes are often made of light woodeninstructions in the principles of art from his frames, covered with seal-skins, which are also father, Miguel Cano, who was an architect; studied drawn across as a deck, with only a hole left for one sculpture under J. Montanes, and painting under man to sit in. In the Hudson's Bay Territories, Pacheco and Juan de Castillo ; and attained celebrity canoes are used which are light enough to be so early, that, in 1638 or 1639, he was appointed carried over the portages, or portions of river too court painter and architect to the king. C. was of shallow for navigation. Canoes, hollowed out of a basty temper, and was accused of having murdered the trunks of oaks, seem to have been in use among his wife in a fit of violent jealousy, but the accusa- the early inhabitants of the British Islands. They tion appears to have been quite groundless. He was, have been dug up in considerable numbers in however, subjected to the torture ; but no confession England, Scotland, and Ireland. They appear to having been elicited, he was acquitted and received have been chiefly of two sorts--one about ten feet again into the royal favour, named residentiary of long, with square ends, and projecting handles; the Granada, and spent his last years in acts of devotion other, about 20 feet long, sometimes sharp at both and charity. He died at Granada in 1664 or 1667. ends, sometimes round at the prow and square at

[merged small][graphic][ocr errors][merged small]
[graphic]

Foreshortened View, shewing the End. the stern. The accompanying wood-cut shews one , not precisely true, for the term C. was applied in of this last variety, dug out of a marsh in Sussex. the 4th c. to cenobites living under a common

CA'NON, a word originally Greek, and signify- rule; but the office of C. is supposed to have been ing a measuring-rod (see Canos—foot-note), applied first instituted by Chrodegand, or Chrodegang, in various arts and sciences to what serves for a Bishop of Metz, in 763. It is at least certain that rule or standard, but particularly employed to be was the author of the oldest canonical rule, designate collectively those books which constitute which was simply an adaptation of the monastic the Holy Scripture, and are accepted by Christians rule (commonly but erroneously attributed to St. as a rule of faith. See BIBLE. In ecclesiastical Augustine) to the priests and clerks' specially language, the word canon signifies, besides, not only a church-precept, but also the decree of a universal council, which is held valid as law. See Canon

* The word is sometimes said to have been borrowed Law. At one period the word was used to desig. by the Spaniards from the native Indian name of such

boats. But a similar name exists in the Aryan lannate the prayers which the Roman Catholic priests guages: Ger. kahn, a boat; Old Fr. cane, a ship, and said before, at, and after the consecration of the canot, a boat. The root of these words is the same as Host; the term is also employed to denote the that of cane (Lat. canna), a reed or hollow stem, and catalogue or register of Catholic saints.

signifies_hollowness, capacity; Gr. chaino, to gape or CANON, an ecclesiastical dignitary, so called yawn.

From the same root come cann, a drinkingas living under a rule, or as following the rule or cup; cannon (Ital..cannone, properly a large tube, canon of divine service. His office is of no great tube); canon (Gr.) a ruler or straight rod, most

being an augmentative from cannā, a hollow stem or antiquity. According to Paschier, the name was readily obtained from a joint of a reed; canal (Lat. not known before Charlemagne. This, however, is | canalis, a pipe or conduit).

« PrécédentContinuer »