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such sale in 1847; as a consequence, the rents had | more popular name to the list of martyrs. The to be lowered to the extent of £20,000 in the offerings at these shrines, especially the last, confollowing year, the cantineers finding their profits tributed greatly to defray the expenses of the magnimuch reduced. It is believed that the rent paid is ficent work. William of Sens did not, however, injurious to the soldiers, who are charged higher to see its completion. He was succeeded by another prices within the barrack than without, and who William, an Englishman, and to him we owe the are thence driven to places where dangerous temp- completion of the existing unique and beautiful tations are at hand. So bad, at one time, were choir, terminated by the corona or circular chapel the disorderly scenes at the canteens, that many called Becket's Crown. Gervasius, a monk, who officers suggested their suppression altogether. A witnessed the fire of 1174, and has left an account of committee on barrack-accommodation (see Bar-it, tells us that the parts of Lanfranc's church which RACKS) lately recommended an improved organisa- remained in his time were the nave, the central and tion,
western towers, the western transepts, and their In French barracks, the C. is a sort of club-room eastern chapels. In the 14th c., the nave and for the whole regiment. The cantineer is a non- transepts were transformed into the Perpendicular commissioned officer, who acts merely as an agent Style of that period. The central tower, called for all, selling the liquors and commodities at priine the Angel Steeple, was
Steeple, was carried up (1486—1504)
to about double its original height, also in the CANTEEN, besides its application to a room or Perpendicular Style; it is 234 feet high, and 35
feet in diameter. The north-west tower was taken building, is a name also given to a vessel used by down in 1834; it was 113 feet high, and divided soldiers to contain whatever beverage may be ob- into five stories. The Norman plinth still remains tainable on the march or in the field. It is some.
on each side of the nave in the side aisles, and times of tin, sometimes of wood. In the British army, the C. is a wooden vessel, holding about three about the transepts outside the west wall
, and on the C. is a wooden vessel
, holding about three portions of Norman ashlaring may still be seen pints, painted blue, and inscribed with the number the east piers of the great tower. The indiscriminate or designation of the regiment, battalion, and com
use of the · Round' or “Norman,' and the Pointed? pany to which the soldier belongs. There is still another use of the word C., as feature in the eastern part of the building. The
or • Early English' arch, is also a very striking a name for a leathern or wooden chest, divided into compartments, and containing the plate and Lady Chapel
, now called the Dean's Chapel, stands
on the north side of the church, and was built in table-equipage for a military officer when on active
1468; the roof is a fan-vault. The north transept service.
is called the Martyrdom, for here took place the CA'NTERBURY, a municipal and parliamentary murder of Becket, on Tuesday, December 29, 1170). borough, a county by itself, a cathedral city, and Fifty years later, his remains were translated from seat of the metropolitan see of all England, in East the crypt to a shrine in the newly erected Trinity Kent, on the Stour, 56 miles east-south-east of Chapel, eastward of the choir.
About the year London, on the high road from London to Dover. The 150.), the yearly offerings at this shrine amounted to distance from London by the South-Eastern Railway £4000; but they had then declined much in value. is 81 miles ; by the London, Chatham, and Dover A curious mosaic pavement still renains in front line, about 60. It stands on a flat between hills of of the place wliere the shrine stovd, and the stone moderate height. It has the aspect of an old town, steps which leiad up to it are worn by the knees many of the houses along the high street having of countless pilgrims; but the shrine itself was gabled ends and projecting fronts. It has little demolished in 15:38, and the bones of the saint manufacture or traffic. The chief trade is in corn, burned by order of Ilenry VIII. . In 1643, the buildwool, and hops. Pop. 18,398. Many are engaged ing was further purified,' as it was called, by order in the hop-grounds around. C. returns two mem- of parliament. Still very many most interesting bers to parliament. It is noted for its brawn. Some monuments remain—euch as the tombs of Stephen remains of the walls (14 mile in circuit and 20 feet Langton; that which is commonly, but wrongly, liigh) which formerly surrounded C., and one of the supposed to be the tomb of Archbishop Theobald ; gates, still exist. Near the city wall is a large arti- with those of the Black Prince, of lienry IV., ficial mound, known as the Dane John (probably of Archbishops Maplan,, Peckham, Chicheley, Douj.), and connected with this mound is a public Courtenay, Sudbury, Stratford, Kemp, Bourchier, garden, laid out in the end of the 18th c., from the Warham, and of Cardinal Pole. The total exterior top of which is a fine view of the country around. length of the cathedral is 545 feet, by 156 in breadth But the great glory of C. is its magnificent
at the eastern transept. The crypt is of greater Cathedral. When St. Augustine became Arch- extent and loftier—owing to the choir being raised bishop of Canterbury, 597 A.D., he consecrated, by numerous steps at the east end-than any other under the name Christ's Church, a church said in England. to have been formerly used by Roman Christians. The Archbishop of C. is primate of all England, Cuthbert, the 11th archbishop, 740 A.D., added a metropolitan, and first peer of the realm. church to the east of this. In the course of ages, ranks next to royalty, and crowns the sovereign. it received nunerous additions, until it assumed His ecclesiastical province includes all England, its present magnificent form. Ainong those who except the six northern counties. Among his helped to repair, enlarge, and rebuild it, were Arch- privileges, he can confor degrees in divinity, law, bishops Odo (940 A.D.), Lanfranc (1070), and Anselm and medicine.
at Lambeth and (1093). In 1174 the choir was destroyed by fire, Addington Park. He is patron of 149 livings, and and in order to the rebuilding of it, a number of has an income of £15,6:00 a year. There are fourFrench and English artificers were summoned. teen old churches in C., mostly of rough flint, and Among the former was a certain William of Sens, containing fragments of still older structures. St. and to him, a man of real genius, the work was Martin's Church stands on the site of one of the 7th intrusted. The church was rich in relics: Plege- C., and is partly built of ancient Roman brick and mund had brought hither the body of the martyr tile. Attached to the cathedral is a grammar school, Blasius from Rome; there were the relics of St. remodelled by Henry VIII. Part of St. Augustine's Wilfred, St. Dunstan, and St. Elfege; the murder of Benedictine Abbey still remains, with its fine Thomas Becket (q. v.) had recently added a still gateway, near the cathedral. It occupied, with its
precincts, sixteen acres. The old buildings have evening, when it is comparatively lethargic, a cloth lately received large modern additions, in order to being spread below to receive the insects as they fit them for the purposes of a missionary college in fall. The gathering of Cantharides takes place, in connection with the Church of England. Another the south of France, in the month of May. It recent institution for education is the Clergy Orphan requires great caution to prevent injury to those School, which occupies a conspicuous position on St. wlio engage in it, the insects emitting a volatile Thomas's Hill, about a mile out of the city. The substance with a strong smell, which causes inflamruins of a Norman castle, 88 by 80 feet, the third in mation of the cyes and eyelids, convulsive sneezing, size in England, stands near the city wall. C. stood, and irritation of the throat and bronchial-tubes, nor in Roman times, at the union of two Roman roads can they be handled without danger of blisteriug. from Dover and Lympne, the chief seaports of the Those who collect them, therefore, generally wear Romans. C. was the capital of Kent, and the centre gloves and veils. Unpleasant effects have been expefrom which England was Christianised. St. Augus- rienced from even sitting under trees on the leaves of tine, the apostle of England, sent by Gregory I., which cantharides were numerous. Various methods was the first archbishop, and baptized King Ethel- are enoployed for killing cantharides when they bert of Kent. C. was the Saxon Caer Cant, City of have been taken; the cloths containing them are Kent, and capital of the kingdom of Kent. The very generally immersed in hot vinegar and water, Pares in the 9th, loth, and 11th centuries often and they are afterwards carefully dried; sometimes ravaged and burned the city. Henry VIII. con- they are killed by the vapour of vinegar, and somefiscated the treasures of the cathedral, and Edward times by oil of turpentine. Unless kept with great VI. levied fresh exactions from it. The cathedral care, they soon begin to lose their active properties, suffered much in the parliamentary struggles, but although, in stopped bottles, they remain fit for it has been in recent times repaired.
use for years. They are very liable to be injured by CANTERBURY, a settlement of about 2400 mites, and afford a favourite food also to a kind of square miles, on the east coast of the north island moth and to some other insects. They are imported of the New Zealand group, with Christchurch as its into Britain from the south of Europe, and also from capital, and Lyttelton as its port. The district pro- St. Petersburg. The Russian cantharides are rather fesses to be more specially set apart for Episcopalians. more higlily esteemed than any other.--Some of the In 1858, its external trade stvod thus: imports
, species of the genus Epicanta (C. atrata) and (C. £216,383, 58. 2d.; exports, £108,713, 12s. 4d. ---total vittata) devour the foliage of the potato plants, and £325,096, 178. 1d. Of this amount, wool, to the are sometimes very destructive in the United States. weight of 1,352,011 lbs., gave £90,134, 1s. 4d., or They may be used as vesicants. more than five-sixths of the whole. The other The active principle of the blistering flies is articles, arranged in order of worth, were potatoes, cantharidine, which possesses such powerful blistering wheat, cheese, oats, oil, whalebone, tallow, sheep- properties, that jõõth of a grain placed on the lip skins, barley, gold-dust, hides, curiosities, and seeds. rapidly causes the rise of small blisters. AdminisCANTERBURY BELLS. See CAMPANULA.
tered internally, blistering flies cause heat in the
throat, stomach, intestines, respiratory organs, &c. ; CANTHARE'LLUS. See Fungi, EDIBLE.
and if in large doses, they give rise to inflaniCANTHA'RIDINE. See CANTHARIS.
mation of a serious nature, and sufficient to cause CAN'THARIS (Gr. a small beetle, plural Can. deathi
. Externally, they are employed as a blistering tha’rides), a genus of insects of the order Coleoptera, agent. There are various medicinal preparationis section Heteromera. See COLEOPTERA. It belongs of blistering flies, such as Vinegar of Cantharides, to a family called Trachelides, or necked beetles, the obtained by macerating blistering flies in acetic head being separated from the Thorax by a distinct acid; Tincture of Contharides, procured by digesting neck or pedicle, and forms the type of a sub- blistering flies in proof-spirit, &c.; but that most division of that family called Cantharidiæ, many of commonly employed is Plaster of Cantharides or the species of which possess: blistering properties Blistering Plaster, obtained by mixing equal parts analogous to those of the common BLISTERING Fły, of blistering flies, yellow wax, resin, and lard. See SPANISH Fly, or BLISTER BEETLE (C. vesicatoria).
BLISTER. This insect, the best known and most important CA'NTICLES, a word which literally sigrifies of the genus, is about an inch long; has a large songs, but which is specially applied to a canonical heart-shaped head, rather broader than the thorax; book of the Old Testament, called in Hebrew The thread-like antennæ three times longer than the Song of Songs—i. e., the most beautiful song. The head; a nearly quadrangular thorax; and soft elytra author is commonly supposed to be Solomon, and (wing-covers) concealing the abdomen, and of equal in the rich luxurious splendour of its colouring it breadth throughout. It is of a bright glossy green admirably harmonises with the golden time of that colour, and exhibits not a little of that metallic magnificent monarch. The theme which it celebrates brilliancy which characterises many beetles, and in is love; but what kind of love, whether earthly or particular many of the Cantharidice. This metallic
, spiritual, is a question that lias perplexed biblical brilliancy is of use in detecting cases of poisoning critics. The oldest interpretations are allegorical, by Cantharides, golden green particles being always and are either political or religious. The former of seen in powders made of these insects, and these these, considered C. as the symbolical expression of particles remaining long unchanged whilst decom- a deep longing for the reunion of the kingdoms position is taking place around them. The common of Judah and Israel ; tlie latter, of the love of God Blistering Fly is found in the south of Europe, and in for his chosen people, the Jews. The religious the south of Siberia. It is abundant in Italy, Sicily, interpretation passed over from Judaism to Chrisand Spain, in the south of France, in Hungary, and tianity, and assumed a new aspect in consequence. in some parts of Germany and Russia. It is rare Origen and Jerome found in Christ, the Beloved in England, but in 1837 great numbers appeared in Bridegroom, and in the Church, the Bride. Similarly Essex, Suffolk, and the Isle of Wight. The larva is did Augustine and others explain the poem. Only not well known. The perfect insect feeds on the among the theologians of the Syrian school, especially leaves of the ash, privet, lilac, elder, and honey in that remarkable man Theodorus of Mopsuestia, suckle; and rests on them during the night, the day do we find an effort made to adhere to more inbeing its time of activity. It is therefore taken by telligible principles of interpretation, but the beating the branches of the trees in the morning or mystical view obtained the upper bund. At the CANTILENA-CAXTON.
Reformation, it was opposed by Erasmus, and | Kwang-tung. It is situated in lat. 23° 7' 10" N., and adopted by Luther. It is still the popular view of long. 113° 14' 30'' E., on the north side of the Choothe poem among orthodox theologians, many of Keang or Pearl River, 32 miles from the sea. The whom have endeavoured to unfold its supposed river (the entrance to which is known by the name spiritual or mystical meaning often with more inge- of the Bocca Tigris) is very picturesque. The city nuity than wisdom. Whether C. is one song, an is surrounded by a rampart six miles in circum
thology of detached erotic idyls, or a whole formed ference, and entered by 12 gates, to each of which of connected parts, is doubtful. Father Simon was a guard-house is attached. It forms an irregular the first to maintain the second of these opinions, square, and is divided by a wall into the North which has been since advocated by Eichhorn, Jahn, and South, or Old and New City. The former is Pareau, and others. Sir William Jones and Dr. inhabited by the Tatar population, the latter by Mason Good adopt the third ; Ewald, on the other Chinese; and between the two, communication is haud, does not consider it idylic at all, but main-maintained by four gates in the separating wall. tains that it is a drama in five parts; while Bossuet The suburbs are very extensive, and in one of these, regarded it as a pastoral eclogue, consisting of facing the river, stood the European factories or hongs. seven acts, each act filling a day, concluding with Many of the streets of C. are devoted to distinct the Sabbath. Its object, according to Dr. Davidson, trades; thus there is · Carpenter' Street, “ Apothe
appears to be to depict true, chasie love in humble cary' Street, &c. The Joss-houses, chiefly Buddhist life.
temples, are said to be 124 in number. The largest CANTILE'NA. See CANTABÎLE.
of these, on Honam Island, covers seven acres, and CANTI'RE, or KINTY'RE (Gaelic, headland), a
has 175 priests attached; there are several manylong narrow peninsula of Argyleshire, running north storied towers or pagodas, a Mohammedan mosque, and south between Arran İsle and the Atlantic, a foundling hospital, an English and an American and united at the north end with the mainland missionary hospital. The former, conducted by Dr. of Scotland by the isthmus of Tarbet, a mile broad Hobson, was opened by him in the western suburb between East Loch Tarbet, a small loch or bay of April 1, 1818, and continued in most successful Loch Fyne, and West Loch Tarbet. It is 40 miles operation till October 1856, when the difficulties long, and, on an average, 64 broad. The surface is that arose between Yeh and the British authorities much diversified by low, undulating, moorish hills
, compelled its temporary abandonment. It appears with many lochs. The highest point is Bennear, 1515 from the printed report, that from July 1, 1855, to feet. It contains much cultivated land. The north June 30, 1856, 32,618 persons attended, and 14,600 four-fifths of C., and the south-west corner round the books of religious information were distributed. Mull
, or promontory, of Kintyre, consist chiefly of Streets of wooden houses were formerly to be seen mica slate. Old red sandstone occurs on the south on the river side, but these were swept away during east shore. Coal is found between Campbelton and the late quarrel with Yeh; and one large site that the west coast. A light-house, 297 feet above the they occupied is now walled in, preparatory to the sea, stands on the Mull of Kintyre. C. includes 10 erection of the new foreign factories, the old ones parishes. Pop. 17,916. Campbelton (q. v.) is the having been totally destroyed by fire. chief seat of population. C. was in ancient times remarkable example of life upon the water is the peopled by Piets and Celts more densely than the boat-town of Canton. The total population of the rest of Scotland. The Scots from Ireland subdued city has been vaguely estimated at 1,000,000. The it in 210 A. D., were expelled from it in 446, but climate of C. may be pronounced healthy; though returned in 503 under Fergus, the first Scottish the heat from June to September is oppressive, and king, who fixed his seat at Campbelton. Kenneth the thermometer sometimes stands at 100° in the II. (MacAlpine), on defeating the Picts in 843,
shade. The north-east monsoon commences in removed to Forteviot. From the 8th to the 12th c., October, and is the prevailing wind till March, C. was occupied by Northmen from Scandinavia, when the south-west monsoon sets in. Its average and afterwards by the Macdonalds of the Isles, and i temperature is 707° F., and the annual fall of rain more lately by the Campbells. Many burying. 70625 inches. The Cantonese are notorious for their grounds and small ruined chapels or monasteries turbulence and hatred of foreigners, and the Euroin C., show its former populousness. Near these pean factories have more than once been attacked by chapels, and in the villages, are many high, upright infuriated mobs, who were only kept at bay by force slate crosses, with rude figures and inscriptions on of arms. This hostility may, however, be greatly due them. C. contains many ancient watch or ward to the baneful influence of those in power; for here forts often vitrified.
the government of the mandarins of the present CA'NTO, in Music, an Italian term for the highest Manchoo Tatar dynasty appears to have reached its vocal part or treble. See also SOPRANO,
maximum of corruption and barbarity, and was fitly CANTO FERMO, in Church Music,
represented by the notorious Yeh, late governorplain song, or choral song in unison, and in notes all of Twelve Years in China gives us some startling
in unison, and in'notes all general of Kwang-tung and Kwang-se. The author of equal length. Its introduction into the Christian facts illustrative of mandarinic rule in this part of church is attributed to Pope Gregory the Great, China. After the defeat of the Triad rebels, who before the invention of modern notation. See also GREGORIAN TONES.
beseiged C. in 1844–1845, it is estimated that
1,000,000 of people perished in the province, of CA'NTON. In Heraldry, the C. occupies a .corner whon some 100,000 were executed in the city of of the shield, either dexter or sinister, and in size is Canton. British' trade had been confined almost the third of the chief. It is one of the nine honour entirely to C. for about 200 years, when the monoable ordinaries, and of great esteem.'
poly of the East India Company ceased on the 22d CANTON (from the Fr. canton, a corner, a April 1834. Since that date the proceedings of the district; Ger kante, a point, corner, border; allied C. government officers have originated two wars to Eng. cantle), signifies in geography a division of with the British. The city was captured by the territory, constituting a separate government or allied French and English forces December 1857, and state, as in Switzerland. In France, C. is a | is at the present time (September 1860) garrisoned subdivision of an arrondissement.
by them. See CHINA. After the treaty of Nankin CANTON, a large commercial city and port in | (signed 29th August 1842), (. was known as the south of China, and capital of the province of 'of the five ports; Amoy, Foochoo, Ningpo, and
Shanghai, having also been thrown open to foreign never met the requirements of the trade of which
it was so long the only emporium ; and since the Placed at a distance from the capital, the princi- more northern ports have been opened, it has bepal tea-districts, and the great commercial marts of come of less importance. the empire-with the anchorage at Whampao, 12 The following official trade returns are taken from miles from the warehouse of the merchant-C. / McCulloch's Dictionary of Commerce, 1869 :
A COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF THE QUANTITIES OF TEA EXPORTED FROM THE CANTON WATERS TO THE COUNTRIES
AND PLACES UNDERMENTIONED DURING THE THREE YEARS 1862, 1863 AND 1864.
Value of the exports from C. for 1868 was about a historical romance, Margherita Pusterla (Florene, $22,000,000, or about one-tifth of those of the empire. 1845). C. has also written several religious hymn.is Value of imports into C. for 1868, nearly $16,000,000, and songs, which have become popular; but I.is or nearly one-sixth of those of the empire.
great work—the greatest Italian historical work of The Middie Kingdom, by Dr. S. W. Williams; the present century—is the Storia Universale (35 The Chinese, by Sir John Davis; Meadow's Chinese ; vols., Turin, 1837-1842). It is reckoned by the Twelve Years in China (Edin. 1860); Report of the Italians among their classical works. Missionary Hospital in the IVestern Suburbs of Can
CANTU'RIO, or CANTU', a town of Northern ton; North China Herald, May 26, 1860.
Italy, 5 miles south-east of Como. It is situated in CANTONMENTS, in the general operations of the midst of a rich district, has a church with an European armies, are temporary resting-places. | elegant tower, which served as a beacon during the Many circumstances, especially the state of ilie middle ages, and manufactures of iron-wares. Pop. weather and the supply of food, influence a general 5500. in determining whether to go into C. or to encamp, CANUN, a Turkish musical instrument, strung in the intervals between active operations; or he with gut-strings; is played on by the fingers, on may take the former course during an armistice. which are thinibles of tortoise-shell, pointed with. The quartermaster-general previously examines the pieces of cocoa-nut, forming plectra for striking the district, and determines how many men and horses strings with. The C. is a favourite instrument with to place in each village; arrangements are also the ladies in seraglios, many of whom produce very made for a main-guard, cavalry pickets, alarm-posts, pleasant music and harmony on it. road-barricades, lines of sentries, mounted orderlies, &c., to guard against a sudden surprise from the CANUTE, king of England, succeeded to the com enemy. In C. the men are not generally under mand of the Danes in England on the death of his canvas, as described in CAMP.
father, Swein or Sweyn, and was by them proclaimed Iu India, C. are permanent places, regular military king of England. On the death of Ethelred, he towns, distinct and at some little distances from the shared the sovereignty with Edmund Ironside, who principal cities. If on a large scale, such a canton- ruled over the south, while C. was monarch over the ment contains barracks for European cavalry, in- north of England. The sudden decease or assassina. fantry, and artillery ; rows of bungalows or houses, tion of Edmund made C. sole ruler in 1017, and he each enclosed in a garden, for the officers; rows of continued to reign until his death, in 1035 or 1036. huts for the native soldiery; magazines and parade- His rule was marked at first by cruelty, but wher grounds; public offices and buildings of various all who were likely to interfere with his power had kinds; and a bazaar for the accominodation of the been disposed of, he exhibited great mildness and native troops.
During the revolt in 1857-1858, justice, combined with talent and judgment. The most of the outbreaks began in the cantonments. Anglo-Saxons, whose complete subjugation he had It was in the cantonment outside Cawnpore that effected, did not feel their chains : they had expeNena Sahib commenced his treachery.
rienced no such good government since the time of CANTONNÉE, in Heraldry. When a
When a cross is Alfred and Athelstane. He was easily accessible to placed between four other objects, e. g., scallop all his subjects; and won the hearts of the people shells, it is said to be cantonnée.
by his love for old ballads and songs, and his
liberal patronage of minstrels and of gleemen. Не CA'NTOS'S PHO'SPHORUS, PYRO'PH
also wrote verses himself, and one ballad--all of ORUS, is obtained by heating in a close vessel which, with the exception of one verse, has been 3 parts oyster-shells and 1 part sublimed sulphur, lost long continued popular among the peasantry. when the sulphuret of calciun: (CaS) is formed, | In his latter years he became very religious, made a which takes fire when exposed to or thrown into pilgrimage to Rome, and built monastic establishthe air. CANTOR. See PRECENTOR,
CA'NVAS, regarded from an artist's point of CANTU, CESARE, one of the best of modern view, is the principal material upon which oilItalian authors, was born September 5, 1805, at paintings are made. Two kinds are prepared for Brescia, in Northern Italy, and was educated at this purpose, of which the best is called ticking. Sondrio, where he was appointed professor of belles- Before it is put into the artist's hands, it is usually lettres. Having been imprisoned for the offence primed, or grounded (see Grounds) of a neutral grav, of expressing liberal tendencies in a historical or other tint, as he may direct. Certain sizes of C. work on Lombardy, C. spent his leisure hours in being in greater request than others, are kept ready describing the sorrows of a prisoner in the form of stretched on frames. Those used for portraits are
known by the names of kit-cat, which measures 28 kinds by casting C. in moulds. Its elasticity and or 29 inches by 36; three-quarters, 25 by 30 inches ; flexibility, its insolubility in water, and its great half-length, 40 by 50 ; Bishop's half-length, 44 or 45 impenetrability to gases and fluids in general, have by 56; Bishop's whole length, 58 by 94.
now been found to adapt it to a great variety of uses. CANVAS, Ships. See Sail, SAILCLOTH.
In one form or another, it is spread in thin layers, CANZO'NÉ is the name of one of the oldest and to make water-proof cloth; it is drawn into threads most prized forms of the Italian lyric. The word to give elasticity to articles of dress; pipes for conis borrowed from the Provençals, whose cansos or veying gas are made of it, pipes for fire-engines, chansós, however, were not restricted to any precise cushions for billiard-tables, buffers for railway car
cylinders for the use of printers and calico-printers, form, but were simply verses intended to be sung. The Italian writers first attempted to regulate the bottles to render them air-tight, a varnish useful for
: wayward and arbitrary character of the Provençal many purposes, and an almost endless variety of cansos; Dante, and subsequently Petrarch, being other articles. It is also employed in combination especially successful. The Canzone Petrarchesca or Toscana was any considerable lyrical poem, uses of which are fully as numerous and as great as
with sulphur to form VULCANISED INDIA RUBBER, the composed of stanzas exactly corresponding to one those of C. itself. another in number of lines, measure, and position of rhymes, and which customarily closed with a Indies and from South America. That of the East
The C. of commerce is obtained from the East short stanza. About the end of the 16th c., the Indies is in great part the produce of Ficus Elastica, Italian writers began to deviate from the strict form of the Petrarchian canzone. Torquato Tasso a species of fig (natural order Moracec), often called and Chiabrera are the most notable names in the
the India-rubber tree, which grows in great abundThe most of the canzones of the ance on rocky declivities in the forests of Sylhet
, latter-called by their author canzonette-are written and is now perhaps one of the most common orna. in short lines and stanzas, the position of the rhymes it becomes a tree of great size ; and its large, oval,
ments of British hothouses. In its native country, being also completely arbitrary.
thick, glossy leaves make it an object of great CAOU'TCHOUC, GUM ELASTIC, or INDIA beauty. Its fruit is small and uneatable. It grows RUBBER, a substance which, on account of its with very great rapidity. The milky juice is expeculiar properties, is extensively used in the arts, tracted by making incisions through the bark down and of which the use is continually and rapidly to the wood, completely round the trunk or increasing. It is one of the products of the wonder- branch, and at distances of about a foot from each ful chemistry of nature, being found in the milky other. The juice is acrid and tenacious. Fifty juices of plants, and most abundantly in the natural ounces of the juice yield fully fifteen ounces of C.orders Moraceæ, Artocarpacea, Euphorbiaceæ, Apocy- Other species of fig also yield C., particularly the naceæ, Asclepiadaces, and Papayacec. It exists sacred fig or Peepul (F. religiosa) of India.—The C. in the milky juice of plants growing in temperate of South America is obtained' chiefly from the climates ; but it is only in tropical and subtropical Siphonia elastica (also known as Hevea C.), a tree of countries that it occurs so abundantly as to be of the natural order Euphorbiacece. This tree is common economical importance. Its uses to the plants in in the forests of Guiana and Brazil, and has been which it is elaborated have not been ascertained; introduced into the West Indies. It has a trunk and the conjectures of theorists on this subject are 50—60 feet high, scaly, very straight, and branched not supported by arguments sufficient to give them only at the summit. The milky juice is obtained much probability. In the milky juice, the C. is by incisions through the bark; and the natives of diffused in the form of minute globules, and not, South America make clay-moulds, often pear-shaped strictly speaking, in solution ; and when the juice or like small bottles, which they smear with the is extracted from the plant, and allowed to stand juice, and then dry in smoke, so as to impart to the for a short time, these globules separate from the Č. a black colour. Successive layers of juice are watery part of it, and form a sort of cream on the applied and dried, until a sufficient thickness is top, or, in close vessels, appear throughout it as a attained. The C. which is obtained from the East flaky coagulum. The first specimens of C. seen in Indies is generally in junks and balls, and is light in Europe were brought from the East Indies; but colour, owing to its being dried by the sun instead its nature and properties were first examined with of over a fire, as in South America. When the care by M. de la Condamine, whose attention was layers are sufficiently united, the clay or other attracted to it in South America, and who pub- mould is broken, and the bottle or ball India rubber lished a memoir on the subject in 1735. It was at is fit for immediate use, and is preferred in this first known by the name of Elastic Gum, but it state for some purposes; but the layers are often received that of India Rubber from the discovery of imperfectly united, and impurities are found to have its use for rubbing out black-lead pencil marks, for been fraudulently introduced between them, in order which purpose it began to be imported into Britain to increase the weight.-Among the other trees in small quantities about the end of last century, yielding C. are Collophora utilis and Cameraria: being much valued by artists, and sold at a high latifolia, in South America; Vahea gummifera, in price. Even before this time, its employment for the Madagascar; and Urceola elastica and Willughbeia. manufacture of flexible tubes for the use of surgeons edulis, in the East Indies—all belonging to the and chemists had been successfully attempted; natural order Apocynacec. Urceola elastica yields but the expensive character of the solvents then it in great abundance, and of the finest quality. It known for it, prevented its general application to grows in the island of Sumatra. An attempt has any purpose in the arts. It was not till 1820 that recently been made to import the juice of the tree. its employment began to extend beyond the rub- and subject it to the drying process in this country, bing out of pencil marks, although in the meantime but little has as yet been imported into Britain... the quantity imported had increased so that the The characters of the juice are, that it possesses the price was diminished, and it was common enough consistence of cream, has a yellow colour, is miscible in the hands even of school-boys. Its application to with water, but not with naphtha or other of the the manufacture of water-proof cloth first gave it com- solvents of ordinary C., and has the specific gravity mercial importance. About the same time, a method of 1012_ordinary C. being 925. The juice contains was discovered of fabricating articles of various / 31.70 per cent. of caoutchouc. When heated, it