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on hills, which rise gently from the river. C. is America.-C. Fistula (Carthartocarpus) yields the partially walled. In Friedrichs-Platz, the largest C. of the pharmacopæias, the C. pods, Pipe C., or square in any German town, stands the Elector's Purging C. of the shops. It is a large tree, a native palace, a comparatively mean structure: a little of Egypt and other parts of Africa, perhaps also of below is the first story of a magnificent palace the East Indies, in which, at all events, it is now commenced in 1820, and stopped in the following widely diffused and cultivated, as well as in the year by the death of the Elector who projected it. / West Indies and warm parts of America. Its leaves Amongst the other public buildings and institutions, have 4-6 pair of ovate smooth leaflets, its flowers one of the most important is the Museum Frederi- are yellow and in loose racemes; its pods, which cianum, which has a library of 90,000 volumes and have obtained for it the name of Pudding-pipe some valuable MSS. The Picture-gallery contains Tree, are sometimes two feet in length, cylindrical, about 1400 paintings, including some excellent | black, consisting of thin brittle woody valves, within specimens of the best masters. In the cabinet of which is a cavity divided by numerous thin transcuriosities, there are examples shewing the gradual verse partitions, each cell containing a single seed development and improvement of watchmaking imbedded in a soft black pulp. It is this pulp that from the earliest invention at Nuremberg to the is the part used in medicine; it has a sweetish present time. C. contains an observatory, and is the mucilaginous taste, and in small doses is a mild seat of a number of learned and scientific associa- | laxative. It is sometimes removed from the pods tions. From 1807 to 1813 it was the capital of the when fresh; or an extract is obtained, after they kingdom of Westphalia. It has been the scene of are dried, by boiling and evaporating. It is said serious disturbances and revolutionary movements to contain 61–69 per cent. of sugar. The C. pods in recent periods of continental agitation. The of the West Indies contain much more pulp, and gardens of Wilhelmshöhe, called the German Ver- are therefore more valuable than those imported sailles, with their splendid fountains and cascades, from the East.-3. C. Bark, or C. lignea, sometimes and the colossal statue of Hercules, within the called China Cinnamon, is a bark very similar hollow of whose club eight persons can stand at one to cinnamon both in appearance and properties; time, are only three miles from Cassel. There are but in thicker pieces, and less closely quilled, of a manufactures of cotton, woollen, and silk fabrics, I less sweet and delicate flavour, but more pungent. lace, and carpets. Under the name of Chassala, the It is the produce of the Cinnamomum Cassia or town appears to have existed as early as the 10th aromaticum, a tree of the same genus with the century.
Cinnamon-tree, a native of China, and extensively CASSEL, a town of France, in the department
cultivated there. It is highly esteemed by the
Chinese, and is now largely imported into Europe. of the Nord, 27 miles north-west of Lille. It is pleasantly situated on a hill, overlooking a country Loil and is also much cheaper than true cinnamon.
As it contains a greater proportion of essential on all sides so flat, that the view, although the lit is much more generally used. The oil which elevation is only 800 feet, is said to be one of|; the widest in Europe, extending over the broad
it contains is called Oil of Cassia, and is very
similar to Oil of Cinnamon. Coarse cinnamon is fertile plains of Flanders, and to the chalk cliffs of
sometimes sold as cassia. C. Buds are believed to England, and taking in 32 towns and 100 villages.
be the dried flower-buds of the same tree which During the great trigonometrical survey undertaken in the reign of the first Napoleon, Mont Cassel was
yields C. bark. They are now imported into
Britain in large quantities, and are much used in one of the chief signal-stations. C. has manufactures of lace, linen, thread, hosiery, &c. Pop. 2700.
confectionery. In flavour and other qualities, they
resemble c. bark; in appearance, they are very It was known to the Romans, who had a station simila
similar to cloves. here, as Castellum...
CASSIA'NUS, JOANNES, or JOANNES MASSICA'SSIA, a name given by the ancients to a LIENSIS, or JOANNES EREMITA, a Christian teacher kind of medicinal bark, but their descriptions are of the ancient church, who flourished in the early 80 imperfect that it is impossible to determine part of the 5th c., and distinguished himself as what bark it is. The name is employed in the the promoter of monachism in Southern Gaul, and English translation of the Old Testament in Exodus as the opponent of the extreme dogmas of St. XXX. 24, and in Psa. xlv. 8, its use in these places Augustine respecting grace and free-will. Shortly being derived from the Septuagint; and it is not before 415 A. D., he went to Masilia (Marseille), improbably supposed that the substance intended is where he founded two monasteries according to the the same now known in our shops as Cassia Bark, or rules laid down in his De Institutis Cænobiorum. Cassia lignea.--2. Cassia is now the botanical name One of these monasteries was for nuns; the other of a genus of plants of the natural order Leguminosce, was the famous Abbey of St. Victor, which under sub-order Coesalpince, containing many species- C. is said to have possessed not less than 5000 more than two hundred having been described inmates, and which served as a model to a multitrees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, natives of tude of monastic institutions in Gaul and Spain. Africa and of the warm parts of Asia and America. His Collationes Patrum Sceticorum is a worn in 24 They have abruptly pinnate leaves, and flowers with chapters, each of which gives a “spiritual colloquy deciduous calyx of five somewhat unequal sepals, between monks in the desert of Sketis,' regard. corolla of five petals, of which the lower ones are ing the monastic life, and the vexed questions of the larger, ten free stamens, of which three are long, theology. C.'s Grecian erudition, his dislike of four short, and three abortive, and anthers opening dogmatic subtilties, and his zeal for monastic habits, by two holes at the top. The leaves and pods of led him to oppose the doctrine of St. Augustine on many species have a peculiar sweetish but nauseous works and grace, and to set up a doctrine which smell, and a nauseous bitter taste accompanied with was known by the schoolmen as semi-pelagianism.' a loathsome sliminess. They seem all to contain See PELAGIANISM. As C.'s doctrine gained support the purgative principle called Cathartine (q. V.), and from the Massilian Monks, St. Augustine, having the leaves of some of the Asiatic and African species been informed of it by his friend Prosper of Aquiare highly valued, and much used as a medicine, taine, wrote strongly against it, especially in his under the name of SENNA (q. v.). The leaves of treatise De Gratia et Libero Arbitrio, contra CollaC. Marylandica possess similar properties, and are torem. It is not known when C. died; but it must now used to some extent in the United States of I have been subsequent to 433 A. D. The first
collected edition of the various works attributed to the ecliptic very nearly, and the length of the year, him was published at Basel, in 1559; the best at &c.--His son, CÆSAR CASSINI, was also engaged in Frankfurt, in 1722. The best account of his life and scientific pursuits. writings is by Wiggers, De Johanni C. (Rostock, CASSINI, JEAN DOMINIQUE, COMTE DE, the son of 1824-1825).
Cæsar Cassini, was born at Paris, June 30, 1748. CA'SSICAN (Cassicus), a genus of birds allied to
He succeeded to the charge of the observatory, and
completed in 1789 the great topographical map of starlings, having an exactly conical bill, thick at the
France, begun by his father. But it having been base, and extremely sharp pointed, the commissure
decreed in 1793 that the observatory should no forming an angulated line, the bill ascending on the
longer be in the hands of one person, three others forehead, and encroaching circularly on the plumage.
were in consequence elected to the superintendence They are all American birds of gregarious habits,
IS, of it along with C., whose conduct on learning this feeding both on fruits and insects, and exhibiting
fact shewed that he had a greater regard for his own such surprising skill and ingenuity in the structure
dignity than for the whole stellar universe. of their nests, that an old lady once gravely asked
He an American ornithologist whether he did not think
refused to have anything mere to do with astro
nomical science, and obstinately kept his purpose they might be taught to darn stockings!' The
through a life that lasted nearly a century, and crested C., or Crested Oriole (C. cristatus), is a
which was apparently so prolonged to test the duranative of Brazil, Guiana, and Paraguay. It is about
bility of a Frenchman's disdain. 20 inches long, is sometimes seen in flocks of 50 or ;
In his 95th year
| he published a small volume of poems! He died 100, and constructs its nest by knitting together shreds of a thin bark, Tillandsias, &c. The nest is
| October 18, 1845. about 36 inches long, and resembles a purse or
CASSIODO'RUS, or (according to several MSS.) pouch, the lower end hemispherical, and 10 inches CASSIODOʻRIUS, MAGNUS AURELIUS, a Latin writer, wide, and is suspended from the extremity of a who distinguished himself by his erudition in an branch of a tall smooth-stemmed tree on the outskirt age of barbarism, was born at Scylaceum (now of a forest, apparently to insure safety from monkeys Squillace), in Calabria, about 468 A. D. He was a and serpents. Several of these nests are often to be member of a noble Roman family, and soon at. seen hanging from the branches of the same tree. tracted the attention of Odoacer by his superior CASSI'NI, the name of a family distinguished by
abilities and accomplishments. Under this monarch ne of a family distinguished by he held various offices, but after the defeat and their services in astronomy and geography.
murder of Odoacer by Theodoric the Ostrogoth, he Cassini, GIOVANNI DOMENICO, was born at Perinaldo, 'near Nice, on the 8th of June 1625, and
passed into the service of the latter. The highest studied at the College of Jesuits, Genoa. In 1650
honours now fell upon him; and for years he ad
ministered the Ostrogothic power with remarkable he was appointed to the astronomical chair in the
prudence and success. In his 70th year, however, university of Bologna. His first work related to the comet of 1652. He subsequently devoted him
he withdrew to Calabria, where he founded the
monastery of Viviers, and employed himself and the self to the determination of astronomical refraction,
other monks in the invaluable work of copying and of the sun's parallax, &c. In 1664–1665 he de
classical MSS. ; his great desire being to improve termined the period of Jupiter's rotation. Subse
the education of the clergy. C. was about 100 years quently he determined the periods of the planets Mars
old when he died. Besides his grammatical and and Venus, as also of the apparent rotation of the sun.
rhetorical manuals, which were used as text-books He it was who discovered the third and fifth satel
during the middle ages, he wrote a very important lites of Saturn, and afterwards the first and second, as well as the dual character of that planet's ring. He
work," entitled. Variarum Epistolarum Libri XII.
This is a collection of state-papers, and is, in fact, was also the first who carefully observed the
the most extensive as well as the most reliable zodiacal light; he demonstrated that the axis of
source of information which we possess in regard to the moon was not (as had been believed) at a right
everything connected with the Ostrogothic rule in angle to the ecliptic, and explained the cause of the
Italy. The style, however, is very peculiar, and phenomenon known under the name of lunar li
shews the influence which the political career of C. bration. One of his finest observations was the
had exercised on his language and modes of thought. coincidence of the nodes of the moon's equator and
The editio princeps of the Variarum was printed at orbit. C. died September 14, 1712, at Paris, whither
Augsburg in 1533. he had gone in 1669, at the invitation of Colbert, to take charge of the observatory erected by that | CASSIOPE'IA, the Lady in her Chair, a constel. minister.
lation in the northern hemisphere, near Cepheus, CASSINI, JACQUES, son of the preceding, was born and not far from the north pole. It is marked by at Paris, February 18, 1677. In 1694 he was elected five stars of the third magnitude, forming a figuro a member of the Academy of Sciences. He travelled like an M. A line from Capella to the bright star in Italy, Holland, and England, where he formed in Cygnus passes nearly through the middle of this the acquaintance of Newton, Halley, Flamsteed, M. C., according to Flamsteed, contains 55 stars, &c., and was elected a member of the Royal all of small magnitude. The figure is that of a Society of London. On the death of his father, he woman sitting in a chair with a branch in her succeeded to the charge of the observatory at Paris, hand. In the year 1572, there all at once appeared and died April 16, 1756. C. wrote several treatises in C. a new star. It was first noticed by Tycho on electricity, the barometer, &c. In his treatise, Brahé on the 11th November, when its lustre exDe la Grandeur et de la Figure de la Terre (Par. ceeded that of all the fixed stars, and nearly equalled 1720), he attempted to shew that the earth must be that of Venus. The star gradually diminished in a spheroid elongated at the poles. The Newtonians lustre, from the time of its being observed until, in denied this, inasmuch as it was opposed to the March 1574, it disappeared. It is said to have ascertained facts of gravitation and rotation, which alarmed all the astronomers of the age. Tycho necessitated the earth's being a spheroid flattened Brahé wrote a treatise on it, and supposed that it at the poles. As an observer, C. was eminently had previously appeared in 945 and 1264; but this successful. He determined the periods of rotation supposition would not appear to be founded on reof all the satellites of Saturn" then known, the liable observation. Sir John Herschel suggests the inclination of the planetary orbits, the obliquity of possibility of its reappearance in 1872.
CASSIQUIA'RÉ, or CASSIQUIARI, a river of which he obtained, on condition of paying tribute Venezuela, South America, forming the south bifur- and giving hostages. cation of the Orinoco, which it leaves in lat. 3° 10'| CA'SSOCK, a long loose coat, formerly in common N., long. 66° 20' W., and after a rapid south-west wear, but now usually worn only by the clergy. As course of about 130 miles, joins the Rio Negro in worn by the clergy of the Church of England, it is a lat, 2° 5' N., long. 67° 40' W. About 100 yards in long coat with a single upright collar. Black is the breadth when it issues from the Orinoco, it gradually common colour for all orders of the clergy, but on increases until at its union with the Rio Negro it state occasions bishops frequently wear purple casattains a width of 600 yards. By means of this socks. In the Roman Catholic Church, cassocks singular river, water-communication is established, vary in colour according to the dignity of the wearer through the Amazon, Orinoco, and their affluents, priests wearing black, bishops purple, cardinals between the interior of Brazil and the Caraccas in scarlet, and the pope white. Venezuela.
CASSOWARY (Casuarius), a genus of birds CASSIS (Fr., the black currant-tree), a French nearly allied to the ostrich (see BREVIPENNES and liqueur prepared from black currants; the manufac- OSTRICH), but distinctively characterised by still ture has recently become of great importance. See greater shortness of wing, by a laterally compressed CURRANT.
bill, by a bony crest, by pendent wattles on the CASSITE'RIDES. See Scilly ISLES.
naked neck, and by three toes on each foot, all CASSIUS, LONGI'NUS Caius, one of Cæsar's furnished with claws, the inner toe short, and assassins. At the breaking out of the civil war, armed with a very long and sharp claw. There are though a tribune of the plebs, he sided with Pompey also very important anatomical differences in its and the aristocratic faction against Cæsar. He was digestive organs, which are not adapted to the same taken prisoner by the latter, who pardoned him, coarse diet, for the C. ‘has short intestines and small and even made him one of his legates. In 44 B. c. 1 coeca, wants the intermediate stomach between the through the influence of Cæsar, he was made Protor crop and gizzard, and its cloaca does not proportionPeregrinus, and was promised the governorship of ally exceed that of other birds. Only one species Syria in the following year. But his mean and jeal is known, Casuarius galeatus, sometimes called ous spirit could not endure the burden of gratitude Emu by the older naturalists, before that name was imposed upon him by the generosity of the dictator. / appropriated to the Australian bird which now and he resolved to be released by the murder of alone receives it. The C. is a native of the Moluccas, his benefactor. Having attached to himself the New Guinea, and other Asiatic islands, chiefly mutinous spirits among the subjugated aristocracy, inhabiting deep forests. In general appearance, it is and also won over M. Brutus, the pseudo-patriotic not unlike the ostrich, but has a much shorter conspiracy was soon matured, and on the 15th of neck. It is the largest known bird except the March, 44 B, C., Cæsar fell by the daggers of assas- ostrich, and its height, when erect, is about five feet. sins. The result of this bloody deed was not what It feeds on fruit, eggs, and succulent herbage. C. had expected. The popular feeling--as witnessed. When attacked, it defends itself by kicking obliquely by the riots that broke out at Cæsar's funeral_was backwards with its feet, and by striking with its strongly against the murderers; and the military short wings, the rigid barbless shafts of which, power fell into the hands of Mark Antony. Č. although useless even to aid it in rupuing, are not therefore fled to the east, and made himself master of Syria. Afterwards he united his forces with those of Brutus, and having greedily plundered Asia Minor, they crossed the Hellespont in the beginning of 42 B. C., marched through Thrace, and took up a superior position near Philippi, in Macedonia. Here they were attacked by Antony and Octavian. The division commanded by C. was totally routed, although, on the other hand, Brutus succeeded in repulsing the troops of Octavian, C., supposing that all was lost, compelled his freedman, Pindarus, to put him to death. C.'s wife, a half sister of Brutus, survived him upwards of sixty years. She died in the reign of Tiberius, 22 A. D.
CASSIUS, PURPLE OF, is a colouring substance of very ancient use, which is prepared by adding a mixed solution of protochloride and bichloride of tin gradually to a solution of chloride of gold, when a more or less abundant precipitate of the double stannate of gold and tin (AuO,Sn02 +Sn0,Sn02) is thrown down. The Purple of C. is soluble in ammonia, yielding a very pretty purple solution, from which it can again be obtained, with solid form un
Cassowary. changed, by evaporating the ammonia. Mixed with borax, or some fusible glass, Purple of C. is employed without value as weapons. There are only about by the potter to communicate a rich purple or rose five of them in each wing, somewhat resembling the tint to the better kinds of china, and it also imparts quills of a porcupine: and at the end of the last the red colour to the kind of glass known as Bo- joint of the wing there is a spur. The colour of the hemian glass.
C. is brownish black; the feathers are loosely CASSIVELAU'NUS, a British chief, who fought webbed, and hang down, so that, at a little distance, against Cæsar during his second invasion of the the bird seems clothed with hair. Those of the island, 54 B. C. He ruled the country north of the rump are 14 inches long, hanging down in place of a Thames, and had a great reputation as a warrior, but tail. The head and upper part of the neck are his capital was taken by the Romans, and he himself naked and of a bluish colour, and there are two compelled to flee. He afterwards sued for peace, pendent wattles, partly red and partly blue, on the