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principally Latins. There is nothing remarkable / which encloses the supposed manger, &c., is a about the village except some ruins, among which large square building, more resembling a fortress are some which are said to have been the house than the quiet habitation of the recluse, was built of Martha and Mary, and the cave or grave of by the Empress Helena, 327 A.D., but destroyed Lazarus, the descent into which is effected by 26 by the Moslems in 1236, and, it is supposed, steps cut in the solid rock, leading to a small restored by the Crusaders. Within it is the chamber, about 5 feet square, also excavated. The Church of the Nativity, which, like and in conappearance of the cave certainly corresponds with nection with the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at what is said about it in Scripture— It was a Jerusalem, is subdivided among the Latins, Greeks, cave, and a stone lay upon it' (St. John xi. 38). and Armenians, each community having a sepaNear to the cave are the ruins of a fort built by rate portion of the edifice for devotional purposes. Queen Melisinda in 1132, to protect the nunnery The church is built in the form of a cross; the founded by her in honour of Martha and Mary. nave, which is by far the finest part of the building, BETHEL, called Betein by the natives, about 10 |
belongs to the Armenians, and is supported by 48
| beautiful Corinthian columns of solid granite, each miles from Jerusalem, mentioned in Scripture as the scene of Jacob's dream. Here also Abraham pitched
between 2 and 3 feet in thickness, and about 17 in huis tent. Now a heap of ruins, almost entirely)
height. The other portions of the church, forming deserted, or only inhabited by a few straggling
the arms of the cross, are walled up. At the further
end of that section, which forms the head of the Arabs.
cross, and on the threshold, is a sculptured marble BETHELL, Sir RICHARD, an eminent lawyer, star, which the Bethlehemites say covers the central born at Bradford, Wiltshire, in 1800, son of a point of the earth! Here a long intricate passage physician at Bristol. From Bristol Grammar School descends to the crypt below, where the blessed he went, at the age of 14, to Wadham College, Virgin is said to have been delivered. The walls of Oxford, where he was first class in classics, and the chamber are hung with draperies of the gavest second class in mathematics, and took his degree colours : and a silver star, with the words. " Hic de of B.A. at the early age of 18. After being a virgine Maria Jesus Christus natus est,' marks the private tutor at Oxford, he studied law, and was spot of the nativity. The manger stands in a low called to the bar at the Middle Temple in November | recess cut in the rock, a few feet from this star, 1823. In 1840, he was made a Queen's counsel.
The other objects of interest in the church are Elected, in April 1851, M.P. for Aylesbury, on the the chapel and tomb of St. Jerome, who became a formation of the Aberdeen ministry in December monk of this convent towards the end of the 4th c.: 1852, he was named Solicitor-general, and shortly the chapel and tomb of Santa Paula, a Roman lady, after knighted. From November 1856 to March and the founder of several nunneries at Bethlehem; 1858 he was Attorney-general. For several years the tomb of St. Eudosia; and the pit into which it he was Vice-chancellor of the county Palatine of is supposed the bodies of the murdered innocents Lancaster, and standing counsel to the university | were cast. B. is under the jurisdiction of the of Oxford. He has also been conspicuous for his pasha of Jerusalem. The Bethlehemites chiefly exertions in the cause of law reform, in improving gain their subsistence by the manufacture and sale the system of education for the bar, and in abolish- of crucifixes, beads. boxes, shells, &c., of mothering the ecclesiastical courts, and facilitating the of-pearl and olive-wood. Much wine is made at transfer of land.
| B. which is considered all over Palestine next best BETHESDA, POOL OF, meaning · House of Pity.' to the Lebanon wine. The scene of Christ's cure of the impotent man (St. BETHLEHEM is the name of the chief settleJohn v. 2-9), and resort of the “impotent, blind, I ment of Moravians or United Brethren in Pennhalt, and withered,' once filled with water, which
sylvania, U. S. Pop. in 1870, 8068. an angel went down at certain seasons and troubled,'
BETHLEHEMITES, or BETHLEHEMITE is now dry and used as a deposit for dirt and rubbish. It is situated within the gates of Jerusalem, near
BROTHERS, the name of an order of monks at the St. Stephen's gate and the Temple of Omar ;
Cambridge in the 13th c. ; also of an order founded ineasures 460 feet in length, by 130 in breadth, and
in Guatemala, 1673. The followers of Jerome Huss
were styled B., from Bethlehem church in Prague, 75 in depth.
where their leader preached. BETHLEHEM, or BEIT-LAHAM, meaning | BESTINAL GREEN an eastern suburb of · House of Bread,' celebrated in Scripture as the
London, in Middlesex, including Victoria Park. birthplace of our blessed Saviour, and of King David, is now a small unwalled village, situated at
Poj. 90,192, many being silk-weavers. . it distance of 5 miles south of Jerusalem. The
BETHSAI'DA, on the lake of Galilee, mentioned population, about 3000 souls, is wholly Christian--in Scripture as the city of Peter and Andrew and that is, Latin, Greek, and Armenian. The village Philip, now a heap of ruins almost overgrown with is situated in the centre of a most interesting grass. country; and the roof of the Latin monastery--the BETHSHE'MESH (* House of the Sun,' or 'Sun only public building of any importance, enclosing Town;' modern name, Ain-esh-Shems, Fountain of the cave which is the alleged place of our Lord's the Sun,' now distinguishable by neither house nor nativity-commands a beautiful and extensive view fountain from which it was likely to derive its of the surrounding country. In the distance, east, name), a ruined city of Palestine, 15 miles westare the mountains of Moab and the plains of the south-west of Jerusalem, finely situated on the point Jordan; south, stands the hill of Tekoah, familiar of a low ridge, commanding an extensive view of as the scene of the pastoral life of the prophet the country, rendered interesting by the exploits of Amos ; beyond, and rather more to the east, lies the Samson. B. was a sacerdotal city belonging to the wilderness of Engedi, to which David retreated tribe of Judah, bordering alike on the possessions of for the purpose of concealing himself against the Dan and of the Philistines, and fixed by Eusebius pursuit of Saul, and where the allied armies of the ten Roman miles from Eleutheropolis, on the NicoAmorites, Moabites, and others, encamped when polis road. It is interesting as the place where the they came forth against Jehoshaphat; north, is the Ark of the Lord first rested, after the Philistines road to Jerusalem, with the mountains of Judea had sent it back (1 Sam. vi.). One of Solomon's and Rachel's tomb. The Convent of the Nativity, twelve purveyors resided at B., where also was
fought the battle between Judah and Israel, in axe that the promoter of the English Reformation which Jehoash captured Amaziah (2 Kings xiv. 11, extinguished his marriage with Anne Boleyne. He 13). B. was taken by the Philistines during the first carried her into the Ecclesiastical Court, and reign of Ahaz, and from that time disappears from there obtained a sentence, on the ground of her sacred history.
alleged precontract with Northumberland.' The BETHUNE, a town of France. in the depart- ' aggrieved party, since the 26 Geo. II., has been ment Pas-de-Calais, situated on a rock overlooking left to the only remedy of an action for breach of the river Brette, and the canals of Lawe and Aire, promise. In Scotland, there is the same mode 16 miles north-north-west of Arras. It is stronglý i of redress consequent on a refusal to proceed to fortified, part of the works and the citadel having matrimony ; but in that country, where the B. been constructed by Vauban. It has manuface or engagement can be shewn to have been a clear, tures of linen and cloth, and a considerable trade free, and deliberate present consent on the part in the agricultural produce of the surrounding of both the man and woman to form the relationcountry. Taken by the French in 1645. it was ship of husband and wife, such a contract may be retaken by the allies in 1710, but was restored to enforced against the recusant party; and indeed it France by the treaty of Utrecht. The first artesian constitutes marriage itself. See MARRIAGE, BREACH wells are said to have been bored here. Pop. 7273. OF PROMISE TO MARRY, HUSBAND AND WIFE.
BE'TICK, or BE'TIK, on the river Oxus, Cen- ! BETTERTON, Thomas, a celebrated actor, for tral Asia, one of the greatest ferries between Persia about half a century the chief ornament of the Engand Turkistan.' Lieutenant Burnes, who in 1834 lish stage, was born in London, 1635, and died there published an account of his travels in Central Asia, in 1710. The best contemporary judges, such as says the Oxus is here 650 yards broad and 25 to 29 Addison, Cibber, &c., bear admiring witness to his feet deep.
dramatic powers, which overcame the natural disBEʼTJUANS, or BECHUANAS, the name of
advantages of a low voice, small eyes, and an an extensive nation of Southern Africa, occupying
ungainly figure. His private character was highly the country between 23° and 29° E. long., and
estimable, cheerful, modest, and generous. After a extending from 28° S. lat. northward beyond the
retirement of many years, it became known that tropic of Capricorn The B. are generally of a
his circumstances were very straitened, and it was peaceful, indeed cowardly disposition, and are
| determined to give him a public benefit. On the divided into mary tribes under the government
6th April 1709, the spirited veteran (then in his of chiefs who exercise a kind of patriarchal
mohaj | 74th year) appeared with immense éclat in the authority over thom. According to Dr. Livingstone,
youthful part of Valentine in Congreve's Love for the different tribes take their names from certain
| Love. He acted several times again. Mrs. B. took animals, “shewing probably that in former times
the same rank among contemporary actresses as her they were addicted to animal worship. The term
husband did among actors. Bakatla means, “they of the monkey' ; " Bakuena, / BETTING, or WAGERING, is an inveterate " they of the alligator ; " Batlápi, i they of the practice of the English, which is exemplified in fish ;” each tribe having a superstitious dread almost all classes of society, but more particularly of the animal after which it is called. They also in relation to horse-racing; bets as to which will be use the word “bina,” to dance, in reference to the the winning horse at a particular race, being entered custom of thus naming themselves, so that when you into by the highest as well as the lowest of the wish to ascertain what tribe they belong to, you people. Sanctioned by fashion, betting on horses is sav, “What do you dance?” It would seem as if carried on to so ruinous an extent in the metropolis, that hard been part of the worship of old. Many that the legislature has interfered to check the evil. tribes formerly existing are extinct, as is evident The haunts of betters, called BETTING-HOUses, are from names that have now no living representatives. suppressed by the 16 and 17 Vict. c. 119. The act The B. have a vague notion of a Supreme Being, but declares them to be a common nuisance, and conno intelligent idea of his attributes. Dr, Livingstone trary to law, and prohibits them under very severe describes the tribe to which he attached himself penalties. But it provides that its enactments shall
the Bakuena or Bakwains who are favourable not extend to stakes or deposit due to the winner specimens of the nation, as generally slow 'in of any race, or lawful sport, game, or exercise. The comiug to a decision on religious subjects ; but in act does not extend to Scotland ; but see GAMING. questions affecting their worldly affairs they are l BETTO'LA, a town of Italy, in the duchy of keenly alive to their own interests. In all agri- Parma, about 20 miles south-west of Piacenza. It cultural matters they are very acute, exhibiting a is situated on the Nure, in a fertile but only partially wonderful knowledge of the properties of the soil, cultivated district. Pop. 6600. as well as of the nature and habits of animals.
BETULA. See Birch. They have a superstitious reverence for a class of impostors calling themselves 'rain-doctors,' who |
BETULACEÆ, or BETULI'NEÆ. See AMENprofess to be able to bring down rain in dry seasons TACEÆ and Birch. by a certain specific, composed of all kinds of BE'TWAH, a river of India, which, after a northdisgusting animal and vegetable substances. One east course of 340 miles, joins the Jumpa on the peculiarity of the B. is their inability to build their right, about 30 miles to the east-south-east of Calpee. houses square; all erections take a circular form. It rises in the Vindhya Mountains, which, uniting
BETROTHMENT, a mutual engagement by a the West and the East Ghauts at their northern man and woman with a view to marriage. This extremities, form the dividing ridge between the anciently consisted in the interchange of rings, basins of the Nerbudda and the Ganges. It runs kissing, joining hands, and the testimony of wit- through beds of iron ore, and waters the towns of nesses ; and the ecclesiastical law punished the Bileah and Jhansi. The source of the B. is in lat. violation of such B. by excommunication : but such 23" 14' N. and long. 77° 22' E., and its mouth in a spiritual consequence was abolished by the 26 lat. 25° 57' and long. 80° 17'. It is described as a Geo. II. c. 33. A previous B. had also been regarded very great river, being, even in the dry season, half as a legal impediment to marriage with another. a mile wide at its junction with the Jumna. It is, • It was not,' says Mr. Macqueen, in his Treatise on however, not navigable in any part of its conirse. the New Divorce Jurisdiction, 1858, p. 73, by the BEUKELZOON, WILLIAM, a person in humble
life, belonging to the small town of Biervliet, in wished to betake himself. On his return to the Holland, was the first who succeeded in salting Hague, he wrote De Stolato Virginitatis Jure (The and preserving herrings in a satisfactory manner. Hague, 1680), which gave still greater offence than This improvement, which is said to have taken his first work. Soon after, he came to England, place in the year 1386, communicated a great im- where he found a supporter in Isaac Vossius, and petus to the industry of the fisheries of Holland. probably received his degree as doctor of civil law in İt is related that the emperor, Charles V., made a Oxford. But it would appear from his virulent pilgrimage to the tomb of B., and there ate a herring attacks against several dignitaries of the English in expression of his gratitude for the invention. B.'s Church, that he met with a good deal of theological name, which is otherwise written as Beukels, Bökel, opposition in England also. Probably it was the &c., is said to be the origin of the word pickle. B. death of his benefactor, Isaac Vossius, in 1689, that died in 1397.
led him in 1693 to repudiate his earlier writings, and BE'VEL, a term used by builders to describe a to regret their tone. Having become insane, he arsloped or canted surface. See SPLAY.
pears to have died in England soon after 1712. In BE'VELAND, North and South, two islands op!
landa spite of his numerous enemies, B. stood high in the in the estuary of the Scheldt, in the province of
f friendship of some of the most distinguished men of Zeeland, Holland, separated by a channel on the west
his time. His views respecting original sin have been from the island of Walcheren. The estimated area
often expressed by others, both before and after his is about 120 square miles, with a population of way
na of day, though in a less flippant style. His works are 23,000. South B. is the most extensive and fertile. now mere bibliographical curiosities. being about 25 miles in length, and from 8 to ģBE’VERLEY, the chief town of the E. Riding broad. Its capital, Goes, on the north side-lat. 51° of Yorkshire, 1 mile west of the river Hull, with 30' N., and 49 E-is a well-built and fortified town, which it communicates by canal, and 10 miles with 5500 inhabitants. North B. is about 13 miles north-north-west of the city of Hull. Pop. 10,058. in length: its greatest breadth, 4 miles. South B. B. returns two members to parliament. Its trade produces corn and fruit abundantly, and fish are plen- consists in corn, coals, and leather, and there is a tiful on the coast. North B. is low and marshy. I large colour and whiting manufactory. The finest Both islands have suffered dreadfully from inunda-object in B. is the superb Gothic minster, or the tions. In 1532, North B. was completely covered Collegiate Church of St. John, ranking next to with water, many of the inhabitants perishing; and York Minster among the ecclesiastical structures it remained submerged for several years. At the of the country, and exhibiting different styles of same time, the flourishing town of Romerswaal was Gothic architecture; the oldest part being of the separated from South B., and afterwards so en- 13th C. The choir contains the celebrated Percy croached on by the sea, that the whole of the in- shrine, of the most exquisite workmanship. The habitants had to leave it. The islands also suffered | Grammar School of B. is so old, that the date of its considerably from inundation in 1808. Within re- foundation is unknown. B. arose out of a priory cent years, much good has been effected by drainage.
founded about the year 700, and received its name BEVELLED-GEAR. See GEARING.
from Beverlac, lake of beavers,' from the great BEVERIDGE, WILLIAM, Bishop of St. Asaph, was
number of these animals in a neighbouring lake or
morass. born at Barrow, Leicestershire, in 1638. Entering St. John's College, Cambridge, at the age of fifteen,
BEVERLOO', a village of Belgium, in the province he at once became remarkable for his diligence and of Limbourg, 12 miles north-west of Hesselt. On piety, and particularly for his devotion to the study the extensive heaths surrounding it, the Belgian of oriental languages, a treatise on which he pub- | army encamps yearly for exercise. lished at the age of twenty. In 1600), having obtained BEVERWYK, a town of the Netherlands, North his degree of M. A., he was ordained both deacon and Holland, about 7 miles north of Haarlem. Pop. priest. After many excellent preferments, in which 2252. It is situated in the midst of what might be he was remarkable for his devotion to his pastoral described as a vast and beautiful meadow, and is duties, he was, in 1704, appointed to the bishopric quite a model of Dutch neatness and cleanliness. In of St. Asaph, 'having previously refused to accept his country-house, in the immediate vicinity, the that of Bath and Wells, on the deprivation of Dr. Prince of Orange planned the expedition which reThomas Kenn, for not taking the oaths to the gov- sulted in the English Revolution of 1688. ernment of Williarn III. He died March 5, 1708, BEW'DLEY (formerly Beaulieu, from its pleasant leaving the great bulk of his property to the Societies situation), a town on the right bank of the Severn, for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, and the in the north-west of Worcestershire, 14 miles Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, and a north-north-west of Worcester. Pop. 7318. B. reputation for sincere piety and great learning. His returns one member to parliament. “It has manuworks, which, besides the treatise mentioned, include factures of leather, combs, lantern leaves, carpets, another on chronology, a collection of canons from and iron and brass wares. The chief transit for the time of the apostles to that when the synod of goods is by the Severn. Near the town is a public Constantinople restored Photius, and various sermons park of 400 acres, with fine groves of elm, oak, and and works of a religious kind, with a life, were col | lected and published in 9 vols. Svo in 1824, by the BEWICK. THOMAS, a celebrated wood-engraver. Rev. Thomas Hartwell Horne.
was born at Cherryburn, near Newcastle-on-Tyne, BEVERLAND, ADRIAN, a Dutch scholar who, by in 1753. Apprenticed to Beilby, an engraver in several of his writings, but more especially by his Newcastle, he displayed such extraordinary aptiunorthodox interpretation of the Fall, caused great tude in his art, that, at the age of 17, he was excitement among the theologians of his day. He intrusted with the cutting of the whole of the diawas born at Middelburg, in Zeeland, about the middle grams in Hutton's treatise on Mensuration. He of the 17th c.; had studied law, visited the Oxford afterwards illustrated Gay's Fables, obtaining in University, and was settled as an attorney in Hol. 1775, for one of the cuts, the Old Hound,' the prize land, when in 1678, he published his pamphlet, which the Society of Arts had offered for the best Peccatum Originale, which was not only burnt at the wood-engraving. In 1790, B., who had entered into Hague, but led to his own imprisonment, and to his partnership with Mr. Beilby, completed, along with expulsion from Utrecht and Leyden, whither he had his brother John, who was his pupil, the illustrations
for a General History of British Quadrupeds, a work i and 147 from Jerusalem. It is the chief seaport, which raised his reputation far above that of any of market-town, and emporium of all the trade with the his contemporaries, and gained for him the honour shores of Syria, Palestine, and Cilicia ; and has a able and not undeserved appellation of the reviver population of 20,000 souls, of which about 600 are of wood-engraving. Considered as works of art, Europeans (English, French, Italian, and German). these illustrations are still unrivalled in graphic Several British merchants are established in B., and force of expression and fidelity to nature, though lately a branch of an English bank (the Ottoman the great mechanical improvements in the art intro- Bank) has been set up, the chief office of which is duced since B.'s time have rendered them inferior in London. B. supplies the Lebanon, Damascus, and in clearness and delicacy of execution to some of the north of Syria to Antioch and Joppa, with the best cuts of the present day. Assisted by his European manufactures and goods. French steamers, Lrother, B. illustrated Goldsmith's Traveller and De- carrying mails, leave B. every week for Marseille. serted Village, Parnell's Hermit, and Somerville's British steamers ply between Liverpool and B. every Chase; and in 1797 appeared the first volume of fortnight, bringing Manchester manufactures, prints, his History of British Birds, which was followed chintzes, Birmingham and Sheffield cutlery, &c., and in 1804 by the second. This splendid work was returning to Liverpool with madder roots, wool, silk, entirely B.'s own, his brother having died in 1795. valonia, or wheat, of which the country produces B.'s last work, the unfinished proofs of which he considerable quantities. Since 1859, à direct trade received the Saturday before his death, which took has been established between B. and the United place at Gateshead, November 8, 1828, is called States of America, the articles sent to the United · Waiting for Death,' and represents an old worn-States being wool and olive-oil. There is good out horse, with great pathos and truth. It was anchorage in the roadstead, with shelter during designed to assist in the prevention of cruelty to stormy weather in the Beyrout River, about 3 miles animals. A large cut of a bull—of the Caledonian from the town; about 150 merchant vessels of difbreed-is considered B.'s chef-d'auvre. B. had many ferent nations visit and leave B. every year. The pupils, some of whom are now among our best commerce is steadily increasing. In 1848, the imengravers.
ports were only £546,266 ; in 1853, they had inBEX, a village of 3000 inhabitants, in the Swiss creased to £722,864 ; and in 1857, to £1,324,550. canton of Vaud, situated on the high road to the | The exports in 1848 amounted only to £253,648; Simplon. about. 26 miles south-east of Lausanne. but in 1853, they had increased to £624,544; and It is remarkable for its extensive salt mines. salt in 1857, to £983,398. In 1853, the imports into B. works, and sulphur baths. One of the mines, called from Great Britain were £225,875; in 1858, they Du Bouillet, has a gallery 73 feet high, and 5 feet
had increased to £418,750. A commercial tribunal, wide, extending horizontally into the mountain a composed of European and native merchants, to addistance of more than 2000 yards. The quantity judicate all mercantile disputes and bankruptcies, of salt annually produced at B. is between 2000 and has lately been established; and consuls from all 3000 tons.
nations reside at Beyrout. Ship-building has begun BEXA'R, SAN ANTONIO. DE, a thriving town of
to attract the attention of the natives, who have Texas, on the San Antonio River, and at a dis- bir
built and launched at B. sereral vessels of fifty to tance of 110 miles to the south-west of Austin City.
dis- eighty tons within the last few years. At a village
Ved Shemlan a few miles from B. Mr Scott, än It is growing rapidly in population (12,256 by the census of 1870), and of course in wealth. The place
enterprising Scotchman, has lately built and estab
lished a silk factory, worked by steam ; the silk procontains a United States arsenal, with two newspapers and several seminaries and churches. San
duced is fine, and much esteemed in the London and Antonio de B. was famous in the conflicts between
Lyon markets. In 1859, a line of omuibuses, the the Mexican anthorities and the American adven
first ever seen in Syria, was established at Beyrout. turers, more especially for the indiscriminate slaugh
The natives at first regarded them with great as
tonishment, and crowded from all sides to see ter by the former of Colonel Crockett and his gar
them pass. A French company has constructed a rison.
good road from B. to Damascus. In the summer BEY'ERLAND, or BEI GERLAND, an island of months. B. experiences a scarcity of fresh water. South Holland, lat. 51° 46' N., long. 4° 26' E. It is which has to be brought in jars on the back of formed by the junction of the Old Maas with Hol-mules and donkeys from the river of B., a distance land Diep on the one side, the river Spui uniting the of about three miles. The town has lately been Old Maas with the Haringvliet on the other. It has improved by the removal of the walls which formerly several villages, one of which, Old B., is a thriving surrounded it. From its proximity to the mountains place of nearly 4000 inhabitants.
I of Lebanon, on which the climate is most agreeable BEY'ROUT, or BEIRUT, the Berothai or Bero- and salubrious, B. is an attractive place of residence; thah of the Old Testament (2 Samuel viii. 8. and and it might rise into importance but for its odious Ezekiel xlvii. 16); and the Berytus of the Romans. | Turkish custom-house arrangements and system cf It was besieged and captured by Baldwin I., king of government. Jerusalem, in 1111; recaptured from the Christians BEZA, THEODORE (properly, De Bèze), next to in 1187. In 1197, it again came into the hands of Calvin the most energetic and influential of the the Christians, and then successively under the Genevese reformers, was born of a noble family at Saracen, Seljukian, and Turkish sultans. In course | Vezelai, in Burgundy, 24th June 1519. He received of the operations to support the Turkish claims an admirable education in Orleans, from Melchior against the assumed power of the pasha of Egypt, Wolmar, a German, who was especially learned in B., in 1840-1841, was bombarded by the English the Greek language, and also imbued with the fleet under Sir C. Napier, taken, and delivered over principles of the Reformation, which he communito the Turks. There are three castles still standing cated to his pupil. As early as 1539, B. became out in the sea, whose battered walls bear witness to known as a writer of witty and elegant but indecent the efficacy of the British cannon. There are no verses, the publication of which (1548) caused him ancient monuments worth visiting.
many bitter regrets in after-days, when his heart B. is a flourishing commercial town, situated in a was purer. In his twentieth year, he obtained his most picturesque position on the coast of Syria, and | degree as licentiate of civil law, and went to live in at the foot of Lebanon, 55 miles from Damascus, Paris, where he appears to have spent sev :ral years
in a kind of fashionable dissipation, though he does, said to have proved attractive to posterity. They not accuse himself of any gross profligacy. B. have almost ceased to be read. The works by which possessed a handsome figure, which, together with he is best known are his translation of the New his fine talents and good birth, opened to him the Testament into Latin, and his History of the French most brilliant prospects. Although not a priest, he Protestants from 1521 to 1563. pocketed the revenues of two benefices, while his BEZA'NT. See BESANT. income was largely increased by the death of an
BEZIERS, a city of France, in the department elder brother. It was the desire of his relatives
of Herault, lat. 43° 21' N., and long. 3° 13' E. It is that he should enter the church, but a private marriage which B. had contracted, rendered this !!
pleasantly situated on a hill, in the midst of a fertile
$| country, at the junction of the Orb and the Canal du impossible. A severe illness now attacked him,
Hi Midi, about 38 miles south-west of Montpellier. It during the lapse of which, the folly and sinfulness
contains some interesting architectural and antique of his career vividly presented themselves to his
S buildings—the principal being the cathedral, a noble conscience; he repented, and on his recovery, in
Gothic edifice; the churches of La Madeline and St. order to avoid the perils and perplexities of his
Aphrodise; and the ancient episcopal palace. The position, he went to Geneva along with his wife, October 1548. Shortly after, he was appointed
e; old citadel has been destroyed, but the walls still
remain, and are made use of as a promenade. B. has Greek professor at Lausanne, an office which he
manufactures of silk held for ten years.
stockings, woollens, gloves, In 1550, he published with success a melodrama, entitled The Sacrifice of |
parchment, glass, soap, leather, and much esteemed
confectionaries. It has also extensive brandy disAbraham, and delivered lectures on the Epistle to
tilleries, and is the centre of most of the trado the Romans and the Epistles of Peter to crowded
of the district. The town is supplied with water audiences. Out of these lectures ultimately sprang |
Pralls raised from the Orb by means of a steam-engine. his Translation of the New Testament into Latin.
B, is a place of great antiquity, and still contains
Roman remains. It is historically interesting in theological professor and president of the college. He had already signalised himself by his work De
connection with the massacre of the Albigenses, its Hæreticis a Civili Magistratu puniendis, in which,
inhabitants having been indiscriminately put to like many other good but mistaken men, he ap
the sword by Simon de Montfort and the pope's
p legate, for having afforded protection to the fugitives proved of the burning of Servetus. His diplomatic tact was particularly good. He induced the king
in 1209. B. suffered also in the religious wars of the
16th c. of Navarre to exert his influence on behalf of the persecuted French Protestants, and was persuaded
BE'ZOAR (Pers. pazar, a goat; or pa, against, by the latter to attend the conference of Catholic and zachar, poison), a concretion found in the and Protestant divines, held at Poissy in 1561. stomachs of goats or antelopes, and formerly much Here his courage, presence of mind, and dexterity valued on account of imaginary medicinal virtues. made a very favourable impression on the French particularly as an antidote to poisons. Concretions court. Catherine de Medicis entertained so high an of various kinds are found in the stomachs of opinion of his abilities, that she desired him to herbivorous quadrupeds, very generally having for remain in France. While in Paris, he often preached their nucleus some small indigestible substance before the king of Navarre and Condé. On the which has been taken into the stomach. Someoutbreak of the civil war, he accompanied the latter times they are of a radiating structure; sometimes as a kind of military chaplain, and after his capture formed of concentric layers; sometimes they are attached himself to Coligny. In 1563, he once more principally composed of superphosphate of lime, returned to Geneva. In the following year. Calvin sometimes of phosphate of ammonia or magnesia. died, and the care of the Genevese church now fell Other concretions found in the intestines, &c., of principally upon his shoulders. He presided over
various animals are sometimes also called bezoar. the synods of French Reformers, held at Rochelle
See Calculi. The value of a B. being supposed to in 1571, and at Nismes in 1572. In 1574, he was increase with its size, the larger ones have been sold, deputed by Condé to transact important business at particularly in India, for very great prices. the court of the Palatinate; and in 1586, measured BHADRINATH, a town of Gurhwal, in the bimself with the Wirtemberg divines, especially sub-presidency of the North-western Provinces, Jacob Andreä, at the religious conference held at India, situated in a valley of the Himalaya, 25 Montbeliard. In 1588, his first wife died, and miles to the south of the Manah Pass, which leads although verging on seventy, he married another into Tibet. Lat. 30° 44' N., long. 79° 32' E. Its an awkward circumstance, it must be confessed, and highest point is 10,294 feet above the level of the one which his enemies, the Jesuits, tried to make sea; while, about 12 miles to the west, there is a handle of; but B., who still retained complete a group of summits, called the Bhadrinath Peaks, mastery over his faculties, retorted with his accus- having the respective elevations of 23,441, 23,236, tomed liveliness and skill. In 1597, his calumnia- 22,934, 22,754, 22,556, and 21,895 feet; the east tors spread the extremely foolish report that B. was also, and the south-west, presenting detached moun. dead, and at the last hour had returned to the tains of similar magnitude. B. is situated on the bosom of the church. The witty patriarch replied right bank of the Vishnugunga, a feeder of the in a poem full of sparkling vigour. He died 13th Aluknunda, which itself again unites with the October 1605, at the ripe age of 86.
Bhageerettee to form the Ganges. The chief attracB. was thoroughly grounded in the principles of tion of the place is its temple, which, though the his master, Calvin, in whose spirit he' vigorously actually existing edifice is modern, is said to be an ruled the Genevan Church for forty years, exercising establishment of great antiquity. This temple overthe influence of a patriarch. To secure its unity, hangs a tank of about 30 feet square, which is strength, and permanence, he spared no pains, supplied, by a subterranean passage, from a thermal sacrificing even his personal possessions. By his spring in the neighbourhood. As ablution in these abundant learning, his persevering zeal, his acute waters is held to cleanse from all past sins, B. is a intellect, his fine eloquence, and his impressive grand resort of pilgrims, every year bringing large character, he rendered it important services. His numbers, but every twelfth year, when a periodical numerous theological writings, however, cannot be festival is celebrated, collecting fully 50,000. From