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BELGIUM.

a condition of cbedience. In a short time, dis- were sent to the Hague to state the causes of the content openly manifested itself. The Austrian general dissatisfaction, merely insisted on its posa authorities were attacked ; Brabant refused to pay sessing a separate administration, with the redress taxes; while the more violent fled into Holland, of particular grievances. But the dilatory and and organised an armed expedition. Returning, they obstructive conduct of the Dutch deputies in the were joined by numbers of the inhabitants, defeated states-general assembled at the Hague on the 13th the foreign troops, captured Brussels, and in the September, exasperated the Belgian nation beyond beginning of 1790, declared their independence. measure. A new and more resolute insurrection In the course of the year, however, the Austrians instantly took place. In seven days, the people succeeded in regaining possession of the country. had deposed the old authorities, and appointed a The privileges of the states as they existed at the provisional government. Prince Frederick, the son close of the reign of Maria Theresa were restored, of the sovereign, who commanded his father's and at the same time stringent measures were troops, was compelled to retreat from Brussels to adopted to prevent any renewal of disturbances. Antwerp, having suffered considerable loss. On the But this state of peace was soon interrupted by the 4th of October, B. was declared independent by outbreak of the war of the French Revolution. B. the provisional government, composed of Messieurs was conquered by Pichegru in the campaign of Rogier, D'Hooghvorst (commandant of the civic 1794, and subsequently united to France by the guard), Joly, an officer of engineers, and the secretreaties of Campo-Formio and Luneville. It now taries Vanderlinden and De Coppin; Count Felix shared in the fortunes of France during the Consul. de Mérode, Gendebien, Van de Meyer, Nicolai, and De ate and the Empire ; received the Code Napoleon; Potter, the democratic leader. They also announced and in all political relations, was organised as a part that a sketch of the new constitution was in course of France. After the fall of Napoleon, it was united of preparation, and that a national congress of 200 with IIolland, and its boundaries defined by the deputies would shortly be called together. Freedom Congress of Vienna (May 31, 1815).

of education, of the press, of religious worship, At the introduction of the new constitution, the &c., were proclaimed. Here and there, the new want of national unity in language, faith, and liberty shewed a tendency to become anarchic; but manners was strikingly manifested by the two great its excesses were speedily suppressed ; and at the parties--the Dutch Protestant population, with their national congress of the 10th November, out of 187 commercial habits, on the one side, and the Catholic votes, only 13 were in favour of a democratic population, of agricultural and manufacturing B., government. Meanwhile, the London Congress had on the other. These natural and unavoidable assembled, and after mature deliberation, recognised obstacles to the political harmony of the new king- the severance of the two kingdoms as a fait accompli dom, were further increased by the unfair treatment (December 10). The Belgian Congress, on its which B. experienced. All the more important assembly (February 23, 1831), appointed Baron Surlet provisions of the constitution had a regard chiefly de Chokier provisional regent, but on the 9th July to the interests of Holland. Repeated attempts elected Prince Leopold of Saxe-Cobourg king, who were made to supersede the Belgian language by the entered Brussels on the 21st of the same month, and Dutch in all affairs of administration and jurispru- subscribed the laws of the constitution, which in dence, though the former were the more numer- the meantime had been prepared. Holland, howerer, ous people; the privileges of the Belgian clergy refused to acknowledge the validity of the decision were abridged; the poorer classes were severely of the London Congress, and declared war against B., taxed; while the government was almost exclusively which was speedily terminated through the intercomposed of Dutchmen. In 1830), among seven ference of France and England-Ilolland obtaining ninisters, there was only one Belgian ; among 117 several advantages, among others, that B. should allfunctionaries of the ministry of the interior, only nually pay 8,100,000 guilders as interest for its share 11 Belgians; among 102 subordinates of the ministry in the national debt of Ilolland. The latter country, at war, only 3 Belgians; and among 1573 officers however, was still dissatisfied, and again ventured to of infantry, only 274 Belgians. B. was politically employ force. England and France were once more divided into two classes--the Liberal and the Catholic. i compelled to interfere. The blockade of the coast Both of these strongly resented and opposed the of Ilolland soon brought the Dutch to terms, and encroachment of Holland: the Liberals, from a the dispute was finally closed by a treaty signed in desire to preserve the national secular institutions; London, May 21, 1833. the Catholics, from a desire to preserve the national The monarchy of B. is hereditary, according to the Church. The government became alarmed at their law of primogeniture, but with a perpetual exclusion increasing hostility; and ultimately, when their of females and their descendants. The legislative patriotic fusion rendered its position critical, it power is vested in the king and two chambers; and made several concessions; the supremacy of the the king has the power to dissolve either the Senate Dutch language, and the taxes on the necessaries or the Ilouse of Representatives, or both. The of life, were abolished. Efforts were also made to number of the representatives is 108, elected for 4 conciliate the Catholic priesthood. But these con- years. Eleetors must be Belgians by birth or cessions came too late, and were, in consequence, naturalisation, must have attained 25 years of age, only construed as signs of weakness. In 1828 and and pay taxes, each to the amount of £1, 13s. 1d. 1829, it was attempted to coerce and intimidate the Members of the Chamber of Representatives require opposition, by prosecuting the liberal or democratic no property qualification. The Senate consists of leaders. This only fanned the fire of discontent, half the number of representatives, and is elected by which was already burning fiercely in the hearts of the same constituency, but for 8 years instead of 1. the Belgians, and panting for an opportunity to A senaior must be 10 years of age, and must pay break out into visible insurrection.

at least 1000 florins of direct taxes. The budget is From 1830 to 1865.—The French revolution of annually voted by the chambers, and the contingent 1830 afforded the desired occasion. On the king's of the army is also subject to their annual vote. birthday (August 24, 1830), several riots occurred. In 1842, a law was carried in both chambers, by in various towns of Belgium. At this period, which it was enacted that the parishioners should be however, the idea of separation from Holland bound to provide elementary schools, according to does not seem to have presented itself con- the wants of the population, in all places where sciously to the Belgian mind; the deputies who the want of education was nct fully supplied by

BELGOROD-BELIAL.

voluntary means. The main regulations for the l BELGORO'D (Russian Bejelgorod, “White Town'), universities were effected by the ministry of De a town of 12,000 inhabitants, in the Russian governo Theux, 1835; but the organisation of intermediate ment of Koursk. It is situated on the Donetz, in instruction (that is, between the Ecoles Primaires lat. 50° 40' N., long. 36° 35' E. B., which derives its and the universities) was postponed, as involving name from a chalk-hill in the vicinity, is divided some delicate party interests, until 1850; and even into two--the old and the new towns. It is built then was not concluded in a way satisfactory to the chiefly of wood, is an archbishop's see, has numerous Catholic clergy.

churches, two monasteries, manufactories of leather, In 1838, it seemed as if Holland and B. were soap, &c., and carries on a considerable trade in wax, likely to engage in war once more. According bristles, and hemp. Three important fairs are held to the twenty-four articles' of the Definitive here during the year. Treaty,' B. was under obligation to give up Limbourg

| BELGRA'DE, the ancient Singidunum, styled and a part of Luxembourg during the above-men

by the Turks Darol-Jihad, the House of the Holy tioned year. This it now refused to do, and put its

War,' and in German, Weissenburg, is an important army on a war-footing; but its obstinacy finally

fortified and commercial town, capital of Servia. It gave way to the unanimous decision of the five

is situated at the confluence of the rivers Save and great powers.

Danube. The name B. is derived from the Slavonic After 1840, the opposition of the Catholic to the

bielo, white,' and grad or grod, a “fort' or “town.' Liberal party became more and more decided. The

B. contains about 30,000 inhabitants, and is divided elections of June 8, 1841, were attended with great

into four parts—the fortress, a very strong place, excitement, and it was a significant fact, that the

which, situated on the tongue of land between the liberal candidates re-elected were everywhere re.

rivers, commands the Danube; the Water Town, turned by large majorities, while in the principal towns where Catholics were returned, only small

also well protected by walls and ditches, on the

north; the Raitzen Town on the west, and the majorities appeared. Meantime, however, commerce

Palanka on the south and east of the citadel. B. progressed under a wise and liberal policy. In July 1845, the liberal Van de Weyer, at the

contains fourteen mosques, of which the principal

one is in the citadel. Here the pasha, 'of three head of a new adninistration, endeavoured to con

horse-tails,' has his residence. firm the so-called 'union' of Catholics and Liberals:

Vessels navigating

the Danube anchor between the three islands above But he had scarcely asserted the prerogative of the civil power in matters pertaining to the question of

| Belgrade. B. has manufactories of arms, cutlery, education in the 'intermediate schools, when he

saddlery, silk goods, carpets, &c., and is the seat was forsaken by his colleagues, who acted under the

of the chief Servian authorities. It is the entrepôt

of the trade between Turkey and Austria. The influence of the Catholic priesthood. In March

position of B. has made it the chief point of com1846, a purely Catholic ministry was formed under the presidency of De Theux.

munication between This was an anachron

Constantinople and Vienna,

and the key to Hungary on the south-east. It has ism, for the elections of 1845 had secured a victory |

consequently been the scene of many hard contests. for the Liberals.

The Greeks held it until 1073, when it was captured The elections of 1847 at last brought to a close

by the Hungarian king, Salomon. After this, it the system of government in subservience to the church. A new liberal ministry was formed by

| passed through the hands of Greeks, Bulgarians,

Y Bosnians, and Servians, and these last proprietors Rogier and others, whose programme of policy promised the maintenance of the independent civil

sold it, in the beginning of the 15th c., to the

Emperor Sigismund. In 1442, it was unsuccessfully authority in all its subordinate functionaries; a

besieged by the Turks, with a large and vain outlay budget favourable to the public with regard to

of time and money; and when stormed (July 14, duties on provisions; and measures to promote the

1456), was retaken from the Turks by the heroism interests of agriculture. The institution of numerous agricultural and commercial schools, norinal

of Hunyades and Capistrano. In 1522, it was

| carried by the Sultan Soliman II. In 1688, it was ateliers, popular libraries, and other means used for

stormed and taken by Maximilian, Elector of raising the working-classes, were followed by most beneficial results.

Bavaria ; but in 1690 was recaptured by the Turks, The revolutionary tempest of when the Christian carrison had been reduced to 1848, however, menaced the tranquillity of the

| 500 men. In 1693, B. was vainly besieged by the country; but the king, at the outbreak of the

Duke of Croy; and in 1717, the citadel surrendered catastrophe in France, promptly declared himself

to Prince Eugene, after he had defeated an army of ready to retain or to surrender the crown of B.

| 200,000 Turks, with a loss to them of 20,000 men. according to the decision of the people. This frank

But in 1739, B. again changed owners, the Turks and ready declaration had a successful result in

obtaining it without a shot. In conformity with strengthening the party of order, while it disarmed |

the treaty then signed, the fortifications were demoleven those most disaffected to the crown.

ished. In 1789, it was again taken by the Austrians In July 1848, the result of the elections was

under General Laudon; but by the treaty of peace, found to be a great strengthening of the liberal

1791, was restored to the Turks, and-excepting a constitutional party. In November 1849, a new commercial treaty for ten years was concluded

temporary possession of 7 years, from 1806 to 1813, with France, and the duration of the treaty with

by the insurgent Servians-has, since that time, the German Zollverein was lengthened.

remained in subjection to Turkey. By the peace of In the

Adrianople (1829), the Porte was allowed to mainsession of 1850, the educational question was at last

tain in B. à garrison of 3000 men. During the disposed of. During the last decade, the Liberal

Crimean war, the defences were strengthened, and party has, on the whole, steadily increased in

the garrison largely increased. numbers and influence. King Leopold I. died Dec10, 1865, and was succeeded by the present King Leo BE'LIAL, or, more accurately, Beli'al, a Llebrew pold II., who, on taking the oath, endorsed the princi- word, signifying idle, wicked, or unprofitable. The ples of the Belgian Constitution.

scripture phrase, therefore, Sons of B.,' was originNothomb's Travaux Publics en Belgium (Bruss. ally, in all probability, a mere Hebrew figurative 1839); Statistique de la B., by the same author (1848); expression denoting worthless or dissolute persons. Juste, Histoire de B., (3d ed., Bruss. 1850), Popli- At a later period, the idea of evil which the word ment, La B. depuis l'an 1880 (Bruss. 1850). lembodies, seems to have been elaborated into o

BELIEF.

personality, and B. is supposed by some to corre- certain confidence in the connection between the spond to the Pluto of the Greeks.

means and the ends; in other words, we are enerBELIEF. This is a word sufficiently intelligible getically urged to use those means, and having done in common speech ; but nevertheless, various subtle so, we have the feeling as if the ends were already problems and protracted controversies have been attained. connected with it. A brief account of the chief of Even in cases the furthest removed in appearance these may be here given.

from any action of ours, there is no other criterion. 1. It has been a matter of no small difficulty with We believe a great many truths respecting the mental philosophers, to give an exact rendering of world, in the shape of general propositions, scientific the state of mind so denominated, or to specify the statements, affirmations on testimony, &c., which exact import, test, or criterion of the act of believing. are so much beyond our own little sphere, that we It is easy enough to comprehend what is meant by can rarely have any occasion to involve them in our an idea or a notion, as when we speak of having the own procedure, or to feel any hopeful elation on idea of a rose, its shape, colour, odour, &c.; but when their account. We likewise give credit to innuinerwe make the further step of affirming our belief in able events of past history, although the greater the sweetness of the rose, it is not easy to describe number of them have never any consequences the exact change that has come over the mind in so as regards ourselves. Yet, notwithstanding such doing. In all belief, there must be something intel- remoteness of interest, the tests now mentioned lectual, something thought of, or conceived by the must apply; otherwise, there is no real conviction mind; and hence there has been a disposition to in any one instance. recognise the believing function as one of the pro- ! There is a distinction, first characterised by perties of our intelligence. We believe that the sun Aristotle, between potentiality and actuality (posse will rise and the tides flow to-morrow: here are and esse), which truly represents two different states undoubtedly implied intellectual conceptions of the of mind of real occurrence. Besides the actual doing sun, his rising, and of to-morrow; of the sea, its of a thing, we know what it is to be in a state of movements, and so on. But the question comes, preparedness to act, before the emergency has arisen, what is the difference between conceptions believed or while it is still at a distance and uncertain. The in as these are, and conceptions quite as clear and thirsty traveller, not knowing of a spring where he intelligible that are not believed ? as the notion that may drink, is debarred from the act that his condithe fluctuation of the sea on the shores of Britain is tion prompts him to, but he is in an attitude of the same as on the shores of Italy. It is not to the mind that we call being ready for action the moment purpose to say, that in the one case we have know- the opportunity arrives. We all carry about us a ledge and evidence, and not in the other; for what number of unexecuted resolutions, some of them is wanted is to define the change that comes over perhaps remaining so to the last, for want of the us, when what is a mere notion or supposition occasion. They are not, on that account, to be set passes into a conviction; when a day-dream or aside as having no part in our nature; they are hypothesis comes to take rank as truth.

genuine phases of our activity. So it is with many To answer this inquiry, we must bring in a refer- things believed in by us, without any actual prospect ence to action ; for although belief connects itself of grounding actions, or staking our welfare, upon with our intelligence, as now mentioned, it has action such things. When we say we believe that the for its root and ultimate criterion. Coming up to the circumference of the globe is 25,000 miles, if not edge of a frozen lake, and looking at the thickness repeating an empty sound, or indulging an idle conof the ice, we believe that it will bear to be trodden ception, we give it out that if any occasion arise on, and accordingly walk across it. The meaning or for acting on this fact, we are ready to do so. If we purport of the believing state here is, that we do were about to circumnavigate the earth, we should not hesitate to trust our safety to the fact believed. commit ourselves to this reckoning. Should there The measure of our confidence is the measure of our be any hesitation on the point when the time for readiness to act upon our conviction. If the frozen action came, the professed belief would be shewn lake lie between us and our destination, we feel to be hollow, no matter, how often we heard the elated by the certainty of arriving there, which we statement, or repeated it, with acquiescence. The should not under a weak or imperfect trust in the genuineness of conviction is notoriously open to goodness of the ice. Belief, therefore, although question, until an opportunity of proceeding upon it embodied in ideas, or intellectual conceptions, is occurs. Very often we deceive ourselves and others in reality a moral power, operating on our con- on the point--whether we are in full potentiality or duct, and affecting our happiness or misery. preparedness in some matter of truth or falsehood. Belief in coming good cheers us almost as much There is a very large amount of blind acquiescence as if it were already come; a like strength of in, or tacit acceptance of, propositions which never conviction of approaching evil is to the same become the subject of any real or practical stake. degree depressing; the devils believe and tremble.' These beliefs falsely so called confuse the line of These two tests—readiness to act according to demarcation between mere intellectual notions and what we believe, and influence on the mental tone states of credence or conviction. Of this nature is -effectually separate the state in question from the acceptance given by the mass of mankind to

panied with credence. We have firm confidence in better informed class respecting the facts of science the food we eat being able to nourish us; we exert and the transactions of history. They do not disourselves to procure that food, and when we feel pute those statements; and yet they might be little hungry, and see it before us, we have the mental disposed to commit their serious interests to such elation arising from a near and certain prospect of facts. So with regard to the religious creed handed relief and gratification. If there be anything that down from parent to child. Some are found believing, we work languidly to procure, and feel little elated in the full import of the term ; others, opposing no by being near or possessing, our conviction is proved negative in any way, yet never perform any actions, to be feeble as to the utility of that thing, or as or entertain either hopes or fears, as a consequence to the pleasure we shall derive from it. So, in of their supposed acceptance of the religion of their employing mears to compass ends, as when we sow fathers; their belief, accordingly, must be set down that we may reap, work that we may obtain abund- as a noneniity. ance, study that we may be informed we have al 2. There is considerable interest attached to the BELIEF.

inquiry into the sources or operating causes of this beyond experience; such is the metaphysical docefficacious attribute of our active nature. What are trine of the infinite. These various convictionsord the influences that determine us to adopt some priori, as they are called, being grounded solely notions as grounds of action and elements of hope or in the internal impulses of the human mind-are all depression, in preference to others? The common open to one common remark. It must be conceded answer to this question is the possession of evidence, that some intuitive beliefs are unsound, seeing that of which two kinds are reckoned by some schools we are obliged to reject a greater or less number -namely, experience and intuition ; while others because of their being flatly contradicted by our recognise experience alone, and reject the intuitive experience. But if any have to be rejected in this as a sufficient foundation of belief.

way, why may not all be; and what criterion, apart As regards the actual sources of men's convictions, from experience, can be set up for discriminating it is undeniable that many things are credited with those that we are to retain ? Man undoubtedly has out any reference to experience. The existence of boundless longings; and the doctrine of the infinite superstitions is an example. So the partialities corresponds in a manner to these. But in actual arising out of our likings to particular persons, and life we find very few of our desires fully gratified, the undue depreciation of the merits of those whom not even those most honourable to the human mind, we dislike present instances equally renioved from such as curiosity, the passion for self-improvement, the criterion of experience. It is evident, therefore, and the desire of doing good. How, then, are we that men do not abide by that criterion, even grant to ascertain which of the longings carries with it its ing that they ought to do so. Accordingly, it is one own necessary fulfilment ? Moreover, the intuitive of the tasks of the mental philosopher, to specify the tendencies are exceedingly various in men; and all portions of our constitution that give birth to false, cannot be equally true. mistaken, or unfounded beliefs; and in so doing he Testimony, which is properly reckoned one of the indicates, first, certain intuitive impulses connected sources of belief, is, in its operation, partly founded with our active nature; and secondly, our various on an intuitive tendency, and partly on experience. feelings, or emotions. Whether the intuitive be a We at first believe whatever we are told; the source of authentic beliefs, may be a matter of doubt; primitive phase of our nature is credulity; the expethere is no doubt as to its being a genuine source of rience that we soon attain to of untrue statements real convictions. We have a decided tendency from puts us on our guard, and we learn to receive testithe first to believe that the present state of things mony under some circumstances, and from some will continue, and that the absent resembles the persons, and not in all cases indiscriminately. present. He that has always seen water liquid, 3. Responsibility for Belief.-A lengthenedi controcannot at first be convinced that it is ever or versy arose some time ago, on the saying of Lord anywhere solid. We have always a great difficulty Brougham, that man is no longer accountable to in surmounting the primitive impulse to consider man for his belief, over which he has himself no conother men's minds as exactly like our own. It is trol.' Reduced to precise terms, the meaning of this the tendency of the uncultured huinan being to over- assertion is: a man's belief being involuntary, he generalise ; and experience comes as a corrective, is not punishable for it. The question therefore often very painful to submit to. Then, again, as arises, how far is belief a voluntary function? for regards the emotions, it is found that every one of it is known that the will does to some extent these, if at all strong, is liable to blind us to the influence it. realities of the world. Fear is a notable example. What a man shall see when he opens his eyes is Under a fright, a man will believe in the approach not in his own power; but the opening of the eyes of the direst calamities. Superstition is, for the most is a voluntary act. So, after listening to a train of part, the offspring of men's fears. The efi'ect of a arguments on a certain dispute, we might be irre, strong emotion is to exclude from the mind every sistibly inclined to one side; but, supposing us to fact or consideration except those in keeping with live in a country where the adhesion to that side is itself. Intense vanity so lords it over the current of criminal, and punished severely, we should very the thoughts and the course of the observations, as to likely be deterred from hearing or reading anything present to one's mind only the very best side of the in its favour. To this extent, the adoption of a character. A fit of self-abasement and remorse will belief is voluntary. The application of strong work the contrary effect.

motives of the nature of reward or punishment is It is plain enough, therefore, that we are very sufficient to cause one creed to prevail rather than often in the wrong, by trusting to our intuitive another, as we see in those countries and in those tendencies, and as often so under our emotions; ages where there has been no toleration of dissent while we are as ready to act, and to derive comfort from the established religion. The mass of the or the opposite, under false beliefs, as under the very people have been in this way so fenced in from soundest that we can ever arrive at. The practice knowing any other opinions, that they have of life points to experience as the check to wrong become conscientiously attached to the creed of believing. If we find on trial that another man's their education. feelings differ very much from ours in the same. When the question is asked, therefore, whether circumstances, we stand corrected, and are perhaps punishment can control men's beliefs, and not wiser in future. So, in science, experiment is the ulti- their professions merely, all history answers in mate canon of truth. There prevail, notwithstanding, the affirmative, as regards religious and political in one school of philosophy, comprising the majority creeds, on which the majority of mankind, being of metaphysical philosophers both in this country insufficient judges of themselves, are led by tradiand in Germany and France, the opinion that expe- tion and by education. But in matters of daily rience is not the only source even of sound or true practice, where the simplest can judge as well as the beliefs. There are those who contend for an à priori wisest, the case is altered. No severity of threat origin of scientific first principles; such, for example, could bring a man into the state of believing that as the axioms of mathematics. Things that are his night's rest was hurtful to him; he might be equal to the same thing are equal to one another,' overawed into saying that it was so, but he would is one of the class about which this dispute reigns. never act out his forced affirmation, and therefore There is also a doctrine current that the law of he would shew that he did not believe it. causation has an authority derived from intuition. If the sentence of Lord Brougham is held to imply Another class of beliefs relates to matters altogether ! that all beliefs are beyond the power of external BELISARIUS-BELL.

motives, and therefore that rewards and punish- | the inhabitants. As he found his forces not strong ments can go no further than making outward con- enough to contend with the Goths in open field, he formity, we must pronounce it erroneous. For allowed himself to be enclosed and besieged ir. granting that motives cannot have a direct efficacy Rome : after the defence had lasted a year, the on the state of a man's convictions—which cannot Goths raised the siege. In 538, Narses had been be conceded in all cases—yet the indirect influence sent with a reinforcement for the army in Italy; is so great as to produce the unanimity of whole but some misunderstanding occurring between the nations for centuries in some one creed. But if it is two generals, they were prevented from relieving only meant, that such indirect means ought not to Milan, which in 539 was carried and devastated be applied to swav men's convictions, this is merely by Braias, nephew of the Gothic king, Vitiges. a way of affirming the right of free thought and Consequently, Narses was recalled from Italy; inquiry to all mankind, and the iniquity of employ- and B., now placed at the head of both armies, ing force on such a matter.-On the subject of refused to assent to the treaty proposed to King Belief generally, see Bain on the Emotions and the Vitiges by Justinian's ambassadors. Vitiges had Will.

persuaded the Persian king, Chosroes, to invade the BELISA’RIUS in Slavonic, Beli-tzar, "White eastern Roman territory. B. now drove the Goths Prince'). This heroic and loyal soldier, to whom back to Ravenna, which he captured in 540, along the Emperor Justinian was principally indebted with Vitiges himself. But before he could complete for the glory of his reign, was born at Germania, his conquest of the Goths, he was recalled by in Illyria, about 505 A. D. He first assumed a Justinian to Constantinople, where he soon appeared, conspicuous position when he was appointed to bringing with him the king Vitiges, several Gothic the command of the eastern army of the empire, chieftains, and the royal treasures. In 541-542, he stationed on the confines of Persia, where, in 530 A.D., was engaged in a campaign against the Persians, he gained a victory over a Persian army nearly twice who had captured Antioch; but was again recalied as large as his own. The historian Procopius was at on account of slanderous representations made to this time secretary to Belisarius. In the following the emperor, and the enterprise necessarily proved year, when the Persians had penetrated into Syria, indecisive. His second great struggle with the intending to attack Antioch, B. being compelled Ostrogoths now begins. În 544, the barbarians, by the impatience of his troops to offer battle at under Totila, again invaded and reconquered Italy. Callinicum, a town at the junction of the rivers B. was sent against them, but with an insufficient Bilecha and Euphrates, was defeated, and in con- army. He, however, maintained his ground for sequence recalled. This petulant injustice, however, five years, harassing the enemy by his skilful did not weaken that principle of duty which ever movements, and even succeeded so far as to regain controlled and inspired the great soldier. He still possession of Rome. But, in spite of his repeated remained the firm supporter of his sovereign. In entreaties, no reinforcements were sent to him; and Constantinople, the strife of the two parties, styled in September 548, he gave up the command, his rival, respectively the green' and 'the blue,' had endan- Narses, being appointed in his place. After ten years gered the authority and even the life of Justinian; of retirement, B. once more came forward at the already a new emperor, Hypatius, had been elected, head of an army hastily collected, and overthrew when B. at the head of the life-guards, attacked the Bulgarians, who had threatened Constantinople. and slew, in the race-course, 30,000 of the green or Here this faithful servant, who at Ravenna bad, in anti-loyalist Party, and thus restored tranquillity. a spirit of noble loyalty unknown to the warriors in Previous to this, he had married a wealthy but pro- those selfish and ambitious times, refused the crown fligate lady, Antonina, whom he loved with the same of Italy offered to him by the Goths, was at length blind uxoriousness that Marcus Aurelius exhibited accused of a conspiracy against Justinian, and imtowards Faustina. The only points in his history prisoned, December 563 ; but according to Malala which are not edifying, are those in which he yielded and Theophanes, Justinian became convinced of to her noxious solicitations. The military career of B.'s innocence, and restored him, after six months, B. may be divided into two great epochs : the war to all his honours. He died March 564. against the Vandals in Africa, and the war against The biography of B. has been treated with the Goths in Italy, which again subdivides itself great licence by writers of fiction, especially by into two campaigns, with an interval of four years Marmontel, who has represented the hero as cruelly between them. The first of these epochs was com- deprived of sight, and reduced to beg for his bread menced by Justinian sending B., in 533 A. D., with in the streets of Constantinople. Tzetzes, a writer an army of 15,000 men into Africa, in order to of the 12th c., states that, during his half-year's recover the provinces there held by the Vandal imprisonment, B. suspended a bag from the window king, Gelimer. After achieving two victories, B. of his cell, and exclaimed to those who passed by: made the king a prisoner, seized his treasures, and Give an obolus to B., who rose by merit, and after conquering Sardinia, Corsica, and the Balearic was cast down by envy!' but no writer contemIsles, he brought him to Constantinople, where he porary with B. mentions this circumstance. Lord appeared in a triumphal procession of the con- Mahon, in his Life of Belisarius (Lond. 1829), endeaqueror-the first that a subject had enjoyed since vours, but without success, to confirm the tradition, the days of Tiberius. The African Vandals never or rather the fiction, of B. being deprived of sight recovered from this overthrow. Medals were struck and reduced to mendicancy. This fiction supplies in B.'s honour; and on the 1st January 535, he was the subject of a fine picture by the French painter, invested with the dignity of 'consul,' and granted Gérard. a second triumph, according to the old republican In figure, B. was tall and majestic; in disposition, style. The second war was occasioned by the humane and generous, pure in his morals, temperate divisions existing in the royal family of the Ostro- in his habits, a valiant soldier, a skilful general, and goths, which induced Justinian to attempt to wrest above all, possessed by a sublime spirit of loyalty to Italy from the hands of the barbarians. In 535, his sovereign. B. conquered Sicily: and in the autumn of 536, he

BELIÖZE. See BALIZE. crossed over to Lower Italy, where all the cities submitted to him except Naples, which he carried BELL. Bells are usually formed of a composition by storm. On the 10th of December, he entered of copper and tin, called bell-metal. When the proper Rome, having made an amicable arrangement with proportions of the two metals are fused together,

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