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from this latter source, but a forced contribution of of the Franciscan order, which already numbered £4800 to the government of the canton of Valais | more than 300 monasteries in Italy during his day. impaired their revenues very much. The pass, which B. died in 1444, and was canonised by Pope Nicholas was traversed in early times by the Romans, Charle- V. in 1450, his festival being on the 20th of May. magne, and Frederick Barbarossa, is celebrated for His eminently mystical works were published by the passage of 30,000 French troops under Napoleon, Rudolf (4 vols. Venice, 1591), and by De la Haye in May 1800.—LITTLE Saint B., which forms part of (5 vols. Paris, 1636). the chain of the Graian Alps, is the most convenient BE'RNARDINES. See CISTERCIANS. of the Alpine passes, and is supposed to have been

BERNAUER, AGNES, the beautiful daughter of the one by which Hannibal led his forces into Italy. It also possesses a hospice, which is situated 7192 a poor citizen of Augsburg, in the 15th c., whose

sad story looks liker romance than history. Duke feet above the sea.

Albrecht of Bavaria, only son of the reigning Duke BERNARD DOG, GREAT Saint, a race or Ernst, saw the maiden at a tournament at Augsvariety of dog, deriving its name from the hospice burg, given in his honour by the nobility, and fell of St. Bernard, where it has been long kept by the violently in love with her. Albrecht was young, monks for the purpose of assisting them in the rescue handsome, and manly, and Agnes was not insensible of perishing travellers. Dogs of different races are to his attractions and his rank; but she was too employed in the same manner at other passes of pure to listen to his overtures, till he promised to the Alps. The Saint B. dog is remarkable for marry her. They were then secretly united, and great size, strength, and sagacity. The dogs not only Albrecht carried his young wife to the castle of accompany the monks and servants of the hospice Vohburg, which he inherited from his mother. Here in the benevolent excursions which they regularly they enjoyed their matrimonial happiness undismake through the most dangerous parts of the pass, turbed, till Albrecht's father formed the plan of but are sent by themselves to search for travellers marrying his son with Anna, daughter of Erich, who may have wandered, and this their extremely Duke of Brunswick. The determined opposition he acute scent enables them admirably to do. They met with, soon made him aware of his son's attachlearn to know what places are most proper to be ment to the Augsburger's daughter, and of the searched, and some of them shew great alertness strength of his passion for her; and he resolved when the weather assumes a threatening aspect, as to take energetic measures to break it off. He if desirous to be at their work. They carry a small accordingly contrived that, at a tournament at flask of wine or brandy attached to their neck, of Regensburg, the lists were shut against his son, as which the traveller may avail himself. When they one that, against the rules of chivalry, was living find a traveller benumbed with cold, or discover by with a woman in licentiousness. Albrecht swore the scent that one has been overwhelmed in an that Agnes was his wife, but in vain ; he was still avalanche, they endeavour by loud barking to attract excluded. He now made Agnes be openly honoured the monks to the spot; if they fail in this, and if the as Duchess of Bavaria, gave her a numerous retinue traveller is too much exhausted to proceed by their of servants as a princess, and the castle of Strauguidance to the hospice, or if they cannot by their bing for a residence. She, full of sad forebodings own efforts dig away the snow which bas covered of a dark fate, erected in the Carmelite convent of him, they run and give the alarm by signs which are the place an oratory and a tomb. As long as Duke at once understood. One famous dog, called Barry, William, Albrecht's uncle, lived, who was greatly in the earlier part of the present century, was attached to his nephew, nothing further was atinstrumental in saving the lives of no fewer than tempted against the happiness of the lovers. But forty human beings. His most memorable achieve after his brother's death, Duke Ernst no longer ment was the rescue of a little boy, whose mother restrained his anger, and in the absence of Albrecht, had been destroyed by an avalanche, and whom he ordered Agnes to be arrested and executed without induced to mount his back, and so carried him safe delay. Accused of sorcery, by which she was alleged to the hospice. The skin of this dog is preserved in to have bewitched Albrecht, she was carried, bound the Museum of Bern.—The origin of this valuable hand and foot, by the executioners to the bridge of race of dogs is not well ascertained, although they the Danube, and in the presence of the whole people are supposed to have sprung from the progeny of a thrown into the river (October 12, 1435). The curDanish dog left at the hospice by a traveller, and of rent having floated her again to the side, one of the the Alpine shepherds' dogs. Another account repre-executioners ran with a long pole, and fastening it sents an English mastiff as one of their progenitors. in her golden hair, held her under the water till she There are two subvarieties, however; one with

was drowned. Maddened at this atrocity, Albrecht rough hair, like that of the Newfoundland dog, and took up arms against his father, and, in league with of a white colour, with black or tawny spots; the his other enemies, wasted the country. It was in other, with close, short hair, more or less clouded vain that Duke Ernst entreated his son to relent. with gray, liver colour, and black. Of the former It was not till the Emperor Sigismund, and the other breed, the number is now small. The head and friends of the family, united their exhortations, that ears resemble those of a water-spaniel, and the Albrecht at last returned to his father's court, where, Saint B. dog has therefore been sometimes classed after a time, he consented to marry Anna of Brunswith spaniels (q. v.).

wick. To regain the forfeited regard of his son, BERNARDIN, Saint, of Sienna, born in 1380 Duke Ernst had a chapel erected over the grave of at Massa-Carrara, of a distinguished family, made the murdered lady, and Albrecht founded in the himself famous by his rigid restoration of their year of her death daily masses for her in the Carmeprimitive rule amongst the degenerate order of the lite monastery at Straubing; even after twelve years Franciscans, of which he became a member in 1404, he renewed the foundation, and had the bones of his after having already, in 1397, joined the brother- 'honoured wife' transferred to the tomb provided hood of the Disciplinati Mariæ. In 1438, he was by herself, and covered with a marble monument. appointed vicar-general of his order for Italy. B. The unhappy loves of Albrecht and Agnes were was unwearied and devoted in his activity during the long the theme of popular song; and the story has great Italian plague of 1400, both as an impressive been made the subject of at least three tragedies, preacher and an attendant upon the sick and dying. one by Jul. Körner (Leip. 1821), another by A. He founded the Fratres de Observantia, a branch Böttger (3d ed. Leip. 1850).


BERNAY, a thriving town of France, in the and clear in the exposition of the causes of those department of Eure, 25 miles west-north-west of political events that carried Aurungzebe to the Evreux. It has manufactures of woollens, linens, throne. He visited England in 1685, and died at cotton-yarn, paper, &c., and tanneries. One of the Paris on the 22d of September 1688. largest horse-fairs in France, attended by upwards The titles of his chief works are as follows: of 40,000 jockeys and others interested in horses, is Voyages de M. Bernier contenant la Description des held here annually on the Wednesday of the fifth Etats du Grand Mogol, de l'Indoustan, du Royaume week in Lent. Pop. 7363.

de Cachemire, &c.; Mémoire sur le Quiétisme des BE'RNBURG, capital of the 'duchy of Anhalt- Inde; Abrégé de la Philosophie de Gassendi ; Bernburg, North Germany, is situated on the Saale, Sentiment de M. Descartes. 23 miles south of Magdeburg, in lat. 51° 47' N., long. BERNI'NA, a mountain of the Rhætian Alps, 11° 45' E. Two parts of B., surrounded by walls, lie upwards of 13,000 feet high, in the Swiss canton of on the left bank of the river, and are united by a Grisons, with a remarkable and extensive glacier, bridge with the third part on the opposite side, Morteratsch. The B. Pass, which attains an elevawhich has a castle, but is not walled. B. is well tion of 7695 feet, and over which a carriage-road built, has several literary and charitable institutions, has been constructed, unites the valleys of the and manufactures of porcelain, paper, and starch. Engadine and Bregaglia on the north with the Pop. about 7000.

Valteline on the south, but is dangerous on account BERNHARD, Duke of Weimar, a celebrated of avalanches. German general, was born 6th August 1604. He BERNI'NI, GIOVANNI LORENZO, a famous Italian was the youngest of the eight sons of John, third sculptor and architect in the time of Pope Urban Duke of Saxe-Weimar. On the outbreak of the VIII., was born at Naples, 1598. He early devoted Thirty Years' War, he took the side of Protes- himself to sculpture, and in his eighteenth year tantism against the emperor, and first distinguished finished his admired group of Apollo and Daphne, himself in 1622 at the bloody battle of Wimpfen. which gave promise of greater excellence than was Subsequently he became colonel in the army of afterwards realised by the artist. Pope Urban Christian IV., king of Denmark; took part in the VIII. employed B. to produce designs for the bold expedition of Mansfield through Silesia to embellishment of the Basilica of St. Peter at Rome. Hungary; and, after the sudden death of the latter, The bronze baldacchino, or canopy, covering the reunited himself with the Danes under the mark- high-altar of that edifice, the palace Barberini, the graf of Baden-Durlach. At the solicitations of his front of the College de Propaganda Fide, the church brothers, however, he now withdrew from the Danish of Sant' Andrea à Monte Cavallo, and numerous service, and returned to Weimar in March 1628. ornaments in St. Peter's, are by Bernini. His Three years later, Gustavus Adolphus made his greatest work in architecture is the colossal colonappearance in Germany, and B. was one of the first nade of St. Peter's. In 1665, B. accepted the who flew to his standard. After a brilliant career, flattering invitation of Louis XIV., and travelled he became suddenly ill, and died at Neuburg on the to Paris with a numerous retinue and great pomp. Rhine, 8th July 1639; according to some, of a pesti- In Paris, he resided above eight months; but not lential disorder then prevalent in the camp; but wishing to interfere with the designs of Claude according to B.'s own opinion, and that of others, of Perrault for the Louvre, he confined himself entirely poison, administered by his physician, Blandini, who to sculpture. His visit, however, proved a highly is supposed to have been in the pay of France. remunerative one. Richly laden with gifts, he

BERNI, FRANCESCO, called also BERNA or Bernia, returned to Rome, where he died, November 28, a favourite Italian poet, from whom comic or jocose 1680, leaving a large fortune (about £100,000) to poetry has the name of Versi Berneschi, was born bis children. Besides his works in sculpture, B. (also at Campovecchio, in Tuscany, about 1490. He first left numerous paintings behind him. No artist, entered the service of Cardinal Dovizio da Bibbiena, perhaps, was ever so much admired and rewarded and was afterwards for several years secretary tó during his lifetime as B.; but time has rather Ghiberti, chancellor to Clement VII., and Bishop subtracted from than added to his fame. of Verona. About 1533, he betook himself to

BERNOUI'LLI was the name of a family that Florence, where he was made a canon, and lived produced a succession of men, who became famous in favour with the two Medici, Duke Alessandro, over all Europe for the successful cultivation and and Cardinal Ippolito, till his death in 1536. His extension of various branches of mathematical and Opere Burlesche (2 vols. Flor. 1548; Lond. 1721) | physical science. The family originally resided in are to be found in the Classici Italiani (Mil. 1806). Antwerp, whence, in 1583, its attachment to the His recast or rifacimento of Bojardo's Orlando reformed religion forced it to seek an asylum in Innamorato was received with such favour that it Frankfort. Afterwards, the Bernouillis settled in was thrice reprinted from 1541—1545. A critical Basel, where they achieved the highest professional edition was published at Florence, 1827. Berni's honours. Eight of them became highly distinguished; version, or dilution, is still read in Italy, in prefer- but special mention can be made here only of the ence to the original.--COUNT FRANCESCO BERNI, three most celebrated-James, John, and Daniel. b. 1610, d. 1693, the author of eleven dramas, and JAMES B. was born at Basel, 25th December 1654, some lyric pieces, is not to be confoundeil with the where he also died, 16th August 1705. He devoted former Berni.

his life to the study of mathematics, of which he BERNIER, FRANÇOIS, a French physician and became professor, in the university of Basel, suictraveller, was born at Angers, in France. Hav- ceeding in that chair the distinguished Megerlin. ing taken his degree of Doctor at Montpellier, Among his first works were, Method of Teaching he departed for the East about 1654, and visited Mathematics to the Blind, and Universal Tables on Syria, Egypt, Arabia, and India, in the last of which Dialling. These were followed by Conamen Novi countries he resided for twelve years in the capacity Systematis Cometarum, being an essay on comets, of physician to Aurungzebe. On his return to suggested by the appearance of the comet of 1680 ; France, he published an account of his travels in and an essay De Gravitate Ætheris. Besides a India in 1670–1671. The work is delightful in variety of memoirs on scientific subjects, he pubstyle, accurate in the delineation of manners and lished no other work of importance. De Arte customs, as well as in the description of places, Conjectandi was a posthumous work concerning the






extension of the doctrine of probabilities to moral, which run like meridian lines from pole to pole. political, and economical subjects. His memoirs These bands are covered with rows of large cilia, will be found in the Journal des Savans and Acta the motion of which is extremely rapid, and is Eruditorum ; his collected works were published evidently controlled by the will of the animal, so in 2 vols. 4to, at Geneva, in 1744. Among his that it swims with rapidity, and easily changes its triumphs are to be recorded his solution of Leib- course. The motion of the cilia causes a beautiful nitz's problem of the isochronous curve, his deter- iridescence: the animals also are phosphorescent by mination of the catenary, and investigation of the night. B. (or Cydippe) pileus (figured in the article properties of isoperimetrical figures. At his request, ACALEPHÆ) is a beautiful little creature, very à logarithmic spiral was engraved on his tomb, with abundant in the sea on many parts of the British the motto, Eadem mutatâ resurgo.

It is provided with two very long and John B., brother of the preceding, was born at slender tentacula, which proceed from the sides of Basel, 27th July, 1667. He and James were the first the body, and are covered with a great number of two foreigners honoured by being elected associates still finer filaments. These organs are probably of the Academy of Sciences at Paris, and members employed for seizing food. This, and other kinds of of the Academy of Berlin. John devoted himself B., form a great part of the food of whales. to chemical as well as to mathematical science. In

BEROʻSUS, an educated priest of Babylon, who 1694, he became a Doctor of Medicine, and soon after had a knowledge of the Greek language, and Professor of Mathematics at Gröningen, whence he probably lived about 260 B. C. He wrote, in only removed to succeed his brother James in the Greek, three books of Babylonian-Chaldæan history, university of Basel. His forte was pure mathe- in which he made use of the oldest temple archives matics, in which he had no superior in Europe in of Babylon. The work was highly esteemed by his day. He died 1st January 1748. Among his Greek and Roman historians, but unfortunately only achievements are the determination of the ‘line of a few fragments have been preserved by Josephus, swiftest descent,' and the invention of the exponen- Eusebius, Syncellus, and others. Even these fragtial calculus. His collected works were published ments are of great value, as they relate to the at Geneva in 4 vols. 4to, 1742; and his correspond- most obscure portions of Asiatic history. They ence with Leibnitz, in 2 vols., 1745.

have been edited by Richter in his Berosi ChaldoeDANIEL B., born at Gröningen, 9th February orum Historiæ quæ supersunt, 1825. The Antiqui1700, died at Basel, 17th March 1782, was the tatum Libri Quinque cum Commentariis Joannis son of John. Like his father, he devoted himself Annii, first published in Latin by Eucharius Silber to medicine as well to mathematics.

The (Rome 1498) as a work of B., and often republished, family reputation early helped him to the pro- was the pseudonymous work of the Dominican, fessorship of mathematics at St. Petersburg, which Giovanni Nanni of Viterbo. he held for several years. Thence, however, he

BERRE, ETANG DE, extensive lagoon of ultimately retired to Basel, much against the will of the czar. At Basel, he' occupied in succession salt-works and eel-fisheries. It discharges its surplus

France, department Bouches-du-Rhône, with large the chairs of anatomy and botany, and of experi- waters into the sea by the Port-du-Bouc. mental and speculative philosophy. He published various works between 1730 and 1756, of which the

BERRY (Bacca), the term employed in botany to chief are concerned with pneumatical and hydro-designate a description of fruit more or less fleshy dynamical subjects.

and juicy, and not opening when ripe. The inner BERNSTEIN, GEORGE HEinr., a distinguished lent texture, sometimes even consisting of mere cells

q orientalist, Professor of Oriental Languages in the filled with juice, whilst the outer layers are harder, university of Breslau, was born 12th January 1787, and sometimes even woody. The seeds are immersed at Kuspeda, near Jena, where his father was in the pulp. A B. may be one-celled, or it may pastor, 'In 1806 he entered the university of Jena, be divided into a number of cells or compartments; where he devoted himself to the study of theology, which, however, are united together not merely in philosophy, and Eastern languages. In 1812 he the axis, but from the axis to the rind. It is a was appointed extraordinary professor of Oriental Literature in Berlin, and in 1821, regular professor. may common description of fruit

, and is found in

different natural families, and both of exogenIn 1843, he was appointed to Breslau. Besides a

ous and endogenous plants. As examples, may be number of lesser treatises, and of contributions to mentioned the fruits of the gooseberry, currant, scientific and critical journals, he established his vine, barberry, bilberry, belladonna, arum, bryony, reputation as an oriental scholar by the publication and asparagus, which, although agreeing in their of an Arabic poem of Szafieddin of Hilla (Leip. structure, possess widely different properties. Some 1816). But his greatest achievements are in Syriac of them, which are regarded as more strictly berries, literature. Besides several pamphlets, expository have the calyx adherent to the ovary, and the and critical, which appeared between 1837 and placentas—from which the seeds derive their nour1847, B. has given in his lexicon to Kirsch's ishment-parietal, that is, connected with the rind, Chrestomathia Syriaca, of which he brought out a as the gooseberry and currant; others, as the grape, new edition (2 vols. Leip. 1832–1836), proofs of his have the ovary free, and the placentas in the centre diligent and successful research in the domain of l of the fruit. - The orange and other fruits of the Syriac lexicography. He has still in contemplation same family, having a thick rind dotted with numea Syriac dictionary, which is to extend to several rous oil-glands, and quite distinct from the pulp of quarto volumes.

the fruit, receive the name hesperidium ; the fruit BE'RÖE, a genus of Acalephe (q. v.), of a division of the pomegranate, which is very peculiar in the distinguished as Ciliograde, i. e., moving by means manner of its division into cells, is also sometimes of cilia (q. v.,) very different from the Medusæ, and distinguished from berries of the ordinary structure of higher organisation. This genus is now the type by the name balausta. See POMEGRANATE. Fruits, of a family, characterised by a nearly globular or like that of the water-lily, which at first contain a oval body, of a delicate jelly-like substance, with an juicy pulp, and afterwards, when ripe, are filled with alimentary canal passing through its axis, which is å dry pith, are sometimes designated Berry-capsules. vertical as the animal floats in the water: the body The gourds, also, which at first have 3-5 comstrengthened by bands of somewhat firmer texture, partments, but when ripe, generally consist of only



one compartment, are distinctively designated by was removed from his command, B. united with the term pepo, peponium, or peponida, to which, Thiers and others to oppose the pretensions of the however, gourd may be considered equivalent. president, and he was one of the few who boldly

BERRY, or BERRI, one of the old French protested against the coup d'état. In 1854, he provinces (now forming the departments of Indre was elected a member of the French Academy. and Cher, q. v.), in lat. 46° 10-47° 40' N., and B. added greatly to his reputation as an orator by his long. 1°—3° E., its greatest length being about 100 ment prosecution in 1858, and in 1860–61 in the case

defence of Montalembert (q. v.) against the governmiles, and its greatest breadth 90. Having come of Patterson v. Bonaparte. While on a visit to Lord into the possession of the French crown, it gave Brougham a grand dinner was given in his honor title at various times to French princes, the younger (Nov. 8, 1864), by the Bar of England, at which more son of Charles X. being the last who held it.

than 400 guests were present. He died Nov. 29, 1868. BERRY, CHARLES FERDINAND, DUKE DE, second

BERSAGLIE'RI is the Italian name for the son of the Count of Artois (afterwards Charles X.) and of Maria Theresa of Savoy, was born at

riflemen or sharpshooters of the Sardinian army. Versailles, January 24, 1778. In 1792, he fled with After the disastrous campaign of Charles Albert his father to Turin; fought with him under Condé against the Austrians in 1848–1849, and the abdiagainst France; afterwards visited Russia, and lived cation of that monarch, his son, Victor Emmanuel, for some time in London and Edinburgh. In 1814 commenced a remodelling of the Sardinian army. he returned to France, and the following year sandro della Marmora, was the formation of a

One improvement, brought about by General Aleswas appointed by Louis XVIII. commander of the troops in and around Paris. In 1816, he married corps of bersaglieri. These are light active soldiers, Caroline Ferdinande Louise, eldest daughter of uniform, and armed with long rifles

. Two battalions

dressed in a picturesque but serviceable dark-green Francis, afterwards king of the Two Sicilies. On of these riflemen formed part of the Sardinian this marriage the continuance of the elder Bourbon

On the 16th of line depended. The Duke de B. was assassinated on army during the Crimean war. the 13th February 1820, as he was conducting his Tchernaya. During the Italian war of 1859, the B.

August 1855, they took part in the battle of the wife from the Opera-house to her carriage, by a person were engaged in many operations requiring dash and


brilliancy. Marie-Thérèse d'Artois, Mademoiselle de France, born 1819; but on the 29th September 1820, the

BE'RSERKER (ber, bare, and serkr, shirt of widowed duchess gave birth to the prince, Henry, mail), a redoubtable hero in Scandinavian mytholDuke of Bordeaux, afterwards styled Count of ogy, the grandson of the eight-handed Starkader Chambord. After the July revolution, 1830, in which and the beautiful Alfhilde. He despised mail and the duchess exhibited immense force of character helmet, and contrary to the custom of those times, and courage, offering herself to lead on the troops went always into battle unharnessed, his fury against the insurgents

, she, with her son, followed serving him instead of defensive armour. By the Charles X. to Holyrood, but left a considerable daughter of King Swafurlam, whom he had slain in party in France, in favour of the pretensions of her battle, he had twelve sons, who inherited the name son as Henry V. of France. During a visit to Italy, of B., along with his warlike fury. the duchess was so far encouraged in her ambition, BERTH, or BIRTH, in nautical language, is that a project was formed for reinstating the nearly equivalent to room or space. A ship's B. is Bourbons in France; and, accompanied by several the space which she occupies when at anchor, includfriends, she landed near Marseille, April 29, 1832. / ing a small breadth of sea all around her. The After many adventures she was betrayed, and was same name is also given to a messing or sleeping imprisoned in the citadel of Blaye. The confession room on board ship, in a sense not very different of the duchess, that she had formed a second mar- from that of the word cabin. To ‘B.' a ship's crew, riage with the Neapolitan marquis, Lucchesi-Palli, is to allot to each man the place where his hamdestroyed at once her political importance, and the mock, &c., are to be placed. In the third-class government restored her to liberty.

cabins of passenger-steamers, where many sleep in BERRYER, PIERRE ANTOINE, a distinguished one rooin without partitions or divisions, each one's French advocate and party politician, was born in crib or bed-place is his berth. Paris, 4th January 1790, and first distinguished BERTHA, the name of several famous women himself by his defence of victims of the restoration of the middle ages, half-historical, half-fabulous (see In 1829 he was chosen deputy, and ever afterward BERCHTA). St. BERTHA, whose day is kept on the steadily represented the rights and policy of the 4th July, was the beautiful and pious daughter elder Bourbons. His legitimist tendencies kept him of Charibert, king of the Franks, who having for a time in the political background under Louis married (560 A. D.) Æthelbert, king of Kent, became Philippe ; but as the legitimist party in the cham- the means of his conversion, and of the spread ber increased, his position grew in importance. He of Christianity among the Anglo-Saxons. repeatedly undertook the defence of persons prose- romances of the Charlemagne cycle, there figures a cuted by the government, not only of his own party, Bertha, called also Berthrada with the Big Foot, as but republican leaders. It was he who defended the daughter of Count Charibert of Laon, wife of Louis Napoleon in the Chamber of Peers after the Pepin the Little, and mother of Charlemagne. In Boulogne attentat. With the elder Bourbons he the romances of the Round Table, again, BERTHA is was in constant communication, and was one of the the name of a sister of Charlemagne, who makes heads of the legitimist party who made a pilgrimage Milo d'Anglesis the father of Roland. Better to the Count of Chambord in London in 1843. known is Bertha, daughter of Burkhard, Duke of After the revolution of 1848, he represented the the Alemanni, and wife of Rudolf II., king of Bouches-du-Rhône; seemed inclined to support the Burgundy beyond Jura, who, after Rudolf's death government of the president, Louis Napoleon ; and (937), acted as regent for her infant son, Konrad; became a member of his privy-council. But this afterwards married Hugo, king of Italy; and died did not hinder him from going to Wiesbaden, in towards the close of the 10th c. This queen had the 1850, to do homage to the Count of Chambord. character of an excellent housekeeper, and is repreOn that occasion, he was openly spoken of as the sented on seals and other monuments of the time as future minister of Henry V. When Changarnier sitting on her throne spinning.

In the


BERTHIER, ALEXANDRE, Prince of Neuchatel / of extracting and purifying saltpetre to be used and Wagram, and Marshal of the French Empire, in the manufacture of gunpowder, and also as to was born at Versailles, November 20, 1753. His the process of smelting and converting iron into father, a military engineer, trained him for the steel. His joining the expedition of Napoleon to army, which he entered in 1770, and fought with Egypt led to the formation of the Institute of Lafayette in the American War of Independence. Cairo. On his return from Egypt, he was made a At the outbreak of the French Revolution, he senator by Bonaparte, who also conferred on him was appointed major-general of the National Guard several marks of honour, and made him a count. of Versailles, and rose to be a general of division, Notwithstanding, he voted for the deposition of and chief of the staff in the Army of Italy, 1795; Napoleon in 1814. On the restoration of the Bourand in 1798, in the absence of Bonaparte, entered bons, he was made a peer; but all his honours never the papal territory, and proclaimed the republic made him other than a simple and unassuming in Rome.

He accompanied Napoleon to Egypt gentleman. Besides the additions to chemical knowin the same year as chief of the staff, a post which ledge already mentioned, he, in conjunction with he also held in all the subsequent campaigns. At Lavoisier, and two other chemists, promulgated a the revolution of 18th Brumaire (1799), he became new chemical nomenclature which has proved valuwar-minister, and (till 1808) as such signed many able to science. He died at Paris, 7th November important treaties and truces. He always accom- 1822. panied the emperor, and often rendered important

BERTHOLLE'TIA. See BRAZIL Nuts. services; for the part he took in the battle of Wagram, he received one of his many distinctions.

BERTIN, Louis François, called Bertin l' Ainé, B. was Napoleon's proxy in the marriage of Maria an eminent French journalist, was born in Paris,

1766. Louisa, at Vienna, 1810. In the campaigns of

He began writing for the press in 1793, 1812, 1813, and 1814, he was constantly by the and in 1799 set on foot the Journal des Débats emperor's side, and acted both as chief of the (q. v.). B.'s royalist principles offended the governstaff and as quarter-master-general. It was only

ment of Napoleon, and cost him imprisonment and B.'s love of order, quick insight, and activity that banishment to Elba; whence, however, he escaped

to Rome, where he formed a friendship with armies. Napoleon did him full justice on this

Châteaubriand. In 1804, he returned to Paris, and score, asserting at the same time that he was inca- resumed the editorship of the Débats, but was pable of leading the smallest corps d'armée alone.

much hampered by Napoleon, who imposed on the On the fall of Napoleon, B. hardly shewed due paper the title of Journal de l'Empire, and by subgratitude for the favours heaped upon him. He had jecting it to police revision, gave it almost an official to surrender the principality of Neuchatel; and character. When B., in 1814, became free to follow not to lose more, he submitted to Louis XVIII., | his own bent, the journal reverted to its royalist who made him a peer and marshal, with the title principles. During the Hundred Days, it fell into of Captain of the Guards. Napoleon, who never it once more to B., who, in the meantime, had

other hands, till the return of the Bourbons restored doubted his secret attachment, made overtures to taken part in the Moniteur de Gand. Throughout him from Elba: these he neither answered nor yet revealed to Louis, which made him suspected by the ministerial party. Though he did not join in

the restoration, B. gave almost constant support to both. On the return of Napoleon from Elba, in a fit of irresolution B. retired to Bamberg, in. Bavaria, the protest of the liberal journals against the to his father-in-law, Duke William, where his mind ordonnances, he gave his adhesion to the July became unhinged with the conflict. On 1st July monarchy, and continued faithfully to support it

. 1815, while looking from the balcony of the palace He continued to edit the Débats till his death, 13th at a division of Russian troops marching towards September 1841. the French frontier, the bitter sight was too much BERTIN, LOUIS MARIE ARMAND, son of the he threw himself down into the street, and thus former, was born in Paris, 1801, and became, after ended his life. His Mémoires appeared in 1826.- the restoration, secretary to Châteaubriand during He had two brothers, Victor Leopold, and Cæsar, who his embassy in England. In 1820, he joined the both served with distinction, and rose to be generals. editorial staff of the Journal des Débats, and at

BERTHOLLET, Count CLAUDE Louis, one of his father's death assumed the chief direction. the most distinguished theoretical chemists of his As a journalist, he contrived, as well as his father, time, was born at Talloire, a village of Savoy, near

to maintain a certain independence of the governAnnecy, on the 9th December 1748. He studied at ment. B. died at Paris, January 11, 1854. the university of Turin, and obtained a medical BERTRAND, HENRY GRATIEN, Count, one of degree there in 1768. He afterwards went to Paris, Napoleon's generals, known for his faithful attachwhere he was appointed physician to the Duke ment to the emperor through all his fortunes, was of Orleans. He now applied himself with great born at Châteauroux, 1773, and early entered the assiduity to chemistry; in 1781, he was elected a armies of the Revolution as engineer.

He accommember of the Academy of Sciences, and, some time panied the expedition to Egypt, and directed the after, the government made him superintendent of fortification of Alexandria. Returning with the rank dyeing processes. In this situation he published a of general of brigade, he distinguished himself at very valuable work on dyeing. In 1785, he an- Austerlitz, and became the emperor's adjutant; nounced his adherence to the antipblogistic doctrines and, after the battle of Aspern in 1809, for estabof Lavoisier, with the exception that he did not lishing bridges over the Danube, he was created admit oxygen to be the acidifying principle, and Count and governor of Illyria. After sharing with herein he has proved to be right. In the same year, credit in the subsequent campaigns, he retired with he published a paper on 'dephlogisticated marine the emperor to Elba, was his confidant in carrying acid'-now called chlorine-pointing out its use for out his return to France, and finally shared his bleaching purposes; and following up the experi- banishment to St. Helena. On Napoleon's death, B. ments of Priestley, he shewed ammonia to be a returned to France, where, though sentence of death compound of three volumes of hydrogen gas, and had been pronounced upon him—a sentence which one volume of azotic gas. During the early part Louis XVIII, had wisely recalled-he was restored of the French Revolution, B. travelled through the to all his dignities, and, in 1830, appointed comcountry, giving instruction as to the best means mandant of the Polytechnic School. He formed

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