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of the glazing of a window. Windows of this de- , be, of £500. In the origin of the system, the bank scription are rare in this country, but are almost may be said to have been influenced by three conaniversal on the continent. Also a name for a deep, siderations—first, the necessity for making advanhollow, circular moulding, similar to the scotia of tageous use of its capital; second, the desire to classical and the cavetto of Italian architecture. The extend its issues of small notes; and third, the C. is very prevalent in the perpendicular style of nature of the security offered. Since Sir Robert Gotbic architecture, and is sometimes enriched with Peel's act restricting circulation of notes, the second running foliage.

of these reasons no longer operates ; for the banks CA'SERNE is a barrack or building for the accom- hold an equal amount of coin against the surplus.

are now much above their authorized issue, and must modation of the soldiers forming the garrison of a What the bank particularly wants, is a customer fortified town or post.

who will be constantly depositing sums in notes of CASE'RTA, a town of Naples, in the province of other banks, and drawing out sums in its own notes. Terra di Lavoro, is situated on a plain about 17 miles The C. A. system aids this process. It secures a north-east of Naples. It is chiefly remarkable on customer who will be frequently operating on his account of its magnificent palace, one of the finest account, according to the exigencies of his business, in Europe, and the frequent residence of the Nea- and whose overdraughts, as well as deposits, tend to politan court. During 1860, C. acquired celebrity as benefit the concern. Obviously, for the Debtor, the the head-quarters of Garibaldi and his army. A royal system works more advantageously than when a silk manufactory has been established in the neigh- fixed sum is borrowed, for in that case interest bourhood. Population, with adjoining hamlets, about would run on for the whole amount, whereas by a 20,000.

C. A. the trader merely draws what he requires; CAʼSE-SHOT, or CANISTER-SHOT, is an assem- and by paying in his surplus money in small sums, blage of bullets or small balls, enclosed in a cylin- he is charged with interest only on the sum actually drical case or canister. The diameter of this canister at his debit from day to day. In negotiating a C. A., is a little less than the bore of the gun from which a bond is prepared by the bank stating the amount it is to be discharged. According to the size of the and the nature of the security, the cost of which is canister, the balls vary from 1 lb. to oz. each, from borne by the borrower. Banks often, in security, 30 to 280 in number, and from 37 lbs. to 85 lbs. in accept heritable property and policies of life intotal weight. The canister bursts immediately on surance, but more commonly two persons in good leaving the gun, and the balls spread out into an credit become cautioners, or co-obligants along with irregular sort of cone. Within a range of 500 yards, the principal. Unless the liability of the cautioners they work great execution among troops; they are respectively be expressly limited in the bond, each is generally used at 200 or 300 yards.

liable for the whole amount. If the bank liberates In a more modern and effective kind, called one cautioner without the consent of the other, it spherical case, the bullets are enclosed, along with a

loses its recourse. This recourse is not lost by accharge of powder, in an iron shell, instead of a tin cepting a dividend from the sequestrated (bankrupt) canister. It is often called shrapnel shell, from the estate of a principal or cautioner; but it will be lost name of its inventor. A spherical case-shot for

A spherical case-shot for a by accepting a composition from either of these per68-lb. carronade, or for an 8-inch howitzer, contains sons without consent of the other. The bank can 337 balls ; for a 24-pounder gun, 128; and for an

at any time stop the credit, and call for payment of 18-pounder, 90. It is exploded by a fuse, the length the balance due. A cautioner can at any time withof which depends on the distance of the point where draw his name from the credit, on paying up the the destructive effect is to be wrought. Its effect balance, and the bank is bound to assigui the debt to is something like that of a prolonged musket-fire. him. While cash accounts may be of great serThe shrapnel shell is not of much use against the vice to traders who act upon them discreetly, it is hull of a ship; but is very destructive against found that, in too many instances, these accounts masses of men on shore, or on the decks of a ship, are used as a dead-loan to the entire amount stipuwith a greater range than that of ordinary canister. lated for; and for this, as well as a reason above Artillerymen prefer just such an amount of charge assigned, banks care now very much less for this as will burst the sphere, without scattering the balls kind of business than formerly. Properly, traders very widely.

are to look on the money procured on cash credits

not as an addition to capital, but merely a temporary CASH (Fr. caisse, a chest for containing money) substitute for current business purposes while the is sometimes used as synonymous with money, as capital is out with customers, and to be replaced acdistinguished from produce, in which sense it in- cordingly until again required. It may be added, cludes all immediately negotiable paper-bills, drafts, that the progress of commercial wealth in Scotand bonds, as well as coin and bank-notes. At other land, now greatly lessens the necessity for having times, it is used, in a limited sense, to denote coiu recourse to the C. A. system. and bank-notes, as distinguished from negotiable in

CA'SHEL, a town of Ireland, in Tipperary county, struments which pass by indorsation.

and 105 miles south-west of Dublin by rail. It is CASH ACCOU'NT, or CASH CREDIT, a form irregularly built on the south and east slopes of of account with a bank, by which a person is an isolated height, rising abruptly from a rich and entitled to draw out sums as required by way of extensive plain. Pop. 1841, 7036 ; 1851, 4798. C. loan to a stipulated amount. The practice began is a bishop's see, and returns one member to parliaabout 1729 in Scotland, with the banks of which ment. The ancient kings of Munster resided here. country it is still peculiarly identified; but it is not the top of the height, or 'Rock of Cashel,' is occu. unknown elsewhere, though on a somewhat different pied by an assemblage of the most interesting ruins plan. In connection with the Scotch banks, the in Ireland, which have a grand effect from the C. A. system is placed on a distinct and secure country around. The ruins consist of a cathedral, basis, which we shall briefly describe. The persons the largest and most remarkable in the country, procuring a credit of this kind are for the most part founded 1169, burned 1495, and afterwards repaired; retail-dealers, tradesmen, and farmers, who possess a stone-roofed chapel, built 1127 by Cormac Maca limited capital, and need occasional loans. Instead Carthy, king of Munster, and the most perfect of horrowing money by bills or mortgages, they specimen of the kind in the country ; Hore Abbey, apply to a bank for a C. A. to the extent, it may founded 1260 ; the palace of the Munster kings;


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and a round tower, 90 feet high and 56 in circum- | esteemed for its flavour. A gum which exudes from ference. The round tower is built of freestone, but the bark of the tree, quite distinct from the milky the other ruins of limestone. At C., in 1172, the juice already mentioned, is bland, and very similar great synod was held in which the Irish prelate first to gum-arabic. acknowledged the authority of the English king and

CASHGA'R, or KASHGAR, a city of Chinese church.

Turkestan, 140 miles north-west of Yarkand, in lat. CASHEW' NUT (Anacardium occidentale), a tree 39° 25' N., long. 73° 57' E. It is surrounded by an of the natural order Anacardiacec, a native probably earthen rampart, pierced with four gates, and being of the tropical parts of both hemispheres, although the most westerly place of importance in the Chinese it has been commonly regarded as of American empire, it is strongly garrisoned. It is the residence origin. It is a spreading tree of no great height. It of an Uzbeck chief, and has manufactures of cotton, abounds in a clammy, milky juice, which turns black gold and silver cloths, carpets, &c.; and an extenon exposure to the air, and is used in India for sive trade with Central Asia. Population variously varnishing, but is so acrid as to produce painful estimated at from 16,000 to 80,000. C. is said to inflammation when it comes in contact with the skin have been an important commercial town before the of some persons, or when they are exposed to its Christian era, and was at one time the capital of fumes. Others are comparatively unsusceptible of its Turkestan. It has been about a century in the pos- . influence. The fruit of the tree is a kidney-shaped session of the Chinese. nut, about an inch long, seated on the thicker end of a pear-shaped fleshy stalk, from which the the army and navy. It is a severe form of dismissal

CASHIE'RING is a punishment for officers in botanical character of the genus is derived. The from the sovereign's service, and implies that the

officer, by some disgraceful conduct, has deserved not only dismissal, but disqualification for ever again entering the service. Sometimes there are words added, implying still deeper ignominy and degradation. On some rare occasions, when a court-martial has awarded C., the commander-in-chief has mitigated the punishment to simple dismissal. “Scandalous and infamous conduct,' and Conduct unbecoming the character of an officer and a gentleman,' mark two degrees of offence which may lead, the one to C., the other to dismissal.

CASHME'RE, a valley of the Himalaya, between India Proper and Middle Tibet, stretching between lat. 33° 15' and 34° 35' N., and long. 74° 10' and 55° 40' E. Its bottom, a comparative level of about 2000 square miles, is about 5500 feet above the sea; while the enclosure, as a whole, from ridge to ridge, besides fully doubling the area, attains at some points, nearly thrice the altitude. The mountain-wall of this secluded region presents but few passes, and most of these too lofty to be practicable in winter. In fact, the Baramula itself does not admit a wheeled vehicle. Through this single open-

ing, situated at the south-west, the Jhelum carries Cashew Nut (Anacardium occidentale).

down towards the Punjab the gathered streams and

lakes of the entire basin, and is navigable for the shell is double, the outer shell being ash-coloured, last 70 miles of its course. This net-work of waters, and very smooth; and between it and the inner without swelling into inundations, affords everyis a layer of very caustic black juice. The kernel where a perennial supply for the purpose of irrigais oily, and very pleasant and wholesome, and is tion. Besides the copious rains of spring, the snows in common use as an article of food in tropical of winter, covering even the plains to a depth of countries, being made into puddings, roasted, and two feet for four months, accumulate, in every gorge in various ways prepared for the table. In the and on every declivity, reservoir above reservoir, West Indies, it is put into wine, particularly old against the demands of summer. C. is traditionally Madeira wine, to which it is thought to communi- believed to have been a vast upland lake, and alluvial cate a peculiarly agreeable flavour, and for this use deposits beyond the reach of existing influences it is sometimes imported into Britain. It is also for would seem to confirm the idea. the same reason sometimes an ingredient in choco- In regard to climate, moderate but steady frost late. Yet the vapour which arises from it in prevails from November to March; and again, the roasting, but which is derived from the coating of heat, ranging from 75° F. in June, to 85° in August, the kernel, and not from the kernel itself, is so is often disproportionately oppressive, through the acrid as to cause erysipelas and other painful affec- stagnation of the landlocked atmosphere. The tions of the face in those who conduct the process, staple production is rice, which, from the singular unless great caution is used.—The fleshy stalk, facilities of irrigation, is an all but sure crop, yieldsometimes called the Cashew Apple, varies in size, ing, even in a tolerable season, 30 or 40 returns ; being sometimes not much larger than a cherry, and and in the abundance and excellence of its fruits, sometimes as large as an orange, and is white, C. is said to surpass all the rest of the world. The yellow, or red. It is perfectly free of the acridity valley is, in general, considered to be remarkably characteristic of the natural order, is acid and healthy. The inhabitants, almost universally held eatable, very pleasant and refreshing, and much to be models of strength and beauty, amounted, used by the inhabitants of the countries in which before 1828, to 800,000, or to 400 in a square mile. the tree grows.

A very pleasant vinous liquor But by casual famine and pestilence they have since is obtained from it by fermentation; and this been reduced to 200,000. The people are mostly by distillatiou yields a spirituous liquor, highly Mohammedans, divided between the Sunnite and




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Shiite sects. The manufactures-all superior of their | Towers. Dr. Davis, of Columbia, S. C., introduced kind—are shawls, leather, firearms, and attar of the Tibetan goats into the U. States in 1849, where roses. The principal towns are Serinagur, Islamabad, they have thriven. The Angora goat has also sucShupayon, Pampur, and Baramula. The history ceeded in the U. States, and in 1867 $100,000 was paid goes back, through colossal monuments chiefly for goats of pure and mized breeds. See reports of of marble, beyond the dawn of authentic annals. the Commissioner of Agriculture of 1857 and 1863. In 1315, C. first received Mohammedanism ; in 1586,

CASIMIR, properly Kazimierz, was the name it was annexed to the Mogul empire; in 1752, it of many Polish princes and kings. With the esfell under the power of the Afghans; and in 1819, tablishment of the power of Casimir I. in. 1040, the it was subjugated by the Sikhs. Lastly, being ceded, predominance of Christianity was decided in Poland. at the close of the first war of the Punjab, to the But the most distinguished of this name was Casimir British, it was by them transferred to Gholab Sing, III., called Casimir the Great, who succeeded his as the nucleus of a state of its own name, which father, Vladislaus Loketek, as king of Poland in comprised also Jamu, Bulti, Ladakh, Chamba, &c. 1333.' He added Little Russia and Red Russia to This new principality, with 25,000 square miles, and his dominions; repelled the Tatars, who then threat750,000 inhabitants, is said to have a force of about ened Poland; and waged successful war in Silesia, 24,000 men of all arms.

which he conquered but did not retain. He shewed CASHMERE GOAT, a variety of the common great anxiety for the advancement of the arts and goat, remarkable for its very long, fine, and silky of learning in his kingdom, and for the improvehair, from which the highly valued Cashmere shawls ment of the condition of the most oppressed classes, are made. It is not so much in Cashmere that this which won him the title of King of the Peasants. variety of goat is to be found, as in Tibet, from A Jewish mistress obtained from him liberties for which the finest goat-hair is imported into Cash- the Jews, which they have since retained in Poland. mere, to be there manufactured into shawls. The He died in consequence of the falling of his horse hair is even longer than that of the Angora goat, in 1370. and not, like it, curled into ringlets, but straight.

CASI'NO, an Italian diminutive of casa, a house, It is about eighteen inches long. A single goat signifies a place for social reunions. The Italian

nobles have long had casinos detached from the palaces in which they live, whither they can retreat and enjoy themselves, and it is probable that the public casinos were the result of an attempt made by the middle classes to imitate their superiors. In Italy, a C. is generally close by a theatre, and is a place where musical or dancing soirées are held, containing a conversation-room, billiard-room, and rooms for other kinds of amusement, as well as small apartments where refreshments may be had. Casinos are numerous in Italy and Germany, and have been introduced into England. In general, they are not supposed to exert an edifying influence on the community.

CASINO, or MONTE-CASINO, a mountain overhanging the town of San-Germano (the ancient Casinum), in the Neapolitan province of Terra di

Lavoro, between 50 and 60 miles north-north-west Cashmere Goat.

of Naples, is celebrated on account of the monastery

founded here by St. Benedict (q. v.) in 529 A. D. does not yield more than three ounces, and the This monastery is remarkable for its noble archifleeces of ten goats are requisite for the manufacture tecture, its ancient wealth, its library and archives, of a shawl a yard and a half square. The hair is and in modern times for the learning of its monks, spun by women, and dyed after it is spun. It is who have a printing-press, from which several imsaid that 16,000 looms are kept in constant employ- portant works have issued. The beautiful situation ment in Cashmere, producing annually about 30,000 of the abbey, and the reputation of the monks as shawls. The shawls are woven in rudely con- masters of the healing art, formerly made Montestructed looms, a pair of shawls sometimes occupy- Casino a favourite resort of pilgrims. Luigi Tosti, ing three or four men a whole year in weaving the librarian of the abbey, has given an account of C. shawls, of the finest quality, are sold in London its literary treasures in bis Storia della Badia di at from £100 to £400 each. Plain shawls are Monte-Casino (3 vols., Nap. 1841-1843). simply woven in the loom, but those with varie

CAʼSOLI, a town of Naples, in the province of gated patterns are worked with wooden needles, a | Abruzzo Citra, situated on a hill 17 miles south of separate needle being used for each colour. These Chieti

. It has two normal schools. Population beshawls are in the highest request in India; but tween 5000 and 6000. the hair of several other breeds of goat inferior to that of Tibet is employed for the manufacture of north-east from the capital. Silk is produced in the

CASO'RIA, a town of Naples, 5 miles northshawls called by the same name.

Imitations of

district. Pop. 8000. these are manufactured in France rather extensively, some from the Tibet wool entirely, and

CA'SPÉ, a town of Spain, in the province of Sara others of a mixture of this with silk and cotton. gossa, 57 miles south-south-east of the city of that And the manufacture of Cashmere shawls, once so

It is situated near the Ebro, has manufaca flourishing in Asia, has been greatly impaired, and in tures of oil and soap, and a trade in the agricultural many places discontinued.

produce of the district. Pop. 7500. Attempts have been made to introduce the CA'SPIAN SEA, an inland sea or great salt-lake, C. G. into Europe. Baron Alstroemer attempted, the largest in the world, on the boundary between in the end of last century, to naturalise it in Europe and Asia, extending from lat. 36° 40' to 47° Sweden; and a very spirited attempt to introduce 20' N., and long. 46° 50' to 55° 10' E. Its length from it into Britain has recently been made by Mr. north to south is about 700 miles, and its average

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When young,

breadth about 200 miles. Its total area is esti-, this capacity he made himself popular by his mated at 140,000 square miles. The coast-line is replies, in Galignani's Messenger, to the attacks of irregular, and on the east side especially there the English press on the claims of the Union with are several bays and indentations of coast, the prin- regard to its north-east boundaries, and by his cipal being those of Mertvoi, Mangushlak, Kender- protest against the measures of Guizot; but the linsk, Karabugos, and Balkan. From the west, treaty concluded by Daniel Webster with Lord the naphtha-impregnated peninsula of Apsheron Ashburton was so much opposed to the views stretches into the C. opposite the Balkan Gulf; maintained by C., that he resigned his post, and Mount Caucasus also rises on its west side. On in 1843 returned to America, where he was received the south rises the lofty range of the Elburz with marks of popular favour. He now aimed at Mountains, between which, however, and the coast, the presidency, and in 1844 was a prominent candion this side almost unbroken, extends a low date for the democratic nomination, but being unsucflat plain of from 15 to 20 miles in breadth. On cessful, he was shortly afterward chosen U. S. Senator the north, it is bordered by great steppes, and the from Michigan. He soon became prominent in the country eastward is a vast plain. It is probable discussion of the Oregon question, insisting upon the that at one time its waters, which are said to be claims of the United States to the parallel 540 40' as still diminishing, covered great part of the adjacent a boundary. Gen. Cass is understood to have favoured steppes. Some singular changes appear to take the Wilmot Proviso in the early discussion of that place in the level of the Caspian. Various measure- question, but subsequently evinced a determined

oppohave made its depth and elevation different. sition to it. In 1878 he was the democratic nominee One Russian measurement made it 348 feet below for president, but was defeated by Gen. Taylor. In the level of the Black Sea, another only 84 feet. 1851 he was returned to the U. S. Senate, where he The latest estimate makes it only 384 feet below supported the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, on the principle the Black Sea. It has no tides, but its navigation of leaving the inhabitants of the territories the is dangerous because of violent storms, especially power to regulate their own institutions in their own from the south-east, by which its waters are some way! He was Secretary of State under President times driven for many miles over the adjacent Buchanan until near the close of the administration. plains. The depth near the southern end is about He died June 17, 1866, aged 83 years. He is author 600 feet, and in some places near the centre it of the History, Tradition, Languages, &c., of Indians attains a depth of nearly 3000 feet; but near the in the United States; of France : its King, Court, coast it is very shallow, seldom reaching a depth of and Government; and other works. more than 3 feet at 100 yards from the shore, and in many places a depth of 12 feet is not reached

CASSA'NDER, king of Macedonia, and son of within several miles of the beach. On the north: Antipater, was born about 354 B. C. cast and east it is especially shallow. It receives he is said to have been ill used by Alexander the the waters of a number of large rivers, of which/ Great, and to have consequently conceived a mortal the greatest is the Volga. The Ural, the Tereh, his father, he expected to succeed to the regency;

hatred to that monarch's family. On the death of and the Kur also fall into it, The water of the C. S. is salt, but much less so than that of the but Polysperchon received the honour instead,

Its northern parts are covered with ice which so dissatisfied him, that he resolved to contest during winter. It abounds in fish, and very

the sovereignty with his opponent. He was comvaluable fisheries are carried on, especially for pletely successful; but while pursuing his career of sturgeon and salmon. By a canal uniting the head- conquest in the south of Greece, he learned that waters of the Volga with the rivers Tvertza and Olympias, mother of Alexander, was committing Schlina, the C. is united with the Baltic Sea. It havoc in the north, and consequently hurried back belongs in part to Russia, in part to Persia, and in to Macedonia. In less than a year, Olympias was part to the Turkomans. The Russians have some

taken prisoner, and put to death. Only Roxana, vessels of war upon it, and the most of its com

wife of Alexander, and her son Ægus, now stood merce is in their hands. Steam-packets have been between him and the throne of Macedon; but he established on it. The chief Russian town upon these two until several years had passed. Mean

did not find it convenient to make away' with its shores is Astrakhan, at the mouth of the Volga. while, he married Thessalonica, half-sister to AlexDerbend, Guriev, Baku, and Krasnoi-yar are also Russian towns upon the Caspian Sea. Balfrush, ander, in whose honour he founded, about 316 B. C.,

the town which bears her name. In the follow. Reshd, and Astrabad are Persian towns. Turkomans have only a few fishing-villages on the ing year he caused Thebes, which Alexander had eastern shore.

He next became involved

destroyed, to be rebuilt. The C. S. was known to the Greeks and Romans.

in a war with Antigonus, king of Asia, which, with According to Strabo, it derived its name from the

an intervening peace of one year, lasted from 315 Caspii, a tribe inhabiting its western shores. The

to 301 B.C., in the last of which years Antigonus name Caspian was afterwards limited to the western

was defeated and slain at the battle of Ipsus. portion of the lake—the eastern being designated Along with his auxiliaries Seleucus, Ptolemy, and the Hyrcanian Sea.

Lysimachus, he seized and shared the dominions

of the vanquished. The rest of his life was spent CASQUE. See HELMET.

in intrigue and military enterprise. He died 297 CASS, LEWIS, an American statesman, born at Exeter, New Hampshire, in 1782.

He was

CASSA'NDRA, according to Homeric legend, educated for the law, but quitting that profession, was the fairest daughter of Priam and Hecuba, and he entered the army in 1812, and rose rapidly to the twin-sister of Helenus. The children playing the rank of general, though his merit was not very in the court of the temple of the Thymbræan conspicuous. In 1813, he was elected governor of Apollo, not far from Ilium, till it was too late for Michigan, in which State he settled. During his them to return home, a bed of laurel-twigs was governorship, he kept himself apart from party made for them in the temple ; and there, in the politics, yet all his measures had a decidedly morning, two snakes were found licking their ears, democratic tendency. In 1831, C. was made from which resulted such an acuteness of hearing, minister at war under General Jackson, and in that they could hear the voice of the gods. Č. 1836 he was sent as plenipotentiary to Paris. In / afterwards attracted the love of Apollo by her

ocean. ,


or 296 B, C.




east-north-east of Milan.


beauty, and he taught her the secrets of prophecy; | the Court of C. for the public interest. Criminal but displeased by her rejection of his suit, laid upon | as well as civil judgment may be reviewed by the her the curse that her vaticinations should never Court of C., the only exceptions being the judgments be believed. Accordingly, she prophesied in vain of justices of the peace and of courts-martial, miliof the treachery of the Grecian horse and the tary and naval. The delay allowed for bringing a destruction of Troy. On the capture of the city, civil case before the Court of C. is three months for she fled to the temple of Minerva, but was torn persons domiciled in France, six months for those in from the altar by the Locrian Ajax, and ravished Corsica, a year for American colonists, and two for in the temple. She afterwards, in the distribution all persons resident beyond the Cape of Good Hope. of the prey, fell to the share of Agamemnon, to In criminal matters, the procedure is greatly more whom she bore twin sons, but was murdered by prompt, three full days only being allowed to the Clytemnestra.

person condemned to bring his action of C., and the CASSANDRA, a peninsula in the province of same space being given to the procureur-général. In Roumelia, European Turkey, situated between the all criminal and police cases, the Court of C. may Gulfs of Salonica and Cassandra, in lat. 40° N., pronounce judgment immediately after the expiry of long. 23° 30' E. The ancient name of this head these days, and must do so within a month. The land was Pallene. Grain of superior quality is Court of c. is divided into three sections, one of raised here; wool, honey, and wax are produced; which is devoted to criminal matters. Its staff and silk-worms are extensively reared. The Gult' of consists of a president, who has the title of first Cassandra (ancient Toronaicus Sinus) has a length president, and three vice-presidents, who are called of 33 miles from south-east to north-west, and a presidents ; 45 counsellors or ordinary judges; a probreadth of 10 miles.

cureur-général, or public prosecutor; 6 substitutes, CASSA'NO, a town of Naples, in the province of inferior officers. The presidents and counsellors are

who have the title of advocates-general; and several Calabria Citra, 34 miles north of Cosenza. It is named by the sovereign for life, the other officers situated in a valley in the midst of the most beau- being removable at pleasure. No judgment can be tiful scenery, has a cathedral, an old castle built on an imposing mass of rock in the midxt of the city, pronounced unless 11 judges are present, the decision and manufactures of linen, leather, silk, cotton, and being determined by the majority. Where the

numbers are equally divided, 5 judges are called in; macaroni. Pop. 6000.

and cases of peculiar difficulty may be judged of by CASSANO, a town of Northern Italy, 17 miles the three sections united. The whole court, when

It is situated on the presided over by the minister of justice, possesses right bank of the Adda, here crossed by a bridge also the right of discipline and censure over all on the railway to Brescia, and has extensive silk- judges for grave offences, not specially provided for

C. was the scene of two sanguinary battles | by the law. When thus constituted, the Court of one in 1705 between the French under the Duke c. may suspend the judges of the imperial courts de Vendôme, and the Imperialists under Prince from the exercise of their functions, and call them Eugene, in which the latter was defeated; the to its bar. The procureur-général of the Court of C. other in 1799, when the Russians and Austrians likewise possesses a surveillance over the procureursunder Suwarow defeated the French under Moreau. généraux of the imperial courts. Pop. 1200.

The members of this' august tribunal wear a red CASSATION, COURT OF. In the law of France, gown with a violet toque, or cap of velvet; the robes the act of annulling the decision of a court or of the presidents and of the procureur-général being judicial tribunal is called cassation, from the verb doubled with white fur. casser, to break or annul (Lat. quatere ; Eng. quash); CASS'AVA, a West Indian name of the plant and the function of cassation, as regards the judg- | also called Manioc (q. v.), and of the starch proments of all the other courts, is assigned to a duced from it, which is otherwise called Brazilian special tribunal called the Court of C., which may arrow-root, and is popularly known in Britain as thus be regarded, in a certain sepse, as the last | TAPIOCA (q. v.). and highest court of appeal for the whole country. But as everything is excluded beyond the question country in Farther India, to the south-east of Upper


CASSAY', or MUNEEPOO'R, a not law, of the proper method of administering it by the Assam, stretching from

23° 49' to 25° 41' N. lat., and inferior tribunal

, has been the right one, the idea from 93° 5' to 94° 32' E. long., and containing, with attached to this institution is less that of a court estirated at 30,000 and upwards. It is important

an area of 7584 square miles, a population variously in the ordinary sense, than of a department of government to which the duty of inspecting the

to England merely from its being on the Burmese administration of justice is assigned. By the® 65th frontier. Accordingly, before the war of 1825 began, article of the constitution of the year VIII.,

it was occupied by the British; and, being permawas enacted that there shall be for the whole of nently, ceded at the close of the contest, it was France a tribunal of cassation, which shall pro- The inhabitants are

handed over, free from tribute, to the native rajah. nounce on demands for cassation against judgments than Buddhists. The productions are tea, rice,

more generally Brahmanists in the last resort pronounced by the tribunals; ' and the following article of the same constitution tobacco, indigo, cotton, sugar, opium, and mustard bears that this supreme tribunal shall pronouce iron wares.

and the manufactures are muslins, silks, and a few no judgment on the foundation or merits of the sometimes gives name to the principality.

The chief town is Munecpoor, which cause, but that, in case of its breaking the judgment pronounced, it shall remit to the tribunal CA'SSEL, the capital of the electorate of Hesse, appealed from to pronounce another. The title of pleasantly situated on both sides of the Fulda, tribunal was afterwards changed for that of court, here a navigable river, 120 miles by rail, northby a senatus consultum of the year XII. ; but sub- north-east of Frankfurt on the Main. It contains stantially the institution has retained its original (1864) 40,228 inhabitants, besides about 4000 solcharacter, notwithstanding all the changes of diers, and 2500 servants and labourers connected government which have occurred in France. The with the military. The oldest part of the town demand for cassation can be made only by the consists of a few very narrow, crooked streets, close parties of the suit, or by the procureur-général of

the procureur-général of l on the banks of the Fulda ; the more modern parts are

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