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part of the expedition which, in 1840, brought back of Silurian slates, run along the north side of the remains of Napoleon to France. His death took the county, and terminate on the east coast in St. place at Châteauroux, 31st January 1844.

| Abb’s Head, 300 feet high. The chief summitsBERVIC. CHARLES CLEMENT BALVAY, a cele- Lammer Law, Crib Law, Sayer's Law, and Clint brated French engraver, was born at Paris in

was born at Paris in Hill-are 1500 to 1600 feet high. The second May 1756. In 1790, he made himself famous by district, which is on the west, is formed by the

full-length engraving of Louis XVI from the river Leader or Lauder, and contains much fertile picture by Callet, one of the finest works of the

land, with a larger amount of moor and hill. The kind ever produced. The engravings of the Laocoon, last, between the Lammermoors and the Tweed, Regnault's Education of Achilles,' and Guido's 10 miles long and 8 broad, is a comparatively "Rape of Deianira,' also from B.'s graver, display undulating level, and forms one of the most highly equal beauty of manipulation, and fully higher cultivated districts in Britain. Hume Castle, on a power. B. died March 23, 1822.

rock, 898 feet above the sea-level, 3 miles south of BERWICK, JAMES FITZ-JAMES, DUKE OF, was

Greenlaw, is a conspicuous and picturesque object the natural son of James II., by Arabella Churchill,

over the interior of Berwickshire. Except the #ye, sister of the Duke of Marlborough. He was born

in the north-east, all the considerable streams are in 1670, in France, where he was educated, and

tributary to the Tweed; the chief are the Leader, entered the army. After serving in Hungary under

Blackadder, and Whitadder, all excellent fishingCharles of Lorraine, he returned to England

streams. The coast is rocky and bold, with no bays, shortly before the revolution of 1688, which he

ha except at Eyemouth and Coddingham. B., geologi

cally, consists of carboniferous limestone in the south, panied his father in his Irish expedition, and after

old red sandstone in the middle, and Silurian strata the death of St. Ruth, had the nominal chief com

in the north. Porphyry occurs on the coast, and mand. He next served in Flanders, under Marshal

some trap and syenite in the interior. Ironstone and Luxembourg, and afterwards under the Duke of

thin seams of coal occur, as well as gypsum, clay, Burgundy and Marshal Villeroi. In 1706, he was

and shell-marl. The prevailing soil in the valleys is created a marshal of France, and sent at the head of

loamy; that in the Merse is a deep and fertile clay, an army to Spain, where he established the throne

which has been greatly improved by thorough drainof Philip V. by the decisive victory of Almanza. For

age during the last fifty years. In no part of the this important service, he was made a grandee of

world is the science of agriculture better understood Spain, under the title of Duke of Liria and Xerica.

and exemplified than in Berwickshire. The farms are After several years of inactivity. he received the generally large, and held on nineteen years' leases command, in 1734, of an army intended to cross the

by men of spirit and intelligence. In 1855, there Rhine. While besieging Philipsburg, he was killed by

were 766 tenants who paid £10 rent and upwards.

B., though the 20th in size of the Scottish couna cannon-ball. Contemporary testimony, confirmed

ties, stands about 5th in the amount of wheat and by his military conduct, shews B. to have possessed

turnips raised. The manufactures are inconsiderable. some of the best qualities of a great commander. His defensive campaign in 1709, in Provence and

The Tweed salmon-fisheries are the most valuable in Dauphiné, against the superior force of the Duke of

the kingdom, but have declined much of late years. Savoy, has always been regarded as a triumph of 2

B. returns one member to parliament. In 1851, strategic skill. He was twice married. His song

pop. 36,297; inhabited houses, 6363; day-schools,

91, with 5838 scholars; places of Worship, 65 (29 by the first marriage succeeded to the dukedom of Liria ; his dukedom (De Fitz-james) and estates

of Established, 16 of United Presbyterian, and 15 in France passed to his children by the second

of Free Church). The chief towns are Dunse, the marriage.

largest ; Lauder, the only royal borough; Green

law, the county town; Coldstream, where General BERWICK, NORTH, a seaport town in Had-Monk first raised the Coldstream Guards: Eve. dingtonshire, at the entrance to the Firth of Forth, I mouth, the only seaport: Ayton; and Earlston, the 19 miles east-north-east of Edinburgh. Corn is Ercildóune of Thomas the Rhymer. Dunse is the exported from it, and it is frequented as a bathing- birthplace of Boston, of Dr. M‘Crie, and less cerplace. It unites with Lauder, Dunbar, Jedburgh, tainly of John Duns Scotus. Berwick-on-Tweed is and Haddington, in returning one member to par- the chief place of export for the county. The chief liament. Pop. of borough, 863; of parish, 1643. antiquities of B. are the ruins of Dryburgh Abbey, The parish includes the Bass Rock, North Berwick of Coldingham Priory, and of Fast Castle. There Law, and the ruins of Tantallon Castle. The castle are many remains of British and Roman camps and is graphically described in Scott's Marmion. It is barrows.

egular pile, two miles east of the town, on a l BERWICK-ON-TWEED. a seaport town on high rock, surrounded by the sea on three sides, with the north bank of the Tweed. near its mouth. 58 a ditch on the land-side, where there was formerly |

erty miles east-south-east from Edinburgh. It is the a drawbridge. It was a stronghold of the Douglas family.

frontier town of England and Scotland, and with its N. Berwick Law is a conical hill of an ele

liberties, comprising an area of about 8 square ntiles, vation of 940 feet, on the south, close to the town.

used to form a county by itself, separate from BE'RWICKSHIRE, a maritime and border England and Scotland; and in acts of parliament county in the south-east extremity of Scotland, applicable to England and Wales, the good town bounded N. by Haddington; W. by Mid-Lothian of Berwick-upon-Tweed' was always expressly and Roxburgh; S. and S.E. by Roxburgh and added. But this practice has been abolished, and the Tweed, which latter separates it from Nor- B., with its liberties, is now considered as forming thumberland and Durham; È. by the municipality | part of the county of Northumberland. The town of Berwick-upon-Tweed and the German Ocean. is, in general, well built, but has on the whole a It has an area of about 450 square miles, of decayed appearance. The Tweed is here spanned which about one half are under cultivation. B. by an old stone-bridge of 15 arches, and 924 feet is hilly in the north and west, and slopes to the long, and by the magnificent viaduct which connects south and east. It is naturally divided into three the York and Berwick Railway with the North districts-Lammermoor, Lauderdale, and the Merse. British Railway to Edinburgh. The old fortificaThe first, on the north, consists chiefly of high tions still girdle the town. The trade and shipping bleak moorlands. The Lammermoor hills, consisting | are considerable, the chief exports being salmon, corn,


wool, coal, &c. The Tweed Salmon-fishery is less | preparatory natural sciences, especially chemistry. productive than formerly. Coal-mines exist near the After being some time employed in medical practice town. At Tweedmouth, there are several large iron and lecturing, he was appointed (1806) lecturer on foundries for the manufacture of steam-engines and chemistry in the Military Academy of Stockholm, mill-machinery. There are also manufactures of sail and, in the following year, professor of medicine and cloth, cordage, and linens. B. has a free grammar | pharmacy. He was shortly after chosen president of school, and several other free schools. The Berwick- the Stockholm Academy of Sciences; and from 1818 shire Naturalists' Club, a very useful society, meets till his death, 7th August 1848, held the office of here. Pop. of town and parish (1871), 13,231; of perpetual secretary. The king raised him to the parliamentary borough, including Tweedmouth and rank of baron; other honours from learned societies Spittal (a village and watering-place), about 15,000. were conferred on him ; and the directors of the B. returns two members to parliament, and from the Swedish Ironworks, in consideration of the value of corrupt practices which have long prevailed at his researches in their particular branch of industry, elections, the town has acquired an unenviable bestowed on him a pension for life. In 1838, he notoriety. In 1857, B. had 40 ships belonging was made a senator; but he took little part in to the port, 2806 tons. In 1858, 675 vessels of politics. The field of his activity lay in his labor42,710 tons entered and cleared the port. The past atory, where he acquired a name of which his history of B. is full of interest, especially in regard country is justly proud. His services to chemistry to the Border wars. Its authentic records begin are too vast to be described here. The science of with the reign of Alexander I., in the 12th c., chemistry, as at present organized, rests in a great when it belonged to the Scottish realm, and was measure upon the discoveries and views of B., one of the principal seaports in the kingdom. It although in not a few points he has been controis described by a writer of the year 1296 as being verted, or found wrong. His multiplied and accurate ' for commerce and population another Alexandria.' analyses established the laws of combination on From that period it was frequently taken and an incontrovertible basis ; and to him we owe the retaken by the English and the Scotch, its frontier system of chemical symbols. He discovered the position making it an important possession to either elements selenium and thorium, and first exhibited power. In 1482 it came finally into the possession calcium, barium, strontium, columbium or tantalum, of England, and is now essentially English in its silicium, and zirconium, in the metallic form. The usages, both civil and ecclesiastical.

blowpipe in the hands of B. became a powerful BE'RYL, a mineral which scarcely differs except instrument in the analysis of inorganic substances. in colour from Emerald (9. v.), never exhibiting the

The, multitude and accuracy of his researches in bright rich green which characterises that gem, but every branch of chemical inquiry make it difficult colourless, yellowish, greenish-yellow, or blue. The to conceive how one man could have accomplished finer varieties, which are transparent and of beau- so much. Of his numerous writings, the most tiful colour, are distinguished as Precious B., and important is his Lärebok į Kemien (Text-book of are sometimes called Aquamarine. These occur in Chemistry, 3 vols., Stock. 1808–1818), which has crystals similar in form to those of emerald ; but the since passed through five large editions, on each regular hexagonal prism is more frequently modified occasion being almost wholly rewritten. The best by truncation on the angles or edges, acumination,

known edition is that published in 8 vols. at Brussels &c. The prisms are often long. Their sides are in 1835. The book has been translated into every longitudinally striated, often deeply so; but the European language. His essay On the Use of the

Blowpipe exhausts the subjcct, while his Annual Reports on the Progress of Physics, Chemistry, and Mineralogy, undertaken at the request of the Academy of Sciences in 1822, have proved very valuable to science. Scarcely less so have been the Memoirs Relative to Physics, Chemistry, and Mineralogy, of which he was one of the originators and conductors, and to which, during the twelve years they were published, from 1806 to 1818, he contributed forty-seven original papers.

BESANÇON (Vesontio), capital of the French department of Doubs, and formerly capital of Franche

Comté, is situated on the river Doubs, which Beryl, in its primary form.

divides it into two parts, about 45 miles east of

Dijon. Lat. 47° 14' N., long. 6° 3' E. It was strongly truncating or terminating planes are smooth. The but irregularly fortified by Vauban, the citadel being coarser varieties of B. (Common B.) are also found considered impregnable. Since that time, the forticrystallised, but often massive. B. occurs chiefly in fications have been extended and strengthened, and veins that traverse granite or gneiss, or imbedded B. is now considered one of the strongest military in granite; sometimes it is found in alluvial soils positions in Europe. It was the ancient Vesontio, formed from such rocks. Common B. is found in a Besontium or Visontium, and was a considerable number of places in Europe, and sometimes of place even in the time of Cæsar, who, in 58 B. C., great size in the United States. The mountains of expelled from Vesontio the Sequani, and, in the Aberdeenshire, and those of Mourne in Ireland, neighbourhood of the city, gained a victory over yield Precious B., which is also found in several Ariovistus. It then became an important Roman parts of the continent of Europe and of New Eng. military station. In modern times, after undergoing land, but principally in Brazil and Siberia. It is

many changes, it finally came into the possession much valued as a precious stone, although not so of France in 1674. Several streets and places in much as the emerald.

B. still bear old Roman names; and in the neighBERZE'LIUS, JOHANN JACOB, Baron, one of the bourhood are found ruins of a triumphal arch greatest of recent chemists, was born at Westerlösa, of Aurelianus, an aqueduct, an amphitheatre, and in East Gothland, Sweden, 20th August 1779. I a theatre which must have been large enough to While studying for the medical profession at the contain 20,000 spectators. Among the modern university of Upsala, he was more attracted by the structures, the Cathedral and the churches of St.

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John and the Magdalen, with the Prefecture, and the Constantinople, B. visited Germany, and at the diets half-Gothic, half-Roman palace of Cardinal Grand- of Nuremberg, Worms, and Vienna, endeavoured to vella, are most remarkable. B. has considerable promote a crusade against the Turks. In philomanufactures, chiefly watches (of which more than sophy, he professed to be a follower of Plato, but 60,000 are made annually), porcelain, carpets, iron- without depreciation of Aristotle. His writings, wire, and beer, and is an important entrepôt for the consisting of Latin translations of Greek authors, produce of part of Switzerland and the south of defensive treatises on the Platonic philosophy, with France. 600,000 bottles of Seltzer-water are annually discourses and letters, have never been published manufactured. Pop. 41,000.

collectively. Twice he was nearly elected pope; BESA'NTS, or BEZA'NTS, circular pieces of

but his partiality for the heathen philosophy

was probably regarded as some disqualification bullion, generally gold, without any impression, supposed to represent the old coinage of Byzantium,

by the sacred college. B. died at Ravenna, brought home by the Crusaders, and hence of frequent :

* November 19, 1472, leaving his collection of 600 occurrence as heraldic charges. B. are generally

invaluable Greek MSS. to the St. Mark's Library,

Venice. introduced into the arms of banks, and also into those of individuals who have been specially con- BESSEL, FRIEDRICH WILHELM, one of the most nected with money. Similar figures. when not distinguished of modern astronomers, was born at coloured or (gold), or argent (silver), are known in Minden, July 22, 1784. In 1806 he was, on the heraldry by the general term of roundels. A recommendation of Olbers, whom he had greatly bezanty cross, is a cross composed of B.; and assisted by his remarkable expertness in calcubezanty, or bezantée, is the term used when the lation, appointed assistant to Schröter at Lilienshield, or any particular charge, is strewed with

thal. In 1810, he published his researches on besants.

the orbit of the great comet of 1808, which gained for him the Lalande prize of the Paris

Academy of Sciences. BESSARA'BIA, à province in the south-west of appointed director of the new observatory to be

In the same year he was Russia, in lat. 44° 45'--48° 40' N., and long. 26° 35'—

erected by the king of Prussia at Königsberg; 30° 30' E. Area, 17,000 square miles (about 1000

and repairing thither immediately, superintended square miles were ceded to Turkey in 1856), with

the erection and the mounting of the instruments. å population, in 1864, of 1,026,346, composed of Rus. The establishment was completed in three years. sians, Poles, Wallachians, Moldavians, Bulgarians, | In 1818. B. published his Fundamenta. Astronomice Greeks, Armenians, Jews, Germans, and Tatars, with

|--giving the results of Bradley's Greenwich obsera sprinkling of Gipsies. The Dniester flows along the wa

vations-a work upon which he had been engaged whole of its northern and eastern boundaries; the for eleven vears. This work is one of the highest Pruth separates it from Moldavia on the west ; and value

| value to astronomers. It is described by a comit has the Danube on the south. B. is also inter

F | petent authority as having laid the foundations of sected by several considerable streams; which are, the

are the principal improvements which have been made however, much reduced by the summer heat. The in

ne in astronomy since the date of its publication. In climate is, on the whole, mild and salubrious. In the 183

the 1830, appeared his Tabulce Regiomontance, forming north-west, the country is traversed by offshoots from

m a kind of supplement to the above work. Besides

k in the Transylvanian branch of the Carpathian Moun- |

numerous papers of an important character (nearly tains, and mostly covered with wood. Generally, 200 in ail). scattered through various scientific however, B. is flat and fertile ; but for want of pro- l journals, he also published an inquiry on the per cultivation, the land does not yield the rich "seconds pendulum for Berlin (1828, and again in returns it is capable of doing. Wheat, barley, 1837), Ástronomical Researches (2 vols., Königsb. and millet are raised to some extent, as well as

1841-1842). His paper on the precession of the hemp, flax, and tobacco, fruit and wine ; but the

equinoxes gained him the prize of the Berlin Acabreeding of cattle forms the chief business of the

demy. After a series of three years' observations, inhabitants; consequently, the greater part of the

he succeeded in determining the annual parallax land is in pasturage. The lakes in the district of lof the fixed star 61 Cvonio(see FIXED STARS

of the fixed star 61. Cygni (see Fixed Stars), an B., called the Budjak, yield immense quantities of achievement honourable not only as the first of its salt; which, together with cattle, wool, tallow, and

kind, but for the marvellous skill and patience cheese, form the principal articles of export. The

necessary for its accomplishment. In the years manufacturing industry of B. is confined almost

1824-1833, B. made a series of 75,011 observaentirely to leather, soap, and candles. B., which tions in 536 sittings, and completed a catalogue formerly belonged to Turkey, was ceded to Russia of stars (extending to the ninth magnitude) within in 1812 by the treaty of Bucharest.

the zone from 150°N. to 15o S. declination. These BESSA'RION, JOHANNES, or Basilius, born at were afterwards reduced by Weisse. In one of Trebizond, on the Black Sea, 1395, is remembered as his lectures, delivered at Königsberg in 1840, B. one of the earliest of those scholars who, in the 15th indicated the existence of the new planet after C., transplanted Greek literature and philosophy wards discovered by Le Verrier, and named Nepinto the west, and rescued the mind of Christendom tune; and but for the death of a favourite son, he from the trammels of scholasticism. B. imbibed his in all probability would have undertaken the inveslove of Plato's writings from his tutor, Gemistus tigation of the problem. B.'s Popular Lectures on Pletho. As Bishop of Nicæa, B. accompanied the Astronomy, given at Königsberg, 1832–1844, were Greek emperor, John Palæologus, to Italy; and edited by his friend Schumacher, and publishied at

between the Greek and the Romish Churches, which, took place March 7, 1846. All scientific associahowever, was of short duration. Soon afterwards, tions, both on the continent and in England, were he joined the Romish Church, but always retained a | eager to confer honour on themselves by enrolling glowing love of his native land. He was made B. as one of their members. He was a thoroughly cardinal by Pope Eugene IV. in 1439. Ten years practical man of science, never allowing himself to after, Nicholas V. created him Cardinal-bishop of be carried away by any theory, however inviting, Sabina, and in the same year Bishop of Frascati. and particularly remarkable for the precision of his For five years, also, he discharged the duties calculations, being satisfied with nothing less than of papal legate at Bologna. After the fall of perfect exactness,


BESSEMER'S PROCESS FOR REFINING | phorus is oxidised into phosphoric acid, and in IRON. In the years 1856 and 1857, the iron world greater part is left still in the iron. After the was startled by the announcement of a new and blast has been on for fifteen or twenty minutes, rapid process of purifying cast or pig iron, and the jets of flame which issue from the molten mass obtaining therefrom bar or malleable iron, and steel. elongate very much, and continue so for five or six The patentee, Mr. Bessemer, takes the liquid iron minutes, when they subside by degrees, till they

as it flows from the almost cease; and in thirty-five minutes from the
blast-furnace, receives commencement, the process is complete. During
it in a large covered the progress of the operation, a copious discharge
ladle (see fig.) made of of slag takes place, which mostly remains as a scum
malleable iron, lined on the surface of the pure iron. The tap-hole in the
with loam or clay, and crucible being unstopped by driving an iron rod
inserts in the molten into the clay-stopper, the liquid iron is run into
mass a fire-clay pipe, a mould or founder's ladle. For castings which
through which air is require much carbon in the iron, Bessemer first
driven with great refines the iron by the above operation, and then
force. In 1869 he thrusts into the molten mass some wood, bituminous
patented his method shale, carbonaceous matters in general, or a stream
of conducting the pro- of carburetted hydrogen, till the requisite amount
cess under pressure, of carbon is obtained. Bessemer likewise lays claim
The oxygen of the air, to the introduction of dry carbonate of soda and
or that of the nitrates dry carbonate of potash into the molten iron by
introduced, combines means of the air-blast, whereby the silica is more
with the carbon and easily removed, and a slag formed.
other impurities, and Theoretically, the process of Bessemer is a correct

carries these rapidly one. By the older and ordinary methods the imaway. The ladle being tilted round, the half-purified purities were only slowly carried off, because air iron is then allowed to flow into a shallow iron trough, was only sparingly admitted to the iron; but where it cools and becomes fine metal. This part of without altering the agent which accomplishes the the operation is the equivalent of the ordinary finery purification, Bessemer expedites the process by furnace. The plate of fine metal is now broken in thrusting air in great abundance through the impure pieces, and introduced into a reverberatory or puddling iron. Practically, however, it does not as yet seem furnace, somewhat similar in shape to that ordinarily possible by Bessemer's process to burn away the employed, but pierced with a number of openings impurities, without at the same time oxidising at each side, through which fire-clay nozzles are or wasting much good iron. It is highly probable inserted, and air-hot or cold-driven into or upon that the practical skill of our ironmasters will be the iron, when it becomes molten. Steam is likewise found sufficient to surmount this difficulty, and introduced, especially at the commencement of the that means will be discovered of admitting air in process. The air being thus brought intimately such minimum quantity, and so regulated, that, in contact with the half-purified iron, the remaining while it burns away the impurities, it will not be impurities are rapidly carried away. Where great allowed to proceed so far as to burn the iron itself. purity is required, Bessemer recommends that the The present system of refining and puddling iron spent gases from the fire-grate of the puddling. | is notoriously a primitive, time-devouring, and furnace, which often contain sulphurous acid, stationary one ; and any inquiry having in view should not be allowed to come in contact with the the shortening of the number of hours required, iron; and to obviate this contamination, the iron must be of advantage at all times. The process of is enclosed in retorts similar to those used at a Bessemer is far from being a perfect one, but it is gaswork, and the air forced through the molten a step in the right direction, which will doubtless metal within the retorts.

be carried further; and Bessemer ought to receive Bessemer also suggested that the process of the thanks of the iron world for having given impetus refining pig or crude iron should be accomplished to thought on the subject. by a single operation. For this purpose, an air- BESSIÈRES, JEAN BAPTISTE, Duke of Istria, furnace is employed, in which there is placed a and Marshal of the French Empire, was born at fire-clay or black-lead crucible, capable of hold- Preissac, in the department of Lot, August 1768. ing, when three-fourths full, about seven cwt. of After serving for a short time in the constitumolten iron. Prior to the introduction of the tional guard of Louis XVI., in November 1792, he metal, the crucible is surrounded by fuel ; . and entered the army of the Pyrences as a private when the vessel bas attained a bright-red heat, soldier. In less than two years, he had attained the the iron is run in by a funnel inserted at the upper rank of captain, and passing into the Army of Italy, part of the crucible, and thereafter the tube con- he distinguished himself greatly in the battles of veying the blast is thrust in. The air, or air and Roveredo and Rivoli. Having been made chief of steam, act on the impure iron. The free oxygen a brigade in 1798, he in that year accompanied carries off the carbon as carbonic acid, and the Bonaparte to Egypt, and made himself conspicuous water acting upon the iron is decomposed; its at the siege of St. Jean d'Acre, and at the battle of hydrogen is set free, and the oxygen combining Aboukir. Afterwards, he took a prominent part in with the iron forms oxide of iron; which oxide is the battles of Marengo, Olmütz, Austerlitz, Jena, again decomposed by the carbon uniting with the Friedland, and Eylau ; and within five years (from oxygen to form carbonic oxide, and liberating the 1800 to 1805), he was made successively general of iron in the metallic condition. Besides the changes brigade, general of division, and marshal of France. enumerated, a large amount of iron is converted For his gallant behaviour in Spain, he was, in 1809, into oxide of iron by the excess of oxygen thrust created Duke of Istria In the Russian campaign, in. The sulphur present as impurity is burned he commanded the cavalry of the Guard, and during away in part as sulphurous acid, by uniting with the disastrous retreat from Moscow, the services he the oxygen of the air, and is partly acted on rendered were of the utmost importance. In 1813, by the hydrogen derived from the steam, and he received the command of the whole of the French carried off as sulphuretted hydrogen. The phos- cavalry. On the morning of the battle of Lützen,



while leading on foot the tirailleurs to reconnoitre manufactures of linen, leather, and earthenware. Pop. the field from the defile of Rippach, he fell mortally | between 4000 and 5000. wounded by a bullet. The news of his death was BE'TEL, BE'TLE. or PAWN. a narcotic stim. kept concealed from the army throughout the day.,

ulant, much used in the east, and particularly by Bonaparte lost in B. one of his ablest officers and

all the tribes of the Malay race. It consists of a his most faithful friend.

leaf of one or other of certain species of pepper, BESTIAIRES (Fr.), the name given to a class of

to which the name of betel-pepper is indiscrimwritten books of great popularity in the middle

inately applied, plucked green, spread over with ages, describing all the animals of creation, real moist

real moistened quick-lime (chunam) generally procured or fabled. and generally illustrated by drawings. by calcination of shells, and wrapped around a few They were most in fashion during the 11th, 12th, scrapings of the areca-nut (see ARECA), sometimes and 13th c. They served as encyclopædias of the

f the called the betel-nut, and also known as Pinang. zoology of those ages, but they had also another | This is put into the mouth and chewed. It causes use. The symbolism which was then so much in giddiness in persons unaccustomed to it, excoriates vogue fastened spiritual meanings upon the several

the mouth, and deadens for a time the sense of animals, until every quality of good or evil in the

taste. It is so burning, that Europeans do not soul of man had its type in the brute world. It is readily become habituated to it, but the consumpin this was to the B. that we must look for explana- tion in the East Indies is prodigious. Men and tion of the strange, grotesque creatures which are women, young and old, indulge in it from morning found sculptured on the churches and other build- to night. The use of it is so general as to have ings of the middle ages. There were B. both in become matter of etiquette; a Malay scarcely goes prose and in verse, in Latin and in the vernacular. A out without his betel-box, which one presents to few sentences from Le Bestiaire Divin de Guillaume,

another as Europeans do their snuff-boxes. The Clerc de Normandie, Trouvère du XIII Siècle (Caen

chewing of B. is a practice of great antiquity, 1852), may help to give some notion of the class of

and can certainly be traced back to at least the works of which it is a fair example. The unicorn,'

5th C. B. C. It gives a red colour to the saliva, so he writes, 'has but one horn in the middle of its

that the lips and teeth appear covered with blood; forehead. It is the only animal that ventures to

the lips and teeth are also blackened by its habitual attack the slenkanti and sharn is the nail of its use, and the teeth are destroyed, so that men of foot, that with one blow it rips up the belly of that

twenty-five years of age are often quite toothless. most terrible of all beasts. The hunters can catch the

Whether the use of B. is to be regarded as having unicorn only by placing a young virgin in the forest any advantages except the mere pleasure afforded which it haunts. No sooner does this marvellous

to those who have acquired the habit of it, to counanimal descry the damsel, than it runs towards her, terb

terbalance its obvious disadvantages, is a question lies down at her feet, and so suffers itself to be taken upon which difference of opinion subsists. Some by the hunters. The unicorn represents our Lord have represented it as benencially promoting the Jesus Christ, who, taking our humanity upon him in secretion of saliva, strengthening the digestive the Virgin's womb, was betrayed by the wicked Jews, powers, and warding off the attacks of fever: whilst and delivered into the hands of Pilate. Its own horn others pronounce against it an ungualified condemsignifies the gospel truth, that Christ is one with the nation. Sir James Emerson Tennent, in his valuable Father,' &c.

work on Ceylon, recently published, expresses the

opinion that it is advantageous to a people of whose BESTUSCHEW, ALEXANDER, a Russian novelist, ordinary food flesh forms no part, and that it is at born about 1795, was captain in a dragoon regiment, once the antacid, the tonic, and the carminative and adjutant to Alexander, Duke of Würtemberg. / which they require. Having been involved with his friend Rylejew in The name B. is often given to the species of the conspiracy of 1825, he was degraded to the pepper of which the leaves are ordinarily chewed in ranks, and exiled to Yakutzk, but after long entreaty, the manner just described, which are also called permitted to enter the army of the Caucasus as a B.-PEPPER or Pawn. Some of them are very extenprivate iu 1830. In June 1837, he fell in a skirmish sively cultivated, particularly Chavica Betle, C. with the as yet unconquered mountaineers. Two Siraboa, and C.' Malamiri, climbing shrubs with years before his exile he, together with his friend leathery leaves, which are heart-shaped in the first Rylejew, who was executed in 1825, had published and second of these species, and oblong in the third. the first Russian almanac, The Pole Star. His later they are trained to poles, trellises, or the stems of works, consisting chiefly of novels and sketches palms, and require much beat with moisture and written under the name of Cossack Marlinski, bore shade; upon which account, in the north of India, the impress of his own life and adventures in the where the climate would not otherwise be suitable. Caucasus. They excell in depicting the wilder they are cultivated with great attention in low sheds, aspects of nature and the excitements of a soldier's poles being placed for their support at a few feet life, but fail in the delineation of character, and are apart. Hooker mentions in his Himalayan Journal, often exaggerated, and sometimes absurd. His that these sheds are much infested by dangerous principal works are the tale of Mullah Nur, and snakes, and that lives are therefore not unfrequently the romance of Ammalath Beg, which last relates the lost in the cultivation of betel.--The genus Chavica treachery ot' a Circassian chief, and gives interesting is one of those into which the old genus Piper (see pictures of the scenery of the Caucasus. Several of PEPPER) has recently been divided. The requisite his novels were translated into German by Seebach

qualities of B. are probably found in the leaves of (Leipsic, 1837), and his collective works appeared

numerous species not only of this but of other genera at St. Petersburg in 1840, under the name of

of the same family. The leaf of the Ava (q. v.) is Marlinski's Tales. His three brothers were impli

sometimes used. cated in the military conspiracy of 1825, and hanged by the special order of the emperor.

BE'THANY, meaning a "boat-house;' called

• Lazariyeh,' or Town of Lazarus,' by the natives BETA'NZOS (anciently Brigantium Flavium), a of Palestine, in reference to the event narrated in town of Spain, province of Corunna, 10 miles south- Scripture. It is a retired spot, beautifully situated east of the city of the same name. Ancient granite on the southern Slope of the Mount of Olives, 3 miles gateways still defend its narrow streets. It has from Jerusalem, with a population of about 500,

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