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coagulates (as the glaire of egg does), owing to the material resembling in consistence bread-dough or presence of albumen, and exposed to the air, it putty; and this being squeezed through a series of dries up, and leaves a film of caoutchouc. In the small holes, is obtained in minute round threads, preparation of pure C., the natural juice is mixed which are first received on an endless piece of with five or six times its bulk of water, and then velvet, and ultimately on an endless web of common either heated or mixed with common salt or hydro- cloth 500 to 600 yards long, during the transit of chloric acid, when the pure C. separates as a white the threads across which, the solvent or bisulphide opaque substance, which becomes transparent when of carbon evaporates, and leaves the caoutchouc. dry. The chemical composition of pure C. is re- When it is wished to weave these threads into garded as C&H,; and it is therefore a compound of cloth, they are wound upon bobbins, taking care carbon and hydrogen alone.

to stretch the C. as much as possible, so as to Commercial c. is a tough fibrous substance, pos- deprive it, for the time being, of its elasticity; and sessing elastic properties in the highest degree. after it has been woven into the cloth, a hot iron is Reduced to the temperature of freezing water (32° passed over the fabric, and immediately the C. reF.), it hardens, and in greater part, if not entirely, sumes its elasticity. loses its elasticity, but does not become brittle. In the manufacture of water-proof clothing, or When heated, as by placing in boiling water, it Mackintoshes (see MACKINTOSH), the C. is treated softens, and becomes very much more elastic than with one or other of the solvents already menat ordinary temperatures, though it does not in tioned; but that generally employed, from its any degree dissolve in the water. If suddenly cheapness, is ordinary spirits of turpentine. An stretched to seven or eight times its original objection to the use of the latter is, that the length, it becomes warm; and if kept in this out- odour of it never altogether leaves the fabric. The stretched form for several weeks, it appears to lose, employment of ether as the solvent, which would in great part, its elastic properties, and in this leave the fabric without offensive odour, has hitherto condition is readily cut into those thin threads been prevented by the expense.

The solution, which are used in the elastic put in glores, bonnets, which is in the form of a somewhat thick liquid, &c., and the elasticity of which is readily renewed is laid on the cloth with a wooden spatula, after by the application of gentle heat. Commercial c. which the cloth is passed through rollers, which is insoluble in water and alcohol, is not acted upon cause the equal distribution of the C.; and the by alkalies or acids, except when the latter are cloth being subsequently carried over rollers, and concentrated, and heat is applied; but is soluble suspended in a shed to dry, is again and again in ether, chloroform, bisulphuret of carbon, naphtha, treated with the solution, till the coating of ē. is crude petroleum, benzol, and the essential oils sufficiently thick. This process yields single waterof turpentine; lavender, and sassafras. Many other proof cloth ; but if two pieces of cloth be similarly essential and fixed oils, when heated with C., treated, and the surfaces with the covering of C. cause it to soften, and produce thick glutinous com- be laid face to face, and the whole passed through pounds, especially linseed oil, which, in the pro- heavy rollers, the two coatings of C. adhere portion of 14 lb. of the oil to 4 oz. C. in thin strips together, and the compound fabric constitutes double or films, yields a solution which, when strained, is water-proof cloth. The C. which is thus left on of great use in rendering shoes, cloth, &c., water- cloth is much softer than ordinary C., and is more proof. When heated to 248° F., C. fuses; and at liable to become glutinous and sticky, when slightly .600° it is volatilised, at the same time undergoing heated. But experiments show that if the juice, in «decomposition,and yields a liquid called Caoutchoucine its natural state, were applied to cloth, the C. left or Caoutchisine, with the specific gravity 680, and would be of the harder variety. It is found that possessing great solvent powers over C. and other when the juice, as it exudes from the tree, is mixed substances. Caoutchoucine is necessarily very ex- with about an ounce of liquor ammonia to the pound ypensive, and hence its use is limited; but cordage of juice, and enclosed in hermetically sealed vessels, : steeped in it and dried acquires great supple and it can be exported, and retains its properties for tenacious properties, and cloth saturated with it, years. and dried by exposure to the air, becomes water- One objection to the use of water-proof clothing

is, that while the rain is excluded, the escape of In the employment of C. as a branch of manu- the moisture from the skin is prevented. The facture, the first operation is the purification of disagreeable smell usually adhering to the fabric, is the crude material as it comes from abroad. The considerably diminished by exposing it to the crude material is cut into minute shreds, and wash- funies of certain essences, such as chamomile, ed by powerful machinery, immersed in water, verbena root, lavender, whorl-flowers, &c.; or to the which releases the solid impurities, and the pure C. gases given off during the heating of sublimed being removed, is placed on iron trays, and dried sulphur with ammonia and alcohol, and subsequent in a room heated by steam. The material then airing. The latter process is resorted to in the undergoes a process of kneading under very heavy deodorising of mattresses and air-cushions. Among rollers, which causes the adhesion of the various the more uncommon uses of C., is its employment pieces of Ç. to each other, and ultimately yields a in the paving of the carriage entrance-court at mass or block of C. in which the condensation is so Windsor Castle, the Admiralty courtyard, and the perfect that all air-holes, and other cells and in- stables at Woolwich. It has likewise been used for terstices, disappear. The block of C. is then cut lobbies, staircases, &c. under water by powerful knives or shears into VULCANISED C.-Important as the applications of sheets, from which the pieces sold by stationers may pure C. are, its employment in the arts and manufacbe shaped out, or from which C. bands or thread tures was limited, till the introduction of the commay be obtained. In the manufacture of square pound of sulphur and C., known as Vulcanised C., and threads, mere cutting is had recourse to; and the which was first discovered by Goodyear, in America, delicacy of the operation may be understood when who kept his process a secret, till the same material it is stated that one pound of C. will yield 32,000 was discovered independently by Hancock, in Engyards of thread. The round thread elastic is pre- land, and patented by him. The visual process of pared from C. which has been treated with about vulcanising is to mix the C., previously reduced to double its weight of bisulphide of carbon, containing a state of fine division by grinding, with sublimed about 5 percent, of alcohol, which yields a soft sulphur, and submit the mixture to a heat of 800° F.,



when sulphur and C. unite to form a sulphide of pencil-cases, and other ornamiental and useful articles. C., which is so far a chemical compound, that neither At the present time (1860), these articles are rare; the sulphur nor the C. can be dissolved out by their but there is little doubt-from their resemblance to ordinary solvents. The vulcanised C. obtained in jet in lightness, colour, and high polish, and their this way is never entirely homogeneous, owing to elasticity, which prevents them from being broken the difficulty of thoroughly incorporating the ingre. when allowed to fall—that such things will very dients before heating; and hence, in the preparation shortly command public attention and approbation. of the finer sorts, the C. is first immersed for a few Several other modes of employing C. require to be minutes in bisulphide of carbon, containing 27 or 3 mentioned. Heated with sulphur and finely divided per cent. of its weight of chloride of sulphur, and then sand, and made into small cakes, it is now sold in heated; the sulphur thus becomes more thoroughly shops as an ink-eraser. When one pound of C. in incorporated with the C., and the product is a fine shavings or fragments is mixed with four gallons of variety of vulcanised caoutchouc. In this manner, coal-tar naphtha, and allowed to stand for ten or India-rubber overshoes are manufactured, as well as twelve days, a liquid of the consistence of cream many other articles. A more effectual combination is obtained, which, treated with twice its weight of of the sulphur and C. is supposed to be obtained by shell-lac, and heated, yields a thickish substance, treating the C. with kermes mineral, or the sulphuret capable of being obtained in slabs when spread out. of antimony (SbSs), and applying a temperature of If this mixture be heated in an iron vessel to 248° F., 250° to 280° F.

and brushed over the surface of two pieces of The properties of vulcanised C. are—1. It pos- wood, it causes them to adhere so firmly, that, sesses elasticity at all ordinary temperatures, even at when fractured, the wood gives way at other parts the freezing and boiling points of water. 2. It is rather than those which are cemented together. not dissolved by turpentine, bisulphide of carbon, The consumption of C. is rapidly increasing from naphtha, or any other known solvent, and is scarcely year to year. In 1830, only 446 cwts. of the crude affected by acids or alkalies. 3. It resists compres- material was imported into Britain ; in 1853, the sion in the highest degree. The uses to which the quantity had risen to 19,607 cwts. ; and in 1857, it ordinary form of vulcanised C. is put, are almost was 22,000 cwts. endless. Elastic rings or bands for letters, flexible Notwithstanding the numerous uses to which C. gas-pipes, water-pipes for brewery and other purposes, is already applied, it is believed by every one at all fire-hose, life-boats, ocean and river electric cables, connected with the manufacture, that it is as yet springs for doors and windows, buffers for railway only in its infancy; and that singly, or coupled with carriages, open-worked mats, and rugs for doors and gutta-percha, and other substances, new fields of aprooms, and washers for the largest used engines, as plication for it will shortly be opened up. well as hats, braces, boots, shoes, machinery-belts, harness, saddle girths, and noiseless carriage-wheels, wood fixed near the top of each mast; it has a hole

CAP, in Ship-building, is a strong, thick block of are a few of the many appliances of this substance. Modifications of vulcanised C. are obtained by another to receive the lower end of the topmast,

to receive the upper end of the lower mast, and mixing silicate of magnesia, pipe-clay, ground porce- with eyebolts to aid in hoisting the topmast. There lain, Oxide of lead, and magnesia, with the sulphur is also a C. of sınaller size at the point of junction and caoutchouc. These substances all give density and compactness to the finished material.

between the topmast and the top-gallant-mast. The

When made of iron, the C. is called a crance. oxide of lead also imparts a smoothness of skin to

CAP. See PERCUSSION CAP. the manufactured article, which is taken advantage of in the preparation of goloshes or India-rubber CAP OF MAINTENANCE, or DIGNITY, is a shoes. The magnesia imparts hardness, and yields cap worn by noble and royal personages on certain a material so rigid, that it can be manufactured state occasions. Such a cap was sent by Pope Julius into buttons, combs, picture frames, knife handles, II. to King Henry VIII., for writing his book against &c., and be made into slates for schools, and Martin Luther. veneers for furniture, &c. Another kind of vulcanised C. is obtained by the addition of vegetable or

CAPA'CITY, LEGAL, is such a condition of inmineral tar, or natural bitumen, to the sulphur dividuals, in regard to their natural qualities and and caoutchouc. Coal-tar can be used, and is first actual position under the constitution of the counboiled for two or three hours till the adherent try, as fits them for the application of the laws water and naphtha are driven off, and the whole civil and criminal. Generally speaking, all persons becomes not unlike soft pitch, "and this, when have this legal capacity excepting aliens, persons allowed to cool, acquires the consistence of ordi- attainted, convicts, insane persons, and to some exnary caoutchouc. If this substance be added in tent also infants, femmes coverts or married women, considerabile proportion to sulphur and C., and and persons under duress; see these heads. See heated to about 300', a compound is obtained which also ConveyANCE, Contract, PLAINTIFF, DEFENDANT,

Suit. resembles ordinary vulcanised C. in properties, possessing great elasticity, &c., and which may CAP-A-PIE' (Fr. head to foot), in the military be similarly employed in the manufacture of language of the middle ages, was applied to a numberless articles. A mixture of two parts of the knight" or soldier armed at all points, or from prepared tar to one of C. is used for rendering coarse head to foot, with armour for defence and weapons fabrics water-proof, though, for finer articles, the far attack. proportion of tar is diminished. A mixture of tar and

CAPA'RISONED, in Heraldry. A war-horso C. with fully more than their weight of sulphur, heated for about six hours, at a temperature of completely furnished for the field is said to be ca

parisoned. 230°, and afterwards to 300° and 320°, yields a material, which can be cast into moulds, or rolled CAPE, in Geography, the extremity of a portion into sheets, and which, when cold, admits of the of land projecting into the sea beyond the general finest polish, and is so hard and black, that it rivals line of the shore. On a low sandy coast, a cape the expensive substance, jet, in appearance and other generally forms an obtuse angle, being merely a properties, and can be similarly cut and fashioned change in the trending of the land. On rocky into the most elaborately carved bracelets, shawl- shores, capes usually form acute angles, and are here pins, thimbles, hair-combs of all shapes, cork-screws, I sometimes called points or promontories.


CAPE BRE'TON, a rocky island of irregular | peninsula. Here the united English and Dutch form in British North America, stretching in N. lat. fleets defeated the French in 1692. between 45° and 47°, and in W. long. between 60°

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, popularly regarded and 61° 30'. It is separated from the peninsula of Nova Scotia by Chebucto or Chedabucto Bay and it is half a degree to the north of Cape Agulhas.

as the most southerly promontory of Africa, though the Gut of Causo, contains 3120 square miles, and The latter is merely a projection on a coast-line, has a population of 35,000. Its principal exports which diverges inconsiderably from a parallel are pine, oak, birch, maple, fish and coal. Though but the former is really the turning-point from the island produces maize and other grains, yet south to east on the voyage from Europe to it depends for its bread-stuffs chiefly on the United India. This celebrated promontory is in lat. 34° States. C. B., originally a French possession, was 22' S., and long. 18° 29'' E., being the termination taken by the English in 1745; but being subse- of Table Mountain, which, as it recedes towards quently restored to France, it was again captured in the bay of its own name, rises from the height 1758, and ceded in 1763. After having been for a time a distinct colony, it now forms part of the of loco feet above the sea to that of 3582. The

Cape (for so it is called by way of eminence) was province of Nova Scotia. The towns are Sydney, discovered and doubled by Diaz, a Portuguese naviArichat, and Port Hood, the once famous Louisbourg, stripped of its fortifications, having become gator, as early as 1486—six years before Columbus,

in aiming at the same goal by a different route, merely a village.

led the way to America. But it was only in 1497 CAPE COAST CASTLE, the chief settlement of that Vasco de Gama realised the value of Diaz's Great Britain in North or Upper Guinea, lat. 5° 5' discovery, by rounding it on his adventurous N., and long. 1° 13' W. The place, as its name im- voyage from Lisbon to Calicut. The result was not plies, is defended by a fort, or rather by three forts. merely to open a new channel for the traffic of the It has a population of 10,000. During 1858, the ex- East, but it was also to transfer trading superiority ternal trade of the entire Gold Coast, C. C. C. being from the republics of Italy to the states of Western the capital, was as follows: imports, £118,270; ex- Europe. ports, £124,394 : total, £242,664. Under the latter head, the principal articles were palm-oil, gold-dust, United Kingdom, which takes its name from the

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, a colony of the tortoise-shell, and maize.

The Portuguese, CAPE COD, properly a

narrow peninsula of promontory above mentioned. Massachusetts, which, with a length of 65 miles, in the direction of India, were comparatively inde

possessing in Brazil a more central house of call forms the south-east boundary of the great bay of pendent of Table Bay as a halting-place

. În like that state. The northeru extremity, marked by a revolving light 155 feet high above the level of the discoverers at once in India and In Brazil, must

manner the Dutch, who had supplanted the original sea, is in lat. 42° 3' 40" N., and long. 70° 14' 48" W. have felt something of the same indifference. It was,

CAPE HATTERAS, a dangerously low point of therefore, only in 1652, when they were on the very North Carolina, United States, in lat. 35° 14' N., and point of being expelled from South America, that long. 75° 30' W. It forms the eastern extremity of they founded Cape Town (q. v.), as the first settlethe insular banks of the same name, projecting ment of Europeans in Sonth Africa. The Dutch virtually into the Florida Stream, and marking the contemplated at first but little more than what spot where the coast-line abruptly turns from the they found among the Hottentots, the tending of direction of north-east to that of due north.

flocks and herds, and this would be all the more CAPE H A'Y TIEN (formerly called Cape likely to provoke and aggravate animosities and Français and Cape Henri), à seaport town, of the collisions between the intruding strangers and island of Hayti, on its north coast, in lat. 19° 40' N.,

Certainly the civilisation, such as it long. 72° 54' W. It is pleasantly situated on a

was, involved at least an average amount of small bay, partly encircled by hills, has wide and injustice and inhumanity, until, with the aid of well-paved streets, and some handsome squares.

A illusory purchase and violent occupation, it had, great portion of it, however, is in ruins, the effects before the close of the 18th c., spread, with an of the revolutionary wars at the end of last century. indefinite boundary to the north, as far to the east Safe anchorage is found within the harbour, which, as the Great Fish River, comprising within its however, is rather difficult of access. C. H. carries extreme range a population of about 20,000 whites, on a considerable trade with the United States. and an area equal to that of the British Isles. In Population stated at from 12,000 to 16,000.

1795, this dependency of Holland, threatened with CAPE HORN, or HOORN, the most southerly whelmed Holland itself

, was seized by a British

the revolutionary tide which had already overpoint of America, terminating an island of its own force on behalf of the Prince of Orange. Restored, name, in the archipelago of Tierra del Fuego. . It is in 1802, to the Dutch under the treaty of Amiens, in lat. 55° 58' 40" S., and long. 67° 16' W., having a perennially antarctic climate, and being in itself finally and permanently, by the English in 1806.

the Cape Colony was once more captured, and that merely a detached link, bare and rugged, of the The new masters of the country, inheriting, in this chain of the Andes. It was discovered by Schouten, a native of Hoorn in Holland, about 90 years later respect

, from their predecessors a ready-made feud, than the Strait of Magellan, and since then the fronted on the east the Kafirs, a warlike and course of navigation has been round the cape instead proud race, which, with the exception of pastoral

pursuits, had nothing in common with the Hottenof through the strait.

The almost inevitable results followed-a CAPE LA HAGUE, a promontory of France, normal state of insecurity and strife on the border, forming north-west extremity of the peninsula diversified by at least three actual wars. of Cotentin, in the department of Manche. , It juts twice advancing to the Kei, the colony, as a whole, out into the English Channel, opposite the island of has receded to the Keiskamma, retaining, however, Alderney, and about 16 miles north-north-west of the port of East London; while the rest of the Cherbourg, and 50 miles south of St. Alban's Head, intermediate region has been placed, as British in Dorsetshire.

Kaffraria, under the military authorities of the CAPE LA HOGUE, often confounded with Cape empire. From the source of the Keiskamma, the la Hague, is situated on the east side of the same eastern limit runs onward, as against Kaffraria

the natives.






Proper, to the Orange, which thence down to the ing winds, the north-west and the south-east. Atlantic forms the northern line—the western and Great efforts, however, are making to improve the southern confines being washed by the two adjacent harbours generally; in Table Bay, a breakwater has

been commenced. Hardly any of the ports comBut, during brief periods, the country extended mand navigable communications with the interior. further, embracing, from 1842 to 1847, Port Natal The dividing ridge runs parallel with the coast, at (see Natal) beyond Kaffraria, and, from 1848 to a distance of about 100 miles. The opposite faces 1854, what is now the Free State (q. v.) between the of this water-shed are as unlike to each other, in kind Orange and its main affluent the Vaal. Across the if not in degree, as those of the Andes. While the last-mentioned stream, too, discontented or adven- inner slope pours out its tribute exclusively towards turous settlers, almost exclusively of Dutch origin, the Orange, with its course of 1500 miles, the outer have planted, under the name of the Trans-Vaal declivity sends down numberless streams, remarkaTerritory (q. v.), an apparently prosperous republic. ble chiefly for their rapidity, at once to the sea. Of

Without reckoning the outlying liarbour in British these last, moreover, the characteristics become Kaffraria, the colony stretches in S. lat. from 28° 10' more and more conspicuous in the north-east, for in to 34° 51', and in E. long. from 16° 20' to 27° 30'- that direction the dividiny ridge rises gradually from the longest meridian, that of Cape Agulhas, being about 3000 feet, till, amid the sources of the Orange, about 450 miles, and the longest parallel, pretty it attains fully thrice that height. The streams of nearly that of the mouth of the Keiskamma, measur. the outer declivity, too, reach either ocean, not by ing about 100 more. Independently, therefore, of a regular descent, but by successive leaps, for all its offshoots, it cannot contain less than 200,000 round, to the west and south of the dividing ridge, square miles. For purposes, however, of administra- there run parallel with it two subordinate ranges, tion, as distinguished from legislation, this immense each supporting its own terrace. On these plateaus, area is divided into the Western and Eastern Prov- more particularly in the northern half of the Western inces--the point of separation on the coast being Province, there is found many an arid and irreabout midway between the Cape itself and the Keis- claimable waste, styled karoo in the indigenous kamma. Each of the two contains 11 divisions. tongue. In other localities, likewise, throughout These 22, again, are broken up, according to size, the colony, water appears to be scarce at certain into more or fewer field cornetcies; while some of seasons. Much may be done, and something has them, on the ground of populousness or extent, con- been done, to remedy the evil, both by digging and stitute two, or perhaps three, magisterial or judicial | by irrigation. Such undertakings seem to be invaludistricts. Each province, moreover, is a diocese of able; even the parched mud of the karoos, when the Church of England-Cape Town and Graham's borne down the Oliphant by inundations, is said Town, the respective capitals, being the Episcopal to rival in fertility the alluvial sediment of the

A considerable portion of the community be- Nile. long to the Dutch Presbyterian Church.

The three chains of mountains present serious imThe two provinces have, to a certain extent, dis- pediments to the opening of roads, being passable tinct administrations—the western being under the only through natural breaks or kloofs. Still many governor-in-chief, and the eastern under a lieuten- highways, generally good ones, have been laid outant-governor. The two together are under one and depending partly on tolls and partly on assessments. the same legislature--a council of 15 nominated some of them penetrate from the south coast to the members, and an assembly of 46 elected representa- Free State; while, in the direction of west and east, tives.

the principal thoroughfare carries the mail in 12 The population in 1865 was 566,168, of whom days between the metropolis and Port Natalm-soon 91,098 were Hottentots, 124,536 Kaffirs, 204,859 Eu- to be connected also by the telegraphic wires. ropeans, and 145,655 of other races. As the country The prevalent winds—the south-east in summer, from its earliest settlement in 1652 to 1795, and and the north-west in winter--mitigate each the again from the peace of Amiens in 1802 to 1806, be- rigour, whether heat or cold, of its own seasonlonged to Holland, the white inhabitants are in a and in spite of occasionally sudden and great considerable proportion of Dutch descent. To judge changes, render the temperature, as a whole, perroughly from the names of members of assembly, haps the most salubrious, as well as the most delightthe two races are probably almost equal in numbers. ful, in the world. The water-shed, again, with its Two causes have steadily been leading to this result. ascending levels, crowds, as it were, into one every While the English element has, of course, been posi- region in Europe from Scicily to Scotland. Every tively recruited by immigration from Europe, it has locality, in a measure, has its own staple production. also been relatively strengthened by that overland If the Western Province yields nearly all the wine emigration, which, almost exclusively under Dutch that is exported, the Eastern greatly preponderates impulses, has poured swarm after swarm into the in wool; while the southern shore, more especially Free State, the Trans-Vaal Territory and the colony at Plettenberg Bay and Knysna Inlet, excels in the of Natal.

growth of timber. Hydrographically, the country is, as a whole, Perhaps the best summary view of the resources decidedly superior to most parts of Africa. The and capabilities of the country may be gathered from sea-board presents several comparatively safe and the list of exported articles. These, when arranged commodious harbours. Of these, however, twom in order of value, stand thus: wool, wine, copperTable Bay in the Western Province, and Algoa Bay | ore, hides, goat-skins, sheep-skins, horses, four, in the Eastern—absorb nearly the whole-fully 97 aloes, fish, fruits, oats, bran, beans and peas, wheat, per cent.--of the foreign trade. The others are barley, and maize. The whole of the exported St. Francis Bay, in the latter division; and in the articles exhibit a small increase in value during the former, Plettenberg Bay, Knysna Inlet, Mossel Bay, last three years of authentic returns: St. Sebastian's Bay, and False Bay, on the Indian Ocean, with Saldanha Bay and St. Helena Bay on

£2,590,318 £2,814,385 £2,806,698 the Atlantic. All these, as well as East London in British Kaffraria, are used. chiefly in the coasting Within the same period the imported articles were traffic. Even for this purpose, most of them per hut slightly increased in value: haps all of them but Saldanha Bay, and a part of False Bay—are safe against only one of the prevail

£1,910,281 £2,405,409 £1,956,154









The colonial revenue had in the same time aug- | A telegraphic line from C. T. to the eastern frontier mented from £536,347 to £565,556. In 1867 the to is in progress. tal tonnage of the colony amounted to 528,230 tons,

CAPE VERD, the most westerly headland in of which 435,370 was British. In 1869 the public Africa, jutting out into the Atlantic Ocean, between debt had risen to. £1,101,650. The discovery of a the rivers Gambia and Senegal, in lat. 14° 43' N., rich gold country north of the Limpopo river, on the long. 17° 34' W. It was discovered by the Portuborders of the Transvaal Republic and Portuguese settlements, in 1868, has been fully confirmed. This guese about 1445, and is said to have derived its

name from a group of gigantic baobab-trees which new fiel í has been named the “ Victoria diggings.”

adorns its summit.

CAPE VERD ISLANDS (Ilhas Verdes), a group CAPE RIVER, properly Vaunks, taking its popu- of islands belonging to Portugal, lying in lat. 14° lar name from the proximity of its mouth to Cape 45'-17° 19' N., and long. 22° 45'—25° 25' W., Gracias a Dios, on the east reach of the Mosquito and distant about 320 miles west of the cape from shore in Central America. After a generally north which they take their name. The principal islands east course of nearly 300 miles, it enters the Caribbean Sea, about lat. 14° 59' N., and long. 83° 11' tant, Fogo, Brava, Maio, Boavista, San Nicolao,

are ten--viz., Santiago, the largest and most imporW., being navigable for a considerable distance up- San Antonio, San Vicente, San Luzia, and Sal.

There are besides four islets, barren and uninhabitCAPE ST. VINCENT, a headland forming the ed. The total area is about 1700 square miles, with south-west extremity of Portugal, in lat. 37° 2' N., a population (1857) of 85,393. The islands are long. 9° W., is celebrated on account of two naval all very mountainous, and owe their origin to the battles in which British ships were engaged, fought action of submarine volcanoes. The highest elevaoff it, one in 1693, the other in 1797. In the form- tion is reached in a volcanic peak, 9157 feet above er, Admiral Rooke, who with some 20 English and the sea, on the island of Fogo, and which is still Dutch men-of-war was convoying a fleet of some 400 active. The climate is unhealthy during the rainy merchantmen, was attacked off this point by the season. Though water is deficient, vegetation is French Admiral De Tourville, and after a running luxuriant, yielding African and southern European fight lost several ships, and 80 merchantmen. In products. Sugar, cotton, coffee, tobacco, and indigo February 1797, Sir John Jervis, with a fleet of 15 are grown, and the trade in archil, monopolised by sail, gave battle to a Spanish fleet of 27 sail of the government, has in some seasons yielded as much as line, and defeated them, capturing four ships and £24,000. Several of the European domestic animals driving the rest into Cadiz Bay, where they were thrive well. Turtles are abundant in the surroundblockaded.

ing seas, and whales also are fished by British and

American vessels. Amber is found on the coasts, CAPE TOWN, the capital of Cape Colony, takes and great quantities of salt formed by solar evaporaits name, like the colony, from the grand turning- tion is obtained from the lagunes on the shores, point between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. It faces the south-west, or best sheltered side, of Table especially on the island of Sal. The inhabitants,

who are mostly negroes, indolent but harmless,

the observatory, the lat. and long. respectively are 33o speak a corrupted form of Portuguese, called Lin

Creoula. The revenue for 1857--1858 was esti56' W., and 18° 28' 7" E. The mean temperature is mated at about £24,000, and the expenditure for 68.3° F. for the winter, 76.6° for the summer, and the same year at £31,000. The islands are under a 67•3° for the whole year. In 1849 the population governor-general, exercising both civil and military was 23,749; and now, in 1860, it cannot be much authority. The chief ports are Porto Praya, on the less than 30,000. The city, originally Dutch, island of Santiago, and Porto Grande, the best harabounds in straight lines and right angles, the bour in the whole group, on the island of San principal streets being threaded by canals.

The islands were discovered about the houses generally are flat-roofed, with terraces in middle of the 15th c. by the Portuguese, who shortly front. The castle, a regular fortification, with bas- after colonised them. tions and outworks, occupies the extreme east. Of the other public establishments, the most important

CAPE WRATH, a pyramidal promontory of unare the exchange, the college, á literary institution, rivalled wildness and grandeur, forming the northa public library, a botanic garden, a gas factory, west extremity of Scotland and of Sutherland, and several banks, various insurance companies, and running out into the Atlantic, in lat. 58° 38' N., and

It consists of gneiss, with 15 places of worship. There are two immigration long. 4° 58' 5" West. agencies--a private society for introducing juve- beds of dark hornblende rock, is intersected by comnile servants from Holland, and a public board, plex granite veins, and presents deep fissures and supported by an annual grant of £50,000, for giving tall pinnacles. From it a reef of rocks, perforated

Off free passages to certain classes of settlers from the with arches and caverns, juts out into the sea. United Kingdom. C. T. has a municipal body of 12 the cape is Stag Rock, a pillar 200 feet high. C. W. commissioners and 48 ward-masters, and it returns is 600 feet high, and there is a light-house near it, 400 4 representatives to the colonial assembly, other feet above the sea, and seen 25 miles off. From the constituencies electing only 2 each; and further, it Cape can be seen N. Rona, 50 iniles off; Hoy Head, has, since 1847, been the see of a bishop of the Orkney; the Butt of Lewis; and a grand panorama Church of England. In 1857, it had 44 registered of mountains in Sutherland. vessels, ranging from 878 tons to 13.-surpassing, CAPEFIGUE, BAPTISTE HONORÉ RAYMOND, a in this respect, all the other ports of the colony at French publicist and historian, was born, 1802, at least sevqufold. It is the neigbourhood of C. T. Marseille. He studied law at Aix, and in 1821 that produces all the genuine Constantia wine. proceeded to Paris, for the purpose of completing That wine, however, bears a very small proportion his juridical course, but soon betook himself to to the other wines. The official returns of exports journalism and anthorship. He held & post in the for 1855. stood as follows: Constantia wine, 2983 foreign office until 1848. This, however, did not gallons--£891; other wines, 613,766 gallons. In interfere with his amazing activity. , 1866 but 23,686 gallons were exported. C. T. forms contributing extensively to many of the Parisian a convenient place of rest and refreshment for journals, he has "manufactured' not less than a hunvessels on the route between Europe and India. Idred volumes of history-not, indeed, intrinsically




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