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irrigated; little rain falls, and the nightly dews are and then bring it forward with a steady cutting insufficient to refresh the plains, which are entirely kind of action, urging the point of the rod towards destitute of trees, and, in summer, appear quite the spot where the fly is to fall, taking care not to burned up. Olives, corn, pulse, and saffron, are carry the point of the rod too far forward, or too cultivated in some neighbourhoods ; but flocks of low, or the line will not fall straight and evenly on sheep constitute the chief wealth of extensive the water. The object of the circular sweep behind tracts of land. The commerce, carried on by means is to prevent the fly from cracking off. By slightly of long trains of mules, reminds the tourist of the raising the point of the rod just as the fly is caravan-traffic over eastern deserts. Industry is delivered, the line is straightened; and the fly, almost entirely restricted to manufactures of coarse checked in mid career, falls like thistle-down upon woollen goods. The yield of the salt-mines in the the water. Always allow time for the line to go south is considerable; and quicksilver, especially straight out behind, for if returned too quickly, at Almaden (q. v.), and iron (manufactured at the fly cracks off. In casting with the doubleToledo) are plentiful. The Castilians have even handed rod, the one hand grasps the rod above the more than the general haughtiness of the Spanish reel, and the other below it, the lower hand acting character. Their language prevails throughout the as a pivot upon which the rod turns. educated classes, as in the literature of Spain, and In casting a bait, either for spinning, trolling, or their rulers have extended their sway over the live-baiting, the bait is suffered to hang from the whole nation.

point of the rod about a yard. Taking the rod the present administrative division of Spain in both hands, the line clasped to the rod in his into forty-nine provinces, the division of Old and right, the angler waves the bait gently back; and New C., though it will long be remembered by the having first drawn as much line as he requires off people, is one belonging to past history. Old C. is the reel, and laid it loosely at his feet, he sends now divided into the eight provinces of Burgos, the bait forward with a swing towards the point Logroño, Santander, Soria, Segovia, Avila, Palencia, he desires to reach. and Valladolid. The population, distributed over CA'STING-NET, a species of net very widely an area of 22,797 square miles, amounted in 1857 distributed, having been found in use amongst to 1,752,084. New C. includes the five provinces

various savage tribes in different parts of the world, Madrid, Guadalaxara, Cuenca, Toledo, and Ciudad some of whom, from long and constant practice, Real, and on an area of 30,882 square miles, has use it with a dexterity and address unknown in 1,587,649 inhabitants. Besides these provinces, the England. The nets used in England are usually kingdom of Leon, Galicia, the principality of Austurias, \ froin 13 to 20 feet in circumference when spread and the districts of Estremadura, Andalusia, Granada, out. They are netted in the shape of a kind of long and Murcia, belonged to the crown of Castile.

loose bag or cone; and so much is the number of C. first became an independent country in 762, meshes increased as the net progresses, that it is and remained so until 1028, when it passed to capable of being spread out in a perfectly flat and Sancho III., king of Navarre. His son, Ferdinand I. circular form, the apex of the cone forming the centre (Great), founded the kingdom of C., and among other of the circle. To this apex is attached a rope of acquisitions annexed to it the kingdom of Leon. some yards in length; when casting, this rope is This union, however, was not permanent, Leon being fastened round the left wrist of the caster. "The made a separate kingdom for Ferdinand II. The bottom of the net, which forms, when it is held up two kingdoms, however, were afterwards reunited by the apex, the base of the cone, or, when spread, in the 13th c. in the person of Ferdinand III., and the circumference of the circle, is hung around with remained ever after under one sceptre. Among the perforated leads or bullets. These have not only successors of Ferdinand III., the most distinguished the effect of carrying the net to the bottom of the was Alfonso X., by whose direction the Alfonsine water, but also, when it is cast, of causing the net (astronomical) tables were drawn up. By, the to spread open. The bottom of the net is turned marriage of Ísabella, sister and successor of Henry up some six inches or more in depth, and hung up IV., with Ferdinand, king of Aragon (1469), the two on the inside about every ten inches or so, to an crowns of C. and Aragon become united (1479), and upper portion of the net, by stout strings, so as to from these sprang the kingdom of Spain, which, form a kind of purse; this is called the “tuck.' however, was not fully established before the death | When the net is required to be cast, the caster, of Ferdinand, in 1516, when Charles I. of Spain having fastened the rope to his wrist, and coiled it (Charles V. of Germany) inherited both crowns.

loosely in his left hand, hangs a portion of the net CASTILLON, a town of France in the departs of the outer edge of the net as he can collect in his

over his left shoulder; and then gathering as much ment of Gironde, situated on the right bank of the Dordogne, 26 miles east of Bordeaux. It has right hand, and holding it up so as to open the net manufactures of cotton and woollen yarns, nails, the body and the right hand—rather difficult to

as much as possible, makes a semicircular sweep of and cordage.

It is celebrated as the scene of the battle between the forces of Henry VI. of England, accomplish without practice—and whirls the net and Charles VII. of France, July 1453, in which thus communicated to the leads, &c., on the

The centrifugal motion the English met with a signal defeat, their leader, bottom of the net, causes it to open like a circle the Earl of Shrewsbury, and his son, being slain.

on the surface of the water, the leads carry it to remained to the English after this battle, the inci- the bottom, and the net thus covers all that comes

within its circle. dents of which were seized on by Shakspeare for

The rope is then pulled graduthe sixth scene in his play of King Tenry VI., ally, and worked from side to side, in order to Part I. Pop. 3650.

narrow the circle, to bring it once more into a

cone; and, in their efforts to escape, the fish that CASTING, in Angling, is the term applied to may have been covered are gradually driven into the act of throwing a fly or a fish-bait. In casting the tuck or purse of the net. When the leads a fly with a single-handed rod, the beginner should are all close together, the net is lifted from the let out about as much line as the length of the rod; water, and the fish in the tuck are taken out. The grasp the rod just above the reel; then wave it cost of a cast-net is regulated by the circumference back over the right or left shoulder, with a slightly and the size of the mesh. They may be had from circular sweep, so as to extend the line behind ; | 128. to 30s. or more.


CA'STING-VOTE, the vote by which the, castles, which are ascribed to its aboriginal or chairman or president of a meeting is generally early inhabitants. These are generally situated on empowered 10 cast the balance on the one side or the the tops of hills; as, for example, the Herefordshire other, where the other votes are equally divided. In | Beacon, on the Malvern Hills ; Moel Arthur, in the House of Commons, the Speaker does not vote Flintshire; Chem Castle, in Cornwall; the Maiden at all unless this occurrence takes place. As his Castle, in Dorsetshire; the Caterthuns, near Brechin, position in this respect is felt to be a delicate one in Forfarshire; the Barmkin of Echt, in Aberdeenfor a person whose duty it is to withdraw himself shire. It is probable that the Saxons adapted the from the contentions of party, it is usual for the Roman castles to a certain extent to their modes Speaker to vote in such a way as to give the House of defence, and traces of Saxon, and even Norman an opportunity of reconsidering its decision. The workmanship are found in structures which are same rule prevails in select committees. Following a similar rule, the chairman at corporation and general meetings usually gives his casting-vote either in a way that will lead to a reconsideration of the subject, or for what seems the popular view of the case, although that may be at variance with bis convictions.

CASTLE (Sax. castel; Lat. castellum, dimin. from castrum), a building constructed for the purpose of repelling attack. The root of the word is the same as that of casa, a little house or hut, and probably means a driving off or repelling; and it is worthy of notice, in confirmation of this view, that in Welsh the radical syllable cas, signifies a C., separated, and also hatred, malice, &c. The castella, left by the Romans in Britain and elsewhere, were Roman Castellum.-From Vatican Virgil. constructed on the general model of their stationary encampments (castra stativa), (see Camp and believed to have been originally Roman. One ENCAMPMENT); and though they may have suggested the castles of the middle ages, they differed from of earth on one side of the walls on which the

very frequent change consisted in raising a mound them in being designed for military purposes only, keep or citadel was erected. The Decuman and and not also as places of permanent residence. Even Prætorian gates were also, as at Portchester, conBurgh Castle, in Suffolk, the ancient Garamonium, verted into the fortified entrances peculiar to the and Richborough Castle, in Kent, the ancient verted into the fortified entrances peculiar to the

castellated structures of the middle ages. But of Rutupiæ, were encampments or fortresses, rather castles designed for residence as well as defence, than castles. The accompanying ground-plan, taken from Mr. Roach Smith's interesting work on the there are few or none which are of higher antiquity Antiquities of Richborough and other places in Kent, isation of the feudal system-castle-guard being one

than the Conquest. They were part of the organof the duties which the tenants were taken bound

pay in return for their lands; and till that system was developed by the Normans, the residences of persons of importance were probably

uarded only by their domestic retainers, or, in Jual

extraordinary circumstances, perhaps by the national • 120 160

militia. The absence of strongholds is said to have been a reason why William the Conqueror so easily became master of the kingdom; and it was as a protection against the resentment which the Conquest occasioned, that most of the great Norman castles of England were built. As these castles grew in strength by the additions and improvements of each generation, they afforded their possessors the

means not only of security from their fellow-subjects, H

but of independence as regarded the central govern

The lord of every C. became a petty tyrant; and no small portion of the history of England, and, indeed, of Europe altogether, during the feudal period, consists of an account of the attempts which were made by the monarch to extirpate what Matthew Paris has emphatically designated as these nests of devils and dens of thieves.' Of

castles of this description, it is said that in England, Plan of Roman Castrum at Richborough:

in the reign of Stephen (1135—1154), no fewer than

1115 were built. A, postern gate; B, decuman gate; C, D, square towers; The Norman C., which was the most complete F, corner of south wall projecting over the cliff; G, return wall overthrown; H, site of tower in north wall'; I, surface structure of the kind, was generally surrounded of subterranean building.

by a moat or ditch; and in order that the ditch

might be readily filled with water, the site chosen will give a better conception than any mere descrip- was usually either on the banks of a river, or on tion of the remains of the most remarkable Romana peninsula running into a lake. In the latter castellated fort to be found in this country.

case, the ditch was of course merely a deep cut Besides these monuments of the military occupa- made through the neck of land, by means of which tion of the island by the Romans, traces are found the C. and its surroundings were converted into in various parts of the country of encampments or

On the inner side of the ditch, pounds

an island.



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were constructed, wbich were surmounted with the walls of his C. afforded to the retainers of a walls and towers, both of which, but particularly baron, in a state of society in which life and prothe latter, were supplied with battlements and perty were extremely insecure, naturally led to the bastions. The entrance-gates were also protected construction of houses around the moat, and to this by towers, which were usually of great strength. custom a very large number of the towns, both in The communication was by a bridge, sometimes England and on the continent of Europe, owe their of stone, but usually of wood, which was made origin. Along the banks of the Rhine, this process to draw up and down; and the entrance, in of town-formation may be seen in all its earliest addition to thick folding-doors, was protected by a stages; from the few peasants' houses and the Portcullis (q. v.), which was dropped down through village church nestling under the ivy-covered ruin grooves in the masonry at the sides. The gateway, on the cliff, to the large and prosperous city of in castles of the larger sort, was further defended Coblenz. Strange as it may seem, the existence of by a Barbican (q. v.). On passing the external wall, these castles may be regarded not only as a cause, you entered the Bailey (q. v.), which sometimes but as an effect of a certain feeling of security on consisted of several courts, and contained the the part of the surrounding population; for where barracks, magazines, well, a chapel, and sometimes a country was thoroughly insecure, the risk of the even a monastery. The only portion of the C. castles falling into the hands of the enemy, and thus which was always spoken of as distinguished from proving a source not of protection but of oppression, the bailey, was the Keep (q. v.) or citadel, which was so great as to prevent their erection. It is on corresponded to the prætorium of the Roman forti- this ground that Sir Walter Scott explains the slight fication. The keep was a species of internal C., character of the fortresses on the Scottish border, more strongly defended than any other portion of notwithstanding, centuries of warfare. the fortress, and placed in the most advantageous carly discovered that the English surpassed their position, so as to afford a last chance to the garrison neighbours in the arts of assaulting and defending when driven from the external works. As the keep fortified places. The policy of the Scotch, therefore, had the same design as the C. itself, it contained detørred them from erecting upon the borders buildmost of its appliances, even to a chapel, when large ings of such extent and strength, as being once taken and complete. Under the keep was the Dungeon by the foe, would have been capable of receiving a (q. v.). An excellent example of a keep is seen at permanent garrison. To themselves, the woods and

hills of their country were pointed out by the great Bruce as their safest bulwarks; and the maxim of the Douglases, that "it was better to hear the lark sing, than the mouse cheep," was adopted by every border chief. For these reasons, we do not find, on the Scottish borders, the splendid and extensive castles which graced and defended the opposite

frontier. The Gothic grandeur of Alnwick, of Raby, .

and of Naworth, marks the wealthier and more secure state of the English nobles.' The residence of the Scottish chieftain - was commonly a large square

battlemented tower, called a keep or peel, placed on 1

a precipice, or on the banks of a torrent, and, if the ground would permit, surrounded by a moat. In short, the situation of a border-house, encompassed by woods, and rendered almost inaccessible by torrents, by rocks and morasses, sufficiently indicated the pursuits and apprehensions of its inhabitants.'

Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, Introduction. 5

CASTLEBA'R, the capital of the county of Mayo, Ireland, 159 miles west-north-west of Dublin. It

is situated on the Castlebar river, near the head of 7

a valley at the north-west end of the great limestone
plain which includes the greater part of the counties
of Roscommon, Sligo, G::lway, and Mayo. The two
main streets cross each other, and the chief build-
ings are in a square near the west end. The sub-
urbs, as in most of the west Irish towns, consist of
the wretched hovels of agricultural labourers. Pop.
C. has some

coarse linen inanufactures. Here the Irish, in the rebellion of 1641, massacred the English parliamentary army, and in 1786 was executed the famous 'fighting Fitzgerald. In 1798, the French general, Hummert, held the town for a fortnight. In 1846 and 1847, C. suffered extremely

from the famine. A NORMAN CASTLE.–From an Ancient Drawing pub

CASTLERE A'GH, LORD. See LONDONDERRY, lished in Grose's Military Antiquities.

MARQUIS OF. 1. The Dungeon; 2. Chapel; 3. Stable; 4. Inner Bailey; 5. Outer Bailey ; 6. Barbican; 7. Mount; 8. Soldiers' Lodg

CASTLES, in Heraldry, are often given as charges ings. The Mou't is supposed by Grose to be the Court in the shields of persons who have reduced them, or hill, where the lord dispensed justice, and where it was also been the first to mount their walls in an assault.

The practice of heralds, in this as in other respects,

has not been very consistent, as we learn that in Rochester Castle. The best known is probably that 1602, a castle was granted by William Cambden, at Windsor, which forms so prominent an object in Clarencieux King of Arms, to William Frear, doctor the surrounding landscape. The protection which of physic!

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CA'STLETOWN, the capital town and seat of on by medicine ; while a dose of a table-spoonful, government of the Isle of Man, called Manx Balley or a little more, will almost always succeed if it Cashtal, or the Town of the Castle. C. is situated remains on the stomach. The only serious objecon the margin of Castletown Bay, near the southern tions to the use of C. O., are its disagreeable extremity of the island, and surrounded by Castle flavour, and the sickness often produced by it; some Rushen, a Danish fortress of prodigious strength, persons get over this difficulty by floating the oil having walls from 12 to 18 feet in thickness, built of in hot coffee, which is used to remove its nauseous the limestone found on the spot, which is of so im- quality. perishable a nature that the sharp angles of the keep The adulterations of C. O. may be various. Several retain the marks of the builder's chisel, though of the fixed oils, including lard, may be employed. completed in the 10th century. The castle was The best test of its purity is its complete solubility founded by Guthred II. of the Orrys kings of Man, in its own volume of absolute alcohol, which other and having been added to from time to time, it now fixed oils are not. Croton oil is occasionally added, consists of a pile of building of a most imposing to increase the purgative powers of the oil. appearance. It underwent a six months' siege by The CASTOR-OIL Plant (Ri'cinus communis) is a Robert Bruce in 1313. The keep is used as the native of the south of Asia, but now naturalised public jail of the island, and the other portion of in the south of Europe, and in other warm regions the castle consists of public offices, officers' a part of the globe. The genus Ricinus belongs to the ments, and accommodation for the chancery and natural order Euphorbiaceæ. If has panicled flowers, other superior courts.

with 3—5-partite perianth; the fruit a tricoccous Being in the neighbourhood of the bold coast- capsule, with one seed in each cell, the outside of scenery of the Calf of Man, Spanish Head, &c., C. is the capsule generally covered with soft spines. The a desirable resort for the numerous tourists who fre- castor-oil plant is often cultivated in gardens in the quent the Isle of Man.

Ship-building has of late middle, and even in the northern parts of Europe, made considerable progress in Castletown. Popu- where it is only an annual, attaining a height of lation in 1851, 2501.

3--10 feet, but highly ornamental by its stately CA'STOR and POʻLLUX, the two principal stars growth, its large, broad, palmato-peltate, 7—9-fid in the constellation Gemini (q. v.), were so called leaves, 42'feet in diameter, and its generally from Castor and Pollux, sons of Leda and Tyndareus, purplish hue. Its flowers are produced in long king of Lacedæmon. Their sister was the famous glaucous racemes. In warmer climates, it is perenHelen of Troy. On account of their mutual attachment, Zeus placed them among the stars.

CASTOR AND POLLUX, the name given to a meteor seen at sea, and which, under the form of twin balls of fire, attaches itself to the masts of ships. Sailors predict fair weather from its appear

Sometimes, however, only one ball of fire is seen; the meteor' is then called Helena, and it is regarded as foreboding a storm. Shakspeare makes mention of this superstition in the Tempest (Act i. Scene 2).

CASTOR OIL, a fixed oil obtained from the seeds of the C. 0. plant. In extracting the oil, the seeds are first bruised between heavy rollers, and then pressed in hempen bags under a hydraulic or screw press. The best variety of oil is thus obtained by pressure in the cold, and is known as cold-drawn C. 0.; but if the bruised and pressed seeds be afterwards steamed or heated, and again pressed, a second quality of oil is obtained, which is apt to become partially solid or frozen in cold weather. In either case, the crude oil is heated

а with water to 212°, which coagulates, and separates the albumen and other impurities. Exposure to the sun's light bleaches the oil, and this process is resorted to on the large scale. When pure and cold drawn, C, O. is of a light-yellow colour; but when of inferior quality, it has a greenish, and occasionally a brownish tinge. It is somewhat thick and viscid. Its specific gravity is high for an oil, being about 960

Castor-oil Plant: (water being taken as 1000). It is miscible with a, end of a branch, with leaves and flowers; 6, a capsule. alcohol or spirits of wine and ether. Reduced to a temperature of 0° F., it does not become solid; but nial, and its stem becomes arborescent, attaining even exposed to the air, it very slowly becomes rancid, 30 feet in height, with a corresponding thickness, so then dry and hard, and serves as a connecting-link that ladders are used for climbing it. Different spebetween the drying and the non-drying oils. It has cies which have been described, are probably mere a nauseous smell, and an acrid, disagreeable, and varieties. It was known to the ancients, and apsickening taste, which may be overcome by the pears to have been valued by them. Its seeds have addition of a little magnesia. The principal acid been found in Egyptian sarcophagi. From the present in it is ricinolic acid (H0,Cs6H330g), which resemblance of its seeds to an insect called ricinus, is allied to oleic acid.

it received that name from the Romans. T'he seeds C. 0. is one of the most convenient and mildest are oval, and about four lines long. They are of purgative medicines.' Given in doses of one or chiefly valued for the oil which they yield, on two tea-spoonfuls, with a little peppermint-water, account of which the plant is cultivated in the it forms à gentle laxative for habits easily acted Levant, Spain, Provence, the West Indies, Brazil,



It is of egg

the United States of America, so far north as New De Afixis Personalibus Linguarum Altaicarum Jersey, and in other tropical and warm temperate (Helsingfors, 1850), &c. countries.---Although castor oil is chiefly used in

CASTRES, a town of France, in the department medicine, it is not unfit for lamps and for oiling of Tarn, is situated on both sides of the river Agout, the wheels of machinery. The streets of Lima are 46 miles east of Toulouse. The two parts of the lighted, and the machines used in the works of town are united by two stone bridges. In the the sugar-plantations of Peru are oiled with it. middle ages, C. was celebrated for its Benedictine C. O, is made on a large scale at St. Louis, Mo., from abbey, the heads of which exerciséd a temporal beans grown in Illinois. The annual product has sway over the place. Later, it was one of the reached nearly 250,000 gallons, most of which was strongholds of the reformed party, but it was forced required to supply the home demand.

to submit, and had its fortifications demolished in CASTO’REUM, a substance secreted in two the reign of Louis XIII. C. has beautiful promglandular sacs, closely connected with, but quite enades, shaded by fine alleys of trees, and in the distinct from, the organs of reproduction in the neighbourhood is a remarkable rocking-stone, 11 Beaver (q. v.), and at one time held in the highest feet high, and weighing some 30 tons.

. repute in medicine, although now regarded as almost shape, and rests upon its smaller end; a strong push inert, and chiefly used by perfumers. The C. sacs is sufficient to cause its vibration. C. is a busy are pear-shaped, and it appears in commerce in manufacturing place. Its fine wool-dyed goods are these sacs themselves, connected in pairs as they especially famous, and it has also manufactures of are taken from the animal. C. is produced both by linen, leather, paper, soap, &c. Pop. 14,144. the male and by the female beaver. In Hudson's

CA'STRI, or KASTRI, a village of modern Bay commerce, ten pair of them are equal in value Greece, in the goverument of Phocis, situated on to one beaver skin. Russian C. is of much higher the south declivity of Mount Parnassus, and worthy value than American. C. was well known to the of notice, as occupying a portion of the site of the ancients. From the time of Hippocrates, it was ancient Delphi (q. v.). The famous Castalian spring, regarded as having a specific influence over the now called the Fountain of St John, is situated uterus, and is still in use in the north of Europe. between 200 and 300 yards to the cast of the village. It was at one time also esteemed a most valuable Beside it grows a plane-tree, the only one in C., medicine in hysteria, catalepsy, and other spasmodic which is fabled to be that planted by Agamemnon. diseases.

CA'STRO (ancient Mitylene), a seaport town of CASTO'RIDÆ, a family of Mammalia of the Asiatic Turkey, capital of the island of Mitylene, order Rodentia, of which the Beaver (Castor) is the situated on the east coast, about 55 miles north-west type, and in which, besides the beaver, the Coypu of Smyrna. It is surrounded with walls, and (Myopotamus), and the Musquash, some naturalists defended by a castle, and its streets are narrow and include other genera more commonly regarded as dirty. Remains of the ancient town are found to belonging to the Mouse and Rat family (Muridæ), the west. Pop. 6500. as the Lemmings and Voles.

CASTRO, INES DE, whose mournful fate is the CASTRAMETA'TION is the art of encamping; subject of several tragedies and poems, was the and a camp is the result of that art. See Camp, daughter of Pedro Fernandez de Castro, and sprang ENCAMPMENT.

from a branch of the royal family of Castile. She CASTREN, MATTHIAS ALEXANDER, the greatest was appointed lady-in-waiting to the wife of Dom authority in regard to the Finnish people and Pedro, son of Alfonso IV. of Portugal. Her language, was born in 1813, not far from the Lappish beauty captivated Dom Pedro, and after the death boundaries of Finland. He received his earliest of his wife, in 1345, he secretly married Ines. instruction in the town of Tornea, and afterwards Their stolen interviews took place in the convent studied at Helsingfors. About the year 1838, he of St Clara, at Coimbra, until the secret was undertook a pedestrian excursion through Finnish discovered and revealed to the king, who was made Lapland, in order to extend his knowledge of the to believe that this union might prove injurious to language and literature; and, in 1840, another the young Ferdinand, son of Dom Pedro by his de through Carelia, to collect ballads, legends, &c., ceased wife. Questioned by his father, Dom Pedro illustrative of Finnish mythology. On his return, had not the courage to reveal the whole truth, while he published in Swedish a translation of the famous he refused to marry another. In the king's council, Finnish poem, Kalevala, the metre and style of it was determined that Ines must die. To see this which have been imitated by Longfellow in his sentence executed, the king hastened to Coimbra, poem of Hiawatha. Aided by the government of while his son, Dom Pedro, was engaged in hunting his native province, he commenced his researches (1355); but the sight of the beautiful Ines, who, among the Finnish, Norwegian, and Russian Lap- with her children, cast herself at the feet of the landers, as also among the European and Siberian king, and prayed for mercy, diverted him for a few Samoyeds. Appointed linguist and ethnographer to moments from his purpose. His advisers, however, the St Petersburg Academy, C., between the years soon obtained from the king permission to execute 1845 and 1849, prosecuted his laborious investiga- the sentence, and, in the course of an hour after the tions as far east as China, and as far north as the interview, Ines fell pierced by the daggers of assasArctic Ocean. On his return, he was appointed first sins. Dom Pedro attempted a revolt against his professor of the Finnish language and literature at father, but was pacified by the queen and the Archthe university of Helsingfors. He employed himself bishop of Braga, and promised not to seek revenge in preparing for publication the vast materials which for the death of Ines. Two years afterwards, the he had collected, but died 7th May 1852, from king died, having shortly before his death recomexhaustion-a martyr to science. Before his death mended the murderers of Ines to leave Portugal, appeared Versuch einer ostjäkischen Sprachlehre and seek shelter in Castile, where Peter the Cruel nebst kurzen Wörterverzeichniss (Petersburg, 1849), Į was then ruling. As several of Peter's nobles had as the first instalment of his Northern Travels and escaped into Portugal, to avoid his oppression, he Researches. He also wrote Elementa Grammatico now proposed to Dom Pedro an exchange of fugiSyrjaence (Helsingfors, 1844), and Elementa Gram- tives, to which the latter (now king of Portugal) maticce T'scheremissæ (1845); On the Influence of the consented. Two of the assassins accordingly were Accent in the Lappish Language (Petersburg, 1845); 1 delivered up, and were tortured and burned. Two

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