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attached to the service of a cathedral or other at the end of the 12th century. 2. The Decretals. church. It enjoined on the canons manual labour, They are a collection of canonical epistles, in five the practice of silence at certain times, confession books, written by popes alone, or assisted by some twice it year, and other duties needless to specify. cardinals, to determine any controversy, and first The canions forined the council of the bishop, and published about the year 1230, by Raimundus assisted him in the government of his diocese. Barcinus. They lay down rules respecting the They lived in a house called a monastery, slept in a lives and conversation of the clergy, matrimony common rooin, ate at the same table, and were and divorces, inquisition of criminal matters, purgaloriginally supported out of the episcopal revenues. tion, penance, excommunication, and other matters In 816, Louis le Débonnaire induced the Council deemed to be within the cognizance of the ecclesiasof Aix-la-Chapelle to draw up a general rule for tical courts. To these five books of Gregory, Bonithe whole body of canons. Canons found their way face VIII. added a sixth, publi: lied 1298 A. D., not long afterwards into England, Scotland, and called Sextus Decretalium, or the Sext, which is itself Ireland. Various reforms of C. were made in the divided into five books, and forms a supplement 11th and beginning of the 12th century. Gradually, to the work of Barcinus, of which it follows the however, many began to emancipate themselves arrangement. The Sext consists of decisions profrom the restrictions of monastic life, and to live mulgated after the pontificate of Gregory IX. Then independent of any rule, which is not at all sur- there came the Clementines, which were constituprising, for the canons were wont to keep apart from tions of Pope Clement V., published 1308 A. N. the lower clergy,' as they called parish priests These decretals form the principal portion of the and others who really laboured to impart religious canon law. John Andreas, a celebrated canonist in instruction. They were often of noble families, the 14th c., wrote a commentary on then, which he loved titles—at Lyon, they were called counts—and entitled Novellæ, from a very beautiful daughter he in general were men of the world rather than true liad of that name, whom he bred a scholar; the churchmen. Some of these reformed or remodelled father being a professor of law at Bologna, had Canons were called Black Canons, from wearing instructed his daughter so well in it, that she a black cassock; others, White Canons, from wear. assisted him in reading lectures to his scholars, and ing a white habit, like the Præmonstratenses of therefore, to perpetuate her memory, he gave that Picardy in France. The class of secular canons, book the title of Novellæ, 3. The Extravagants of whose manuer of life was not conventual, and who John XXII. and other later popes, by which term is therefore escaped destruction in England when the meant to be denoted documents which transcend monasteries were abolished by Henry VIII., prob- the limits of a particular collection of regulations. ably originated in a tendency to relax the severity These books, viz., Gratian's Decree, the Decretals, of rule enjoined on the regulars, which indeed was and the Extravagants, together form the Corpus hardly less stringent than in the case of ordinary | Juris Canonici, or great body of the 'canon law,' monks. Secular canons still exist in the Anglican as formerly received and administered by the Church- and their duties--making allowance for Church of Rome. There are, however, other pubthe difference between the Roman Catholic and lications of a later period, of more or less authority, Protestant religions-are much the same in kind as but which do not appear to have received the they were before the Reformation. See CaTHEDRAL. formal sanction of the Holy See.

This C. L., borrowing from the Roman civil law CANON, in Music, a kind of fugue in which not merely a certain period or plorase is to be imitated many of its principles and rules of proceeding, has or answered, but the whole of the first part with at different times undergone careful revision and which the C. begins is imitated throughout by all the most learned and scientific treatment at the the other parts. As in fugues, the melody of the hands of its professors, and was very generally part to be imitated is called the subject, and the received in those Christian states which acknowOthers its reply. The C. is the highest degree ecclesiastical law more or less to Roman Catholic

ledge the supremacy of the pope ; and it still gives of mechanical musical contrivance. The ancients Christendom, although its provisions have in many spent more time in the construction and resolving of mere puzzling and unentertaining canons, than countries been considerably modified by the conin the cultivation of good harmony and melody. cordats (q. v.) which the popes now and then find it Good canons, however, are always interesting, and expedient to enter into with Roman Catholic sovedifferent from any other composition. For a full reigns and governments, whose municipal system treatment of writing a C., see Marpurg's Abhandlung does not admit of the application of the C. L. in its von der Fuge, published by Peters, Leipzig.

integrity. Indeed, the fact of its main object being

to establish the supremacy of the ecclesiastical CANON LAW is a collection of ecclesiastical authority over the temporal power, is sufficient to constitutions for the government and regulation of explain why, in modern times, it is found to conthe Roinan Catholic Church, although many of its flict with the views of public law and government, regulations have been admitted into the ecclesiasti- even in the case of the most absolute and despotie cal system of the Church of England, and still governments. influence other Protestant bodies. It was compiled This ecclesiastical system, however, never obtained from the opinions of the ancient Latin Fathers, the a firm footing in England, and the great lawyers decrees of general councils, and the decretal epistles and statesmen have always shewn not only an and bulls of the Holy See. These, from a state of unwillingness to defer to its authority, but even an disorder and confusion, were gradually reduced into aversion to its rule. There was, however, a kind of method, and may be briefly described in the follow- national C. L. in England, composed of legative and ing chronological order: 1. Gratian's Decree, which provincial constitutions, adapted to the particular was a collection of ordinances, in three books, com- necessities of the English Church. The legative conmenced by Ivo, Bishop of Chartres, 1114 A. D., and stitutions were ecclesiastical laws, enacted in national subsequently corrected and arranged by Gratian, a synods, held under the Cardinals Otho and Othobon, Benedictine monk, in the year 1150, after the manner legates from Pope Gregory IX. and Pope Clement of Justinian's Pandects of the Roman Law. This work IV., in the reign of King Henry III., about the comprises ecclesiastical legislation, as it may be called, years 1220 and 1268. The provincial constitutions from the time of Constantine the Great, at the are principally the decrees of provincial synods, hela beginning of the 4th, to that of Pope Alexander III., | under divers archbishops of Canterbury, from Stepheu CANONICAL HOURS-CANONS OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND.

The hours

Langtor, in the reign of Henry III., to Henry | dividing the day into seven parts were—that in seven Chicheley, in the reign of Henry V., and adopted days the creation was completed, that seven times also by the province of York in the reign of Henry VI. a day the just man falls, there are seven graces At the diwn of the Reformation, in the reign of of the Holy Spirit, seven divisions of the Lord's Henry VIII., it was enacted in Parliament that Prayer, seven ages of a man's life, &c. a review should be had of the C. L.; and till such had also each its mystical reference to certain review should be made, all canons, constitutions, sacred occurrences, such as the incidents at our ordinances, and synodals provincial being then Lord's birth and crucifixion. The word 'hour,' in already made, and not repugnant to the law of C. H., is derived, as some have suggested, from ora, the land or the king's prerogative, should still a prayer; but more probably from hora, an hour, be used and executed. And as no such review and called canonical because according to the canon has yet been perfected, upon this enactinent now or rule of the church. The proper offices for the depends the authority of the C. L. in England, the C. H. are to be found in the BREVIARY (q. v.). limitations of which appear, upon the whole, to be CANONICALS, a term used to describe the as follows: that no canon contrary to the common

proper ecclesiastical dress of the clergy. Seo or statute law, or the prerogative royal, is of any | VESTMENTS. validity ; that, subject to this condition, the canons

CANONISATION, in the Church of Rome, the made anterior to the parliamentary provision above

act of the pope by which a deceased person is mentioned, and adopted in our system (for there are some which have had no reception among us), are

solemnly declared to be a saint. Something analobinding both on clergy and laity; but that canons gous to it may be found in the Apotheosis (q. v.) made since that period, and having no sanction from of the ancient Romans. It had its origin in the the parliament, are, as regards the laity at least, of no practice of the early church, at the dispensation of

the Lord's Supper, to name and pray for those who force. See CANONS OF THE CHURCH OF EXGLAND.

had died as martyrs. Their names, deeds, and In Scotland, Presbyterian though the ecclesiastical system of that country be, the old Roman sufferings, the manner and day of their death, were

"So deep

inserted in the catalogue of martyrs, called the C. L. still prevails to a certain extent. hath this canon law been rooted,' observes Lorá Canon, and they were called saints. Each bishop

was at first accustomed to declare deceased persons Stair in his Institutes of the Scotch Law, 'that even

to be saints. The exclusive exercise of this

power where the pope's authority is rejected, yet consideration must be had to these laws, not only as those

was gradually assumed by the popes, and proved by which church benefices have been crected and notions with regard to saints having become such

à very fruitful source of revenue, the prevalent ordered, but as likewise containing many equit

as to attach to it a very great importance. The able and profitable laws, which, because of their weighty matter, and their being once received, may The popes have possessed the exclusive right since

first papal C. was accomplished by John XV. more fitly be retained than rejected.' In two old Scotch acts of parliament, made in 1540 and 1551, 1170. The right of Beatification (q. v.) also be

longs to them. When the pope thinks proper the C. L. is used in conjunction with the Roman law to denote the common law of the country, and an inquiry is instituted as to the virtues and

to canonise, he declares his views in a consistory, the expression used being the commoun law, merits of the person proposed. The form of a baith canon, civil, and statutes of the realme.' Se on the subject of this article generally the regular process at law is adopted, and an ecclefollowing anthorities--Blackstone's Commentaries, the claims advanced, who receives the designation

siastic is specially appointed to contenà against by Kerr, vol. i. pp. 65 and 66; Stephen's Corn of Advocatus Diaboli ; but no instance ever yet mentaries, 4th edition, vol. i. pp. 61 and 69—vol. ii. pp. 251, 256, 257, and 290—vol

. iii
. pp. 45, 48, and occurred of the Devil's Advocate winning a case.

When a favourable decision is pronounced, the 421 and vol. iv. p. 242; Dr. Irving's Study of the Civil Law; and Phillimore on the Influence ceremony of C. is performed in St. Peter's Church

with great pomp.

The last C. was in 1839. of the Ecclesiastical Law, &c., 1851.

See also a discriminating article on this subject in Knight's The right to perform the ceremony lies with the

The Greek Church also recognises Canonisation. Political Dictionary, 1845; and see Warton's Law Patriarch of Constantinople, but it has rarely Dictionary, 2d edition, 1859. It will also be found

occurred. carefully treated in Dr. Hook's Church Dictionary, 7th edition, 1854. In regard to Scotland, see

CANONRY, the office and dignity of a CANOL Stair's Institutes of the Law of Scotland, I. 1, 13, and See Cathedral. II. 8, 29; and Erskine's Institutes of the same law, CANONS, Book OF, in Scottish ecclesiastical I. 1, 28.

history, a code of canons or rules for the Church CANONICAL HOURS are the times fixed for of Scotland, prepared by the Scottish bishops, in divine service in the Catholic Church, but no longer obedience to the command of Charles I., revised strictly adhered to. These have not always been by Laud, and confirmed by letters-patent under the same, and it is not known when or by whom the great seal, 23d May 1635. It tended much to they were settled-some say by Popes Damasus increase the dissatisfaction prevalent throughout or Gelasius, or Gregory-but they are now fixed Scotland, and which soon broke out so violently. at seven ; viz., Matins and Lauds, Prime, Tierce, It not only required the most strict adherence to Sext, Nones, Vespers, and Compline. These used the Liturgy, then not yet published, but enjoined to be observed as follows: Prime, Tierce, Sext, and many things concerning ceremonies in worship Nones, at the first, third, sixth,' and ninth hours beyond what Laud had been able to introduce in the of the day, counting from six in the morning; Church of England; it also took away the powers Vespers at the eleventh hour; Compline, or Com- of church-courts, and decreed the penalty of excompletorium, as completing the services of the day, munication against all who should deny the governat midnight; and Matins shortly after midnight. ment of the church by bishops to be scriptural, These hors were by the Anglo-Saxons called whilst its very first canon decreed that penalty Uhtsang, Primesang, Undersang, Middaysang, Noon- against all who should deny the king's supremacy sang, Evensang, and Nightsang. The first two in ecclesiastical affairs. and the last formed the nocturnal, the remaining CANONS OF THE CHURCH OF four the diurnal offices. The reasons given for the ENGLAND, called Constitutions and Canons



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Ecclesiastical, agreed upon, with the king's licence, | for which it was used. Horace (Epod. ix, 9), and in the synod held at London in 1603-1604. They others of the ancient writers, mention gnat-curtains were drawn up by the Convocation, in order to give (canopca). Subsequently, the same term came to effect to the decisions of the Conference held at be used for the projecting covering and hangings of Hampton; and are, for the most part, a digest of old a bed, without reference to their original use, and canons, with some new ones added. They are 141 latterly for any projecting covering of a similar in number. They are the basis of the ecclesiastical form, to whatever use it might be adapted, or law, as far as the clergy are concerned, but they are of whatever materials it might be formed. Ć. is not binding upon the laity, except in so far as they thus used to signify the covering which is borne are declaratory of the ancient canon law. There had over the heads of kings and other persons of disbeen a previous body of canons drawn up in 1571, tinction, and still more frequently over the Holy but these had not been sanctioned by the sovereign. Sacrament and the image of Christ, in processions in In 1640), the Convocation, which was then assembled Roman Catholic countries. See BALDACHIN. with the parliament, prolonged its session beyond In Gothic architecture, C. is the term applied it, and passed a body of canons of a very arbitrary to those rich coverings which are frequently met character; amongst other things, enjoining that with over niches and tombs, and sometimes over on some Sunday in every quarter, every officiating doors and windows. It belongs chiefly to the minister should insist on the divine right of kings decorated and perpendicular styles, though it was and their prerogatives, and enforce conformity to not unknown much earlier. The C. consists of a the rites of the Church of England. In these canons, roof, which may be supported on pillars all round, it was directed that the communion-table should be or may have one, or if in an angle tuo, sides railed in, and be placed as in cathedrals, as is now attached to the wall

, with dependent ornamental done in all churches. These canons were abrogated work representing drapery. The early English by an act passed in the 13th year of Charles II. canopies are usually simple in form; those in An account of these canons and those now in force French buildings of the same period being greatly may be found at length in Hook's Church Directory. niore complicated and elaborate, as, for example, -Every clergyman, when instituted to a benefice or those in the cathedrals of Chartres and Bayeux. In licensed to a cure, promises CANONICAL OBEDIENCE the decorated style, the canopies were richly ornato the bishop-i. e., the obedience due according to mented and very various in form, as in the accomthe canons of the church.

panying illustration. Some canopies are ornamented CANO'PIC VASES were vases used by the Egyptian priests to contain the viscera of embalmed bodies. They were arranged in a series of fourthe first contained the stomach and larger intestines; thé second, the smaller intestines; the third, the lungs and heart; and the fourth, the liver and gall-bladder; and each had on its lid the head of the particular deity who was supposed to preside over the contents.

CANO'PUS, or CANO'BUS, à city of ancient Egypt, from which the Canopic mouth of the Nile derived its name, was situated on the sea-coast, 15 miles east of Alexandria. The Canopic mouth of the Nile appears to have been at an early period the only one into which foreign ships could enter. At C. the boundary-line between Asia and Africa was drawn by the ancient geographers. There was a temple of Hercules here, which was a sanctuary to all wbo fled to it; also one of Serapis as several extant Greek inscriptions shew. The inhabitants of C., ka mixed Egypto-Hellenic people, were infamous, in the Greek and Roman times, for their profligacy. The city declined after the rise of Alexandria. Traces of its ruins are visible about 3 miles from Aboukir. Canopus is also the name of a very brilliant star

Canopy over Chaucer's Tomb in Westminster Abbey. of the southern hemisphere, in the constellation of the ship Argo, and, as Plutarch relates, received by pinnacles supporting smaller canopies, the whole its name from Canopos, the pilot of Menelaus. terminating in a structure resembling a small turret,

In the perpendicular style, CANOPY (Lat. Canopeum ; Gr. Könopeion, from or crocketed spire. Kõnops, gnat `or mosquito). The derivation of this though more varied in form, the canopies resemble

those in the decorated. Most of the cathedrals and word throws a curious light on its original meaning, which probably was a mosquito-curtain. The larger churches of England furnish examples of simplest form of C., in this its primitive sense, Glossary of Architecture. For the use of canopies

canopies, many of which are enumerated in Parker's is that mentioned by Herodotus (ii. 95), who tells us that the fishermen on the Nile were in

in Italian architecture, see BALDACHIN. the habit of suspending the net with which they CANO'SA, a town of Naples, in the province of had fished during the day on an upright Terra di Bari, 13 miles south-west of Barletta. It pole, from which it was expanded into the form is situated on the declivity of a steep hill, upon the of a tent, and served to protect them from the summit of which there are the remains of an old attacks of insects during the night. As it has castle. It has a cathedral ; and in an adjoining court been proved that insects will not pass through is a tomb to Bohemond, Prince of Antioch. It is the meshes of a net, though wide enough to admit chiefly remarkable, however, in connection with the them, it is probable that this simple contrivance discovered antiquities of ancient Canusium (one of may have been quite effectual for the purpose the chief cities of the Apulians, the origin of which

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is obscured in the mists of mythology), ou the site , honour of having restored to sculpture the position of whose citadel the modern town is said to stand. which it had lost among the modern fine arts. The antiquities consist of subterranean sepulchres, After Michael Angelo Buonarotti and Bernini, he containing painted vases and funereal furniture of was the third of epoch-making Italian sculptors. the most magnificent description in perfect order, His delicate execution and masterly treatment of painted busts, marble statues, &c. Many of the marble are unrivalled, and even his faults--viz., bodies found here were attired in cloth of gold, with his exaggerated nicety and carefulness, and his head-dresses gleaming with precious stones, and use of corrosives to produce fine finish-serred to earrings and bracelets of rich and exquisite work- attract by the novel effects which they produced. manship The objects were transferred to the The essential characteristic of all his works is museum at Naples. The ruins of an amphitheatre, sentiment—often verging, however, on sentimenaqueduct, &c., have also been found. C. suffered talism—and this also, like his delicacy in details, by earthquake in 1851. Pop. 8000.

was accordant with the taste prevalent in his CANOʻSSA, a town of Modena, Northern Italy, time, and was the chief cause of his popularity, as

of his errors. When judged by the sterner prinabout 12 miles south-west of Reggio, celebrated as the place where, in 1077, the Emperor Henri IV. ciples of antique sculpture, the works of C. are of Germany obtained absolution from Pope Gregory which Thorwaldsen could express so well.

found deficient in that objective or realistic character VII., after he had abased himself by three days

During his leisure hours C. amused himself in supplication, bareheaded and barefooted.

painting, in which he attained such a degree of CANOʻVA, ANTONIO, the founder of a new excellence in following the colouring of the school of Italian sculpture, was born, November 1, Venetian masters, that his pictures have even 1757, at Possagno, a village in the Venetian terri- deceived connoisseurs. In his private life, C. was tory. Having displayed in boyiiood great talent a very amiable and benevolent man. Biographies in modelling, the artist gained the patronage of of C. have been written by Missirini (4 vols. Prato, Giovanni Faliero, a Venetian senator, by whom 1824), Cicognara (Venice, 1823), and Rosini (Pisa, he was sent to work under a sculptor at Bassano. 1825.) llis first imaginative performance, 'Eurydice,' half

CANROBERT, FRANÇOIS CERTAIN, DE, Marshal the size of life, was executed in his 17th year. of France, born in 1809, studied in the military After this he went to Venice, where his study school of St. Cyr, and in 1828 entered the army. of art properly began. In 1779, Faliero sent him 1835 he sailed for Algeria, and during the war in to Romne wita an introduction to Cav. Zuliano, the province of Oran was made a captain. In the the Venetian ambassador, and one of the most storming of Constantine, he was one of the first who illustrious patrons of art at this time in Italy, entered the breach, when he received a wound in In Rome the first result of his studies appeared the leg. About the same time he had the decorain the statue of ' Apollo,' which must be regarded tion of the Legion of Honour conferred upon him. as his earliest effort in ideal sculpture; but a In 1846 he became lieutenant-colonel, and soon after far greater progress toward the pure style of the colonel. In 1848 he had the command of an expeantique was evident in his next work, Theseus dition against the tribes of the Bounoun, whom he with the Centaur.' Nevertheless, C. did not rigor- defeated at the Pass of Djerma, and was victorious ously adhere to the severe simplicity of the antique, against the Kahylus. As general of brigade, in 1850 but rather took pains to mitigate it by a peculiar he led an expedition through the rocky country of grace and loveliness of his own, such as charac- Narah, and destroyed the Arab stronghold there. terised his group of Cupid and Psyche,' which In January 1853, he became a general of division. was produced soon after he had completed the He had the command of the first division of the monument of Pope Clement XIV. This is apparent French army under Marshal St. Arnaud, sent to even in the colossal monument of Clement XIII. the Crimea in 1854; and at the battle of the Alma, (erected in St. Peter's, 1792); though this work, on wounded in the breast and hand by the the whole, is a magnificent effort of genius, simple splinter of a shell. On the death of the marshal, in style, and with nothing overwrought in the c. took the chief command of the French army; figures. Among his other works may be noticed and at Inkermann was slightly wounded, and had a Winged Cupid,' Venus and Adonis,' a ' Psyche a horse killed under him. In 1855 he resigned his holding a Butterfly;' ‘Penitent Magdalen,' in life. position to General Pelissier, and resumed the size; “Hercules hurling Lichas from the rock,'| command of the first division. The same year he a colossal work, but not free from affectation ; was made G.C.B. On the birth of the heir to the * Kreugas and Damoxenos' (two pugilists), Pala- imperial throne, March 16, 1856, he was created a medes,' and Perseus with the head of the Medusa,' marshal of France. In the war in Italy against a work which, more than all previous efforts, served the Austrians, in 1859, C. had the command of the to raise his fame. In 1802, C. was appointed by third division of the French army; and at the Pope Pius VII. chief curator of all Roman works battle of Magenta, June 4, his corps d armée turned of art in the Papal States; but was soon called the left of the Austrians. In the great battle of away to Paris, to prepare the model of a colossal Solferino, on the 24th of the same month, his statue of Bonaparte.

division was hotly engaged, and lost 1000 men in After the fall of the French empire, C., in 1815, killed and wounded. was employed by the Roman government as ambassador to recover the works of art which had been

CA'NSO (Cape), the eastern extremity of Nora taken to Paris, and paid a visit to England. On Scotia, and the southern boundary of the entrance

of Chebucto, or Chedabucto Bay. It is in lat. 45° to Rome, he was created Marquis of I-chia, with a pension of 3000 scudi

. This money miles in length and 24 in average breadth, connect

17' N., and long 61o W.--2. (Strait), a passage of 17 he expended in the support of art and artists in Rome. C. died in Venice, 13th October 1822. A ing the inlet just mentioned with the Gulf of St. marble statue was erected to his memory in the Lawrence, so as to form an island of Cape Breton. Church de' Frati, 1827. Another monument to c. of the three channels between that inland sea and was erected in the library of the capitol, by order the open ocean, it is the one that is least frequently

used by European vessels. of Leo XII., in 1833. It is universally allowed that to C. belonys the CANT, on shipboard, is a name given to such


his return



timbers, near the bow and stern, as lie obliquely to distinguish the Basque Provinces and Asturias from the line of keel. It is also a general terın for any- the sterile central plateau of Spain. thing sloping, inclined, or turned aside. Canting'| CANTAL, a central department of France, is to turn anything over, or out of its proper formed out of the south portion of the old proposition.

vince of Auvergne. It has an area of 2090 square CANT, ANDREW, a Scottish divine of the 17th miles and a population, in 1856, 247,665. See C., was first minister of Pitsligo, in the north of AUVERGNE. Scotland, and afterwards in Aberdeen. In July CANTALIVER, or CA'NT1638, he was one of the commissioners sent to that LIVER, a large bracket used in city, to compel the inhabitants to subscribe the architecture for supporting cornice National Covenant; and in November of the same balconies, and even stairs. Cantayear, he was a member of the memorable General | livers are often highly ornamented. Assembly, held at Glasgow, which abolished Epis. The accompanying example is from copacy in Scotland. He was with the Scots army a stair at the corner of Randolph when it obtained possession of Newcastle, August Crescent, Edinburgh. 30, 1640; and in 1641, on the second visit of

CANTARINI, SIMONE, also Charles I. to Scotland, C. preached before his known as SIMONE DÁ PESARO or il majesty at Edinburgh. In 1660, in consequence of PESARESE, an Italian painter, was a complaint presented to the magistrates of born at Pesaro in 1612. He studied Aberdeen, charging him with having published a under Guido Reni at Bologna ; but seditions book, entitled Lex Rex, and with fulminat- his intolerable arrogance made him ing anathemas and imprecations against many of numerous eneniies, and in consehis congregation, C. relinquished his charge and quence he left the city, and went to Rome, where left the town. He died about 1664.

he won a high reputation, and was thought by CANTA'BILE, in Music, is found in several many to excel even his master in the graceful finishi significations. In general it is placed over passages of his brush. On his return to Bologna, he opened of easy and flowing melody, as well in instrumental a scliool, but shortly after accepted an invitation as vocal music. In songs, the melodies which lie from the Duke of Mantua to visit that city. Here chiefly in the middle region of the voice are marked also his excessive self-esteem involved him in disC.: extreme tones of the voice have a peculiar agreeable relations with everybody, and at last he timbre and character quite foreign to the cantabile. quarrelled with the duke himself, on which he left C. marked at the beginning of a piece means rather for Verona, where he died in 1648, under suspicion slow than quick. In the c. style the finest effects either of having poisoned himself

, or of having can be produced by the singer in swelling, sustained been poisoned by a Mantuan painter whom he had sound, the portamento, &c. C. is also called injured. C. was distinguished in modelling and oontilene.

flesh-colouring. A Madonna upborne by Angels,' CANTA'BRI, a rude race of mountaineers in and a head of Guido when old, in the gallery at ancient Spain, were of Iberian origin, and lived in Bologna; and others elsewhere, remain as proofs of the district now known as Burgos, and on the coasts his skill. His thirty-seven etchings closely resemble of the Bay of Biscay, which derived from them its the etchings of Guido Reni, and have in several name, Oceanus Cantabricus. The most important instances, been fraudulently sold with the mark of of their nine towns were Juliobrica (near the this master forged upon them. source of the Ebro), Vellica, and Concana. The C. CANTATA, in Music, is a name given to a vocal are described as like the Scythians and Thracians composition ; but it is so very indefinite, that it in in hardihood and martial character, sleeping on the 10 way shews in what respect such composition bare earth, enduring extreme pain without a mur-differs from any other. In Zedler of Halle's great mur, and, like most savages, leaving agricultural Lexicon, the C. is defined as a long vocal compositoil to their women. Their bravery was evinced tion, the text of which is Italian,' &c.; while in in the Cantabrian war, a six years' contest with Sulzer's Theorie der Schönen Künste, it is said to be the Romans, begun under Augustus, and concluded a short piece of vocal music of a pathetic nature,' by Agrippa, 25--19 Tiberius afterwards &c. The C. is always more extended and wrought stationed garrisons in the towns of the conquered out than the simple song, and consists of different C.: but some portion retreated into their fastnesses movements. among the mountains, where they preserved their

CANTEE'N, is a refreshment-house in a barrack, independence. They are supposed to be the for the use of the soldiers. The chief articles of ancestors of the BASQUES (q. v.).

food are supplied to the troops direct by the governCANTA'BRIAN MOU’NTAINS, the general ment; but malt liquor, spirits, and small groceryname of the several ranges of coast and boundary wares, the soldier is left to buy for himself; and the mountains, extending along the north coast of C. is, or is intended to be, a slop where he could Spain, from Cape Finisterre, to the southern base make these purchases economically without the of the West Pyrenees, and so dividing the coast dis necessity of going beyond the precincts of the tricts from the interior elevated plateau of Castile. barrack. Practically, however, they are little more The summits of the mountains here and there reach than beer and spirit shops. One of the officers the lower line of the snow region, with a more twice a week inspects the goods sold at the C., gentle slope on the south side, and forning plateau- and occasionally insists on the price bring lowered. districts from 1600 to 2000 feet high on the north, No soldier is obliged to buy anything at the C.; where the slopes are steeper and intersected by coast he may lay out his small sunis elsewhere if he rivers, leave in several parts only narrow stripes of prefer. Between the years 1836 and 1845, it was flat coast-land, and running out into the sea from found that, among 112 canteens in the United Kingseveral bold promontories. The whole group of dom, the rent and head-money paid varied from mountains is named variously by the people of £4 per annum (one at Guernsey) to £1344 per various localities, and includes the Sierra de Aralar, annum (one at Woolwich); they brought in collecSalvada, Anagna, Sejos, Albas, and Altunamall tively to the government about £70,000 annually. more or less wild and romantic, but having those Great intoxication having resulted from the sale of fertile and prosperous trading districts which spirits at the canteens, the War Office prohibited


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