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front of the neck. On the breast is a callous bare, when fashioned into castings. This silvery iron part, on which the bird rests its body on the ground. is a source of great annoyance to manufacturers The bony crest or helmet reaches from the base of of iron, and, at the present time (1860), little is the bill to the middle of the crown, and is about known regarding the cause of its production, and three inches high, exhibiting the most intense blue, as little in reference to any means of preventing its purple, and scarlet blended together. The C. lays a formation. few eggs, which it leaves to be hatched by the heat

CAST STEEL is employed for edge-tools, planeof the sun; and which are greenish, and have a irons, and other cutting instruments. It is genermuch thinner shell than those of the ostrich. Its ally prepared from Blistered Steel (q. v.). The latter flesh is black, tough, and juiceless. The C. is not is cut up into small pieces, and placed in crucibles, unfreqnently to be seen in menageries in Europe, but and covered with broken glass or some slag. These is becoming more rare in its native regions, in which crucibles are about two feet high, and are made of it is sometimes kept tame.

very refractory clay, intermingled with a small CAST, an impression produced by pouring a duc- proportion of coke. Being exposed to a high heat tile substance, such as plaster of Paris, into a mould. in a furnace for three or four hours, the steel is This method was employed by the ancients in mul- melted; and the crucible being lifted out of the furtiplying not only objects of art, such as the small nace, the contents are poured into a cast-iron mould, household statues of the gods, but articles of direct and constitute cast steel. It is extremely hard, and utility. The so-called Celts, or chisels of bronze, may either be employed by itself in the fabrication which, with the moulds for casting them, are found of cutting instruments, or, where cheapness comin England, Ireland, and France, testify to the fact, bined with strength is required, the cutting edge that the art of casting from a mould is one of the merely is made of C. S., the main body of the tool earliest acquired by semi-civilised nations. Casts being ordinary tough bar iron. The union of the are of incalculable value in familiarising the eyes bar iron and C. S. is effected at the time when the of those who can never look on the originals with latter is poured liquid into the moulds, when the the grand and beautiful forms of antique art. two form such an intimate and complete union that The best to be had in this country are those exe- the compound mass may be fashioned into any cuted, and sold on application, at the British shape, and rolled and re-rolled without any tendency Museum. Casting, when applied to metals, is called of the components to separate. In Germany, a Founding (q. v.).

variety of C. S., known as natural steel, is obtained CAST, CASTING-LINE. The casting-line, in An- by partially refining cast iron in a furnace with

charcoal. gling, is a gut-line on which the artificial flies are fastened. It is made up of several lengths of gut,

CASTA'LIA, a fountain on the slope of Parnassus, knotted together, and usually from two to four yards a little above Delphi, io Phocis, sacred to Apollo and long. The flies are attached at intervals of about the Muses. It was the “holy water' of the Delphian two feet, and the line with its flies is called a cast. temple; and all who came to consult the oracle, or The term cast is also applied to a part of a stream visited the place with any religious purpose whatwhere certain fish may be taken, as a trout-cast, a ever, were wont to bathe their hair rore puro Castasalmon-cast.

liæ (in the pure dew of C.), but those who wished to CAST IRON is the variety of Iron (q. v.) The Roman poets feigned that its waters filled the

be purified from murder, bathed their whole body. obtained from the Blast-furnace (q. v.). It is run while hot from the furnace into a series of small mind of those who drank of it with poetic inspiracanals in sand, and the iron cooling and solidifying the river Cephisus, and to flow from the subter

tion. It was imagined to have some connection with there, is ultimately broken up into pigs of Č. I. about four feet long, and three to four inches in ranean Styx. The fountain, whose waters are still diameter. There are several varieties of C. I., which pure and delightful as in the days of classical antiare well known in the arts. These varieties contain quity, now bears the name of St. John, from a small different proportions of carbon united with the iron, chapel of that name close by. ranging from 5 down to 2 per cent.; and the greater

CA'STANETS, a musical instrument of percusthe amount carbon, the more easily fused is the sion in the form of two hollow nut-shells, which are iron, and consequently the suitable for. bound together by a band fastened on the thumb, foundry purposes. No. 1 pig is the best, contains and struck by the fingers to produce a trilling most carbon, fuses most readily, and is 'employed sound in keeping with the rhythm of the music. for small castings; No. 2 is second-rate, has less The krotalon of the ancients was somewhat similar. carbon, takes a higher heat to melt it, and is gener- The C. were introduced into Spain by the Moors, ally used for large pieces of machinery; No. 3 is where they retain the name of castanulas, from their third-rate, has less carbon than No. 2, a higher resemblance to the form of the chestnut. The C. melting-point, and is retained for heavy machinery are now much used in the ballet and in the opera. requiring great strength and some degree of tough- CASTAÑOS, DON FRANCISCO XAVIER DE, Duke ness to resist sudden pressure or strain ; No. 4 is of Baylen, a celebrated Spanish general, was born at fourth-rate, and No. 5 fifth-rate, and these contain Madrid in 1756, and studied in Germany the milistill less carbon, their fusing-point is higher, and tary tactics of Frederick the Great. For some time they are employed in the fabrication of malleable after his return to Spain, be had no opportunity of iron (q. v.). The various kinds of C. I. differ like- acquiring distinction; but when Napoleon I. invaded wise in structure and appearance of surface. Thus, that country, C. received the command of a division No. 1 is large-grained, with the appearance of small of the Spanish army, and on the 22d of July 1808, scales when a fresh surface is exposed, whilst the compelled 20,000 French, under General Dupont, to size of the grains decrease till, in No. 5, the grains surrender at Baylen. It is asserted, however, that or particles are so minute as to communicate a the merit of this prodigious success belonged more whitish granular aspect, so that this is technically to Aloys Reding, a Swiss by birth, and the second called white iron. Besides these numbers, there in command. In November of the same year, C. is a variety of C. I, known to the trade as silvery was in turn defeated by the French at Tudela. iron, which may be obtained in any of the num- The arrival of Wellington necessarily reduced him bers, and

hich is characterised by a light silvery to a subordinate position, but he took part in appearance, and by great comparative weakness the important battles of Albuera, Salamanca, and



His own

Vittoria. In 1811, he was appointed general of the of the Indians into seven tribes or castes, mentioned 4th Spanish corps d'armée, and commandant of several in olden times by Strabo, by Diodorus Siculus, provinces. In 1815, he was placed at the head of and by Arrian. Nor was it forgotten that the 80,000 troops, destined to invade France, some of Egyptians, whose early civilisation was as undoubted which had already crossed the frontier when the as that of India, were also divided, according to news came of the battle of Waterloo. Although no Herodotus, into seven classes of priests, warriors, great favourite with the court politicians, his talents herdsmen, swineherds, tradesmen, interpreters, and could not be overlooked. In 1825 he was called to pilots, to each of which were assigned particular the state council, where he became a decided oppo- districts. nent of the Carlist party. He died 24th September About the middle of the 16th c., however, Abra1852, at the advanced age of 96.

ham Roger, chaplain of the Dutch factory at Pulicat, CASTE, a term applied chiefly to distinct classes gained the confidence of a Brahman, acquainted with or sections of society in India, and, in a modified the Sanscrit language, and by this means learned sense, to social distinctions of an exclusive nature pretty exactly the account of the origin of C. given among the nations of the West. When, at the end in the Laws of Menu, a work inferred to have been of the 15th c., the Portuguese began to penetrate written not later than 900 B.C., which was long to India by the Cape of Good Hope, and to trade known only by name in Europe, until about the end with the Deccan or southern portion of the In- of the last century, when a copy was obtained, and dian peninsula, they found arbitrary social laws, translated by Sir William Jones. The whole of the full of intricate regulations which constantly in- Hindus are represented by Menu as divided into four terfered with their intercourse with the natives,

classes: especially in matters involving the subdivision of 1. The Brahmans, or sacerdotal class, who are labour.

They found certain pursuits invariably said, at the moment of creation, to have issued from followed by a certain class, and any attempt to the month of Brahma. Their business is reading . induce a man to perform offices not appointed and teaching the Vedas, and the performance of for the class of which he was a member, met sacrifice for themselves and others. They are to be with violent opposition, though such offices might, the chief of all created beings; the rest of mortals according to European notions, be more honoura- enjoy life through them. By their imprecations, ble than many he was content to fulfil. They they can destroy kings, with all their troops, and observed, also, that these different classes often elephants, and pomps. Indra, when cursed by one varied in appearance, the result, in some cases, of them, was hurled from his own heaven, and of their addiction for many generations to the compelled to animate a cat. Hence, the Brahman same pursuits; in others, of their having actually is to be treated with the most profound respect, arisen from a different stock. Hence they applied even by kings. His life and person are protected to these various divisions of society the term by the severest laws in this world, and the most casta—a Portuguese and Spanish word, meaning tremendous denunciations for the next. a breed. As applied to these classes of Hindu offences are treated with singular lenity; all offences society, the word has passed into most European against him, with terrible severity. He is forbidden languages. From its frequent use in India, it has to live by service, but on alns; and it is incumbent sometimes been erroneously considered of Hindu upon virtuous men and kings to support him with origin.* Of late, it has been spelled caste, but by liberality; and all ceremonies of religion involve old authors cast; and it is even a question, whether feasts and presents to him. The first part of his the word may not be as genuine English, as casta is life is to be devoted to an unremitting study of the Spanish.

Vedas--books, be it observed, older than the code In the south of India, the Portuguese became of Menu, and yet, except, perhaps, one of the later acquainted with what is considered the most exag- hymns, containing no mention of C. as a religious gerated evil of caste. There are found there large ordinance. He is to perform servile offices for his nunibers of a class called Pariahs, or, in other preceptor, and beg from door to door. districts of India, Chandalas. They are probably second quarter, he lives with his wife, reads and the relics of some early conq'iered race, who have teaches the Vedas, assists at sacrifices, and, .clean been degraded by uninterrupted ages of oppres- and decent, his hair and beard clipped, his passions sion, as is represented to have been the case with subdued, his mantle white, bis body pure, with a the Helots of Sparta, and people in a similar staff and a copy of the Vedas in his hand, and bright condition. These Pariahs were always identified golden rings in his ears,' he leads a studious and with outcasts—i. e., persons who had forfeited the decorous life. The third quarter of his life he must privileges of their original order. No one of any spend in the woods, as an anchorite, clad in bark, C. would have any communication with them. If without fire, wholly silent, and feeding on roots and one of them even touched a Nayr, or warrior of fruits. The last period he is released from external high C., he might with impunity kill him. Some forms and mortifications, and is to spend his time sorts of food were defiled by even their shadow meditating on the divinity, until at length he quits passing over them; and the name of Pariah or the body, as a bird leaves the branch of a tree, at Chandala conveyed to the Hindu the idea of the pleasure.' utmost vileness and disgust. All who violated the 2. The Kshatrya, or Chuttree, or military class, institutions of their clasš were held to sink into this sprang from the arm of Brahma, and bear something class-a condition which involved the loss of all of a sacred character. It is stated that the sacerdohuman respectability and comfort. These regula- tal order cannot prosper without the military, or tions were, moreover, referred to religion.

the military without the sacerdotal; and the prosAs India was at this time the land of the mar. perity of both, as well in this world as in the next, is vellous, and its inhabitants, though as various as made to depend on their cordial union. The Kshathe different nations of Europe, viewed as one trya are to give alms, to sacrifice, to read the Vedas, homogeneons people, what was only true of one and defend the people. Though Brahmans are to portion of the peninsula, was considered as prevail. draw up and interpret laws, they are carefully exing everywhere, and as 'identical with the divisions cluded from administering them. The executive gov

ernment is vested in the Kshatryas alone. * In Sanscrit, castes are called Varnas, i. e., 'colours;'

3. The Vaisya, or Bais, or mercantile class, sprang colour being, no doubt, the ch.ef distinction at first. from the thigh of Brahma. Their grand duties are




to keep cattle, carry on trade, lend on interest, cul- | the man who sweeps your room will not take an tivate the soil, and turn their attention to every empty cup from your hand; your groom will not description of practical knowledge. They are to be mow a little grass; a coolie will carry any load, perfect men of business.

however offensive, upon his head, but even in a 4. The Sudras, or Sooders, or servile class, came matter of life and death, would refuse to carry a from the foot of Brahma. They are to serve the man, for that is the business of another caste. Such three superior classes, more especially the Brah- and many other regulations are described in every

Their condition is never to be improved; work on C., but are as unworthy of serious regard they are not to accumulate property, and are unable as are the assertions of self-importance found among by any means to approach the dignity of the higher little people all the world over. When an English classes. Utter and entire submissiveness to the servant pleads that such a thing is not his place,' Brahmans is the spirit of all a Sudra's duties, and his excuse is analogous to that of the Hindu servant this is to be enforced by penalties as severe as they when he pleads his caste. When an Englishman of are ridiculous. Yet, withal, the Sudras were not to birth or profession, which is held to confer gentility, be slaves, either public or private, and to occupy a refuses to associate with a tradesman or mechanic position much highar than the Chandalas.

or when members of a secret order exclude all Mixture of castes, though not absolutely forbidden, others from their meetings—or when any other entails disadvantages on the children, and the off- similar social distinction arises, it would present spring a Brahmanical woman and a Sudra becomes itself to the mind of the Hindu as a regulation of a Chandala, or outcast.

caste. Such-omitting the minute and childish laws and Nor does C., at the present day, tie a man down penalties, many hundreds in number, by which it to follow his father's business, except, perhaps, in the is proposed to carry the principle of C. into the case of the more sacred functions of the Brahmans. pettiest affairs of life—is a brief outline of it, as For the rest, Brahmans serve as soldiers, and even gathered from the code of Menu. There is no as cooks. Men of all castes have risen to power, historical evidence that it ever existed in this form, just as in England our statesmen have sprung and, from the nature of the case, we may conclude from every class of society. Nor, again, is loss of that it never did. In the Toy-cart, the oldest Hindu C. anything so terrible as has been represented; in drama, no extravagant veneration for Brahmans most cases, it may be recovered by a frugal repast anywhere appears. In fact, one of them is con- given to the members of the C.; or the outcast joins demned to death; and the arrangements of society another C., among whom he will commonly be reappear to have been the same as at present. The ceived with the heartiness due to a new convert. laws of C. form, it is true, a part of what is reputed The question of the restoration of a Christian conto be Hindu law, but they have remained in all vert wishing to rejoin the Brahmanical C., has been the states of India, Hindu as well as Mohammedan, differently decided by his fellow caste-hnen in different to a great extent a dead-letter. There is nothing places. to shew that the code of Menu was drawn up As in the West, so in the East, C. enters into all for the regulation of any particular state. Some the most ordinary relations of life, producing laws have even conjectured that it may have been the often most tyrannical and too anomalous to admit of work of some learned man, designed to set forth his generalisation. In the West, however, whilst good idea of a perfect commonwealth under Hindu insti- sense and Christianity have ever tended to ameliotutions, just as Plato in The Republic gives us his rate social differences, the feeble mind of the Hindu idea of a model government under Greek institu- and the records of his religion have had a contrary tions.

effect. Be this as it may, the C. which at present exists These modified views of C., which have begun throughout the greater part of India is very differ- to prevail in recent years, will be found more ent from that described in the code of Menu, though fully developed in Shore On Indian Affairs, Irving's ito this it owes, no doubt, much of its stability Theory and Practice of Caste. Full accounts of and its importance in the eyes of Europeans. With the petty regulations of C., as laid down in the the exception of the Brahmans, the pure castes have code of Menu, may be seen in Sir William Jones's disappeared, and out of the intermixture of the Translation of the Code of Menu, Robertson's Disothers have sprung innumerable classes, many of quisition on India, Richard's India, Elphinstone's them unauthorized except by the people themselves. History of India, Dubois's India, Colebrooke's So engrained in the whole community is this ten- | Asiatic Transactions, vol. v., and in various articles dency to class distinctions, that Mussulmans, Jews, in the Calcutta Review. An important work on Parsees, and Christians fall, in some degree, into it; The Mythical and Legendary Accounts of Caste, and even excommunicated or outcast Pariahs form was published, Lond. 1858, being part I. of Original castes among themselves. Most of the existing Sanscrit Texts on the Origin and Progress of the castes partake of the nature of associations for mutual Religion and Institutions of India; collected, transsupport or familiar intercourse, and are dependent lated into English, and Illustrated by Notes. Chiefly upon a man's trade, occupation, or profession. Many for the Use of Students and others in India. By of them have been described by Mr. Colebrooke in John Muir, D.C.L. the Asiatic Transactions, vol. 5. Many have had The question how C. is to be dealt with in converts their origin in guilds, in schism from other castes, to Christianity, has now been determined by comin the possession of a particular sort of property (as, mon consent of missionaries in India; and it receives for instance, landlords are spoken of as the C. of no recognition within the Christian church. An zemindars), and similar accidental circumstances. opposite policy, in former times, founded on the Their names are often due to the district in which opinion that C. might be regarded as merely a civil the C. took its rise, to their founder, to their peculiar or social institution, and not as a part of the religion creed, or any random circumstance. In the Bengal of the Hindus, is now beliered to have been among presidency, there are many hundreds of such castes, the principal causes of the comparative decay of the almost every district containing some unknown in churches or congregations founded during the 18th those adjacent. Among the lowest classes, and c. in the south of India. especially among the servants of the English at Cal- CASTE'GGIO, a town of Piedmont, Northern cutta, it has degenerated into a fastidious tenacity Italy, five miles east-north-east of Voghera. In of the rights and privileges of station. For example, the campaign of 1859, C. was occupied by Austrians




prior to the battle of Montebello, in which they , Monte d'Auro, and along a sheltered beach on the were defeated by the French and Sardinians. C. south-east side of the Gulf of Naples, over which it was also valorously but unsuccessfully defended by commands a magnificent view. It is on or near the the Austrians in the great battle of Montebello site of the ancient Stabic, which was desolated by between them and the army of Napoleon I. in 1800. Sylla during the Social War, and where the elder As Clastidium, C. was an important military posi- Pliny afterwards lost his life when the city was tion as early as the times of the Gallic and Pupic overwhelmed with lava from Vesuvius. Some

Some Roman antiquities still remain, and ancient remains have been found here. The town numerous curious inscriptions and coins have been was sacked in the 15th c. by Pope Pius II., and found. Pop. 2900.

again in the 17th c. by the Duc de Guise. It has a CASTE'L (from the Latin castellum) is a name which that founded by Gonsalvo de Cordova, in

royal palace, a cathedral, several convents, among prefixed to various places in Italy, France, Spain, the 16th c., is famous for the possession of an Portugal, &c., of which the most important are

1. C.-ARQUATO, a town of Parma, North Italy, 19 image of the Madonna, found in a well in the 11th miles south-east of Piacenza, picturesquely situated C., which is greatly yenerated by the peasantry, amid forests and vineyards, with a fine Gothic who make an annual pilgrimage to the church. church and a noble old castle, from which the town built in the 12th century. C. has a royal dockyard,

The old castle, which gave name to the town, was derives its name. It has manufactures of silk, and

affording employment to many of the inhabitants, a population of 4400.

2. C.-Bolognese, a town of Central Italy, about and manufactures of linen, silk, cotton, leather, 22 miles west-south-west from Ravenna. It derives

and sail-cloth. Pop. 18,000.

CASTELLAMARE is its name from a strong fortress built here by the also the name of a town in Sicily, situated at the Bolognese in the 14th c. ; and is historically famous head of a gulf of the same name, and 20 miles eası

It , as the scene of a decisive

battle between the Milanese and Florentines in 1434, in which the exports of cotton, wine, fruit, and manna.-C., latter were completely vanquished.

is an extensive bay on the north coast of 3. C.-Buoxo, a town of Sicily, in the province of Sicily. Its width from east to west, between Point Palernio, eight miles south-east of Cefalu. It is Uomo Morto and Cape St. Vito, is about 15 miles ; noted for its mineral springs, and has a trade in and its depth about 14 miles.' It has deep water

and good anchorage, but is much exposed to north manna. Pop. 7000.

winds. 4. C.-Franco, a town of Central Italy, eight miles east of Modena, with the old walls and ramparts of

CASTELLAMO'NTÉ, a town of the Sardinian a castle built by Urban VIII., and near the site of States, 10 miles south-west of Ivrea. It has an the battle between the consuls Hirtius and Pansa old castle, manufactures of earthenware, and a trade and Mark Antony. Also the name of a town of in the agricultural produce of the district. Pop. Venice about 25 miles north-west from the city of 5200. that name, with linen and woollen manufactures, CA'STELLAN, or CHÂTELAIN, the keeper of and a population of 6500.

a castle or burg in the middle ages. The office and 5. C.-GANDOLFO, a village of the Papal States, 11 the rank of the C. were various in various countries. miles south-east of Rome, and near the west shore In France and Flanders, the title C. belonged to of Lake Albano. Its situation is extremely pic, the holders of certain demesnes, and was next in turesque, and it commands extensive views of some order of rank to that of a bailiff.' In Germany, the of the most beautiful scenery in Italy. The pope C. had the jurisdiction of a Burg-graf during the has his summer residence here. In early times, ages of chivalry. In Poland, the title of C., with the noble family of the Savelli had a stronghold its appendages, remained in later times, and, after at C., by means of which, for a period of nearly the 16th c., the castellans, with the waiwodes and 400 years, they bade defiance to popes, barons, and bishops, formed the senate or superior legislative bourgeoisie.

chamber. 6. C.-SARDO (formerly C. Aragonese), a fortified

CASTELLA'NA, a town of Naples, in the provtown and seaport, the strongest on the island of Sardinia, is situated on a steep rock on the north ince of Bari, and 26 miles south-east of the city of

Its trade is confined to the produce of coast, 16 miles north-east of Sassari. The environs

the district. Pop. 9000. produce wine. Pop. 2000.

7. C.-SARRASIN, a town of France, in the depart- CASTELLANE'TA, a town of Terra di Otranto, ment of Tarn et Garonne, on the Songuine, 12 miles Naples, 20 miles north-west of Otranto. It has a west from Montauban. It has the remains of an old cathedral and several convents.

Cotton is grown castle said to be of Saracenic origin, a population in the district. Pop. 5400. of about 5000, manufactures of serge and worsted

CASTELLA'ZZO, a town of the Sardinian States, stockings, and a trade in the agricultural produce of about 5 miles south-west of Alessandria. Pop. 6200. the district. 8. C.-TERMINI (ancient Camiciano Aquc), a town

CASTELLEO'NÉ, a town of Lombardy, North of Sicily, in the province of Girgenti, and 16 miles Italy, situated near the Oglio, about 12 miles northnorth from the city of that name. It has extensive north-west of Cremona. It is surrounded by old mines of rock-salt and sulphur, and a population of walls, has a fine church, and a population of 5700.

CASTELLIO, SEBASTIEN, French theolo9. C.-VETRANO, a town of Sicily, in the province of Trapani, 29 miles south-east of the town of that gian, was born in Dauphiné, in 1515. His proper It is a decaying place with an old castle, name was Châteillon, which he Latinised, according

. About 1540, he was several convents, manufactures of articles of coral

invited to Geneva by Calvin, and appointed and alabaster, and a population of 12,000. Some of Humanity professor ; but having the misfortune, the most esteemed white wine of Sicily is produced afterwards, to differ from the reformer in religious in the vicinity.

opinion, he was banished from the city, and went CASTELLAMA’RÉ, a fortified city and sea- to Basel, where he spent the rest of his life in great port of Naples, about 17 miles south-east of the city poverty. See CALVIN. of that name. It is built on the lower slopes of Among his various writings may be mentioned

that name.





De Hæreticis, &c.--a treatise which argues against | lection for antiquarian studies, more particularly the right of the magistrate to punish heretical numismatics. When only 24 years of age, he opinions, and which produced a reply from Beza ; published a description of the Kufic coins in the a Latin version of the Old and New Testaments, cabinet of Brera, at Milan, under the title, Monete published in 1551, and dedicated to Edward VI. of Cufiche del Museo di Milano (Milan, 1819)

which England; and a posthumous work, in dialogue, on shewed a great knowledge of oriental languages predestination, election, free-will, and faith, first and history. C.'s principal work in the sphere of published by Faustus Socinus in 1578.

oriental literature is his Mémoire géographique et CASTELLO'N DE LA PLANA, a town of numismatique sur la Partie orientale de la Barbarie Spain, capital of the province of the same name, appelée Afrikiah par les Arabes, suivi de Recherches is situated in the midst of a fruitful plain, about 4 sur les Berbères Atlantiques (Milan, 1826), in which miles from the Mediterranean, and 40 miles north- he seeks to ascertain the origin and the history of north-east of Valencia. A magnificent aqueduct the towns in Barbary whose names are found on supplies the means of irrigation. C. is surrounded Arabic coins. Out of Italy, C. is perhaps best by walls, and is for the most part well built. It known by his edition of some fragments of the has some handsome old churches, and a singular Mæso-Gothic translation of the Bible by Ulphilas bell-tower 260 feet high. Ribalta, the celebrated (q. v.), which had been discovered, in 1817, by Spanish painter, was a native of Castellon de la Cardinal Mai among the palimpsests of the AmbroPlana. jt has manufactures of linen, woollen, sail- sian Library. At first, he published some specicloth, paper, earthenware, and firearms; also brandy mens in conjunction with Mai, but in 1829, 1834, distilleries, and an active trade. Pop. 16,000.

1835, and 1839, appeared a variety of fragments CASTELNAUDARY, a town in the department enriched with valuable disquisitions, commentaries,

of the Pauline epistles, edited by himself, and of Aude, France, situated on a declivity, skirted at

and glossaries. the base by the Canal du Midi, 22 miles westnorth-west of Carcassone. It has manufactures of CASTIGLIO'NÉ DE'LLÉ STIVIE'RÉ, a town woollen and silk fabrics, and earthenware, and of Lombardy, North Italy, 22 miles north-west of carries on a lively trade in agricultural produce. Mantua. It is walled, and defended by an ancient The canal at this point expands into a large basin, castle ; but is chiefly celebrated on account of the which serves as a haven. It suffered dreadfully in victory obtained here by the French over the the crusade against the Albigenses, and was, in Austrians in 1796, and which gave the title of Due 1212, the scene of a battle between Simon de de Castiglione to Marshal Augereau. Pop. 5200. Montfort and Raymond, Count of Toulouse. In 1355, it was captured by the Black Prince. In CASTI'LE (Spanish Casti'LLA) forms, in a geo1632, Marshal Schomberg here gained a victory | graphical and political point of view, the central over the party of the Duke of Orleans, when the district of the Spanish peninsula, being the middle brave Duke of Montmorency was takeu prisoner, and most strongly marked plateau of Spain, as and afterwards executed at Toulouse.

well as the central seat of the monarchy. Both CASTELNUO'VO, a seaport town of Dalmatia, geographically and politically it is divided into Austria, situated near the west entrance of the Gulf Old and New Castile--Castilla la Vieja and Castilla of Cattaro. It is surrounded by walls, and defended la Nueva. The former district, situated in 40° 5' by two forts and a citadel. It has manufactures of

- 43° 32' N. lat., and 1° 40'-5° 35' W. long., rises, brass, and a trade in the produce of the district, in the form of an elevated plateau, to the height of which is fertile. It was captured by the British in 2500-3000 feet. It is walled in on all sides : on 1814. Pop., including commune, 7000.

the north, by the highest masses of the Cantabrian , OFa , '

Mountains, which separate it from the Basque provin the province of Siena. It lies to the north of inces and Asturias ; on the south by the high ridge Grosseto, and has a length of about 10 miles, with forming the water-shed between the Douro and the a breadth of from 1 to 3 miles. Receiving the Tagus; while the Sierras de Oca, de Urbion, and waters of the Bruna and other rivers, it discharges Moncayo, and the heights of Leon and Tras-os

on west The high its waters by a short canal into the Mediterranean. CASTIGLIO'NE BALDASA'RRE, Count, one of natural characteristics far from inviting. In many

plateau of Old C. is but scantily watered, and its the most elegant of the old Italian writers, was parts, nothing is presented to the eye but a wide, born, 1478, at Casatico, in the duchy of Mantua, unwooded, almost treeless waste of land, unrefreshed and studied at Milan. His shining talents, know-by streams, in some parts monotonously covered ledge, and pleasing manners made him a favourite with stunted grasses, and in others, almost destitute of Guidobaldo di Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, a of vegetation. The traveller may walk many miles great patron of literature, at whose court he was without finding a village, or even a solitary farmhonourably entertained, along with other men of house. All oid C., however, is not a dusty desert. eminence in letters. He was employed by the There are rich tracts in it producing some of the duke as envoy to Henry VIII. of England, who finest wheat in the world. Madder and grasses made him a knight; and was afterwards sent in are also produced abundantly in some parts; and the same capacity to Louis XII. of France, under even the olive flourishes where it is protected Guidobaldo's successor, in several important ambas- from the frost and snow of the winter, and from the sadorial missions. He died at Toledo in 1529.

cold winds prevailing in October and the following chief work is the book Del Cortegiano, a manual months. Iron and other minerals exist in plenty, for courtiers, remarkable for its elegant style. His but are not worked to any great extent. Sheep, Italian and Latin poems are also models of ele- cattle, pigs, and mules form the chief wealth of the gance, and his Letters (2 vols., Padua, 1769-1771) inhabitants. Manufactures consist of coarse woolcontain interesting contributions to the political and lens, cotton, linen, leather, and glass. literary history of his time. Tasso devoted a sonnet

The plateau of New CASTILE-Which is situated to the death of C., and Giulio Romano raised to his between lat. 38° 23' and 41° 15' N., and long. 1° and memory a monument in Padua.

5° 25' W.-like Old C., is also enclosed by moun, CASTIGLIONE, CARLO OTTAVIO, COUNT, an tains. Though lying 1800 feet lower than Old C., eminent Italian philologist, was born at Milan in New C. presents many similar characteristics of 1795. At an early period, he displayed a predi- soil and scenery. It is mostly sterile, and scantily


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