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his office, and received many high honours, culmin- | hollow stem and branches, exhibiting merely memating in that of Earl of Salisbury. In 1608, he was branous partitions at the nodes. The small branches, made lord high treasurer, and the Exchequer was these partitions being removed, are made into windgreatly improved in his hands. C. was a man of instruments. The wood is very light, readily takes immense energy and far-reaching sagacity, undoubt- fire by friction against a harder piece of wood, and edly the best minister the country had in his time; is much used by the Indians for procuring fire in but he was cold, selfish, and unscrupulous as to the this way. The fruit is agreeable, and resembles a means he took to gain his ends, and get rid of his raspberry. Both the trunk and branches yield a rivals. His connection with the disgrace of Essex large quantity of saline matter, which is employed and Raleigh laid him open to great and deserved by the French planters in the purification of sugar. odium, in the latter case especially. Like his father, The bark is strong and fibrous, and is much used however, he was free from the meanness and dishon- for cordage. It is also astringent, and is applied in esty of enriching himself out of the public money. diarrhæa and other diseases. He died May 24, 1612.

CE'CROPS, the first king of Attica, figures in CECI’LIA, ST., the patroness of music, is said to Greek mythology as an Autochthon (q. v.), half-man have suffered martyrdom in 230 A. D. Her heathen and half-dragon. Belonging, as he does, to the parents, as we are told, belonged to a noble Roman prehistoric ages of Greece, his real character can family, and betrothed their daughter, who had been only be guessed at. Tradition declared him to be converted to Christianity, to a heathen youth named the founder of marriage, the author of the political Valerian. This youth and his brother Tiberius division of Attica into twelve states, and the introbecame Christian converts, and suffered martyrdom. ducer of agriculture, of navigation, and commerce, C., when commanded to sacrifice to idols, firmly He is also said to have civilised the religious rites refused, and was condemned to death. Her perse of the people. The name C. is given to various cutors, it is said, first threw her into a boiling bath, towns in Greece, and the legends in general seem to but on the following day they found her unhurt. indicate a Pelasgic origin for the hero. The later

The executioner next attempted to cut off her head, accounts, that he came from Sais in Egypt, have no but found it impossible. Three days later, she died historic basis.

rather a lame conclusion to such miraculous inter- CEDAR, or CEDAR OF LEBANON, a tree ference! As early as the 5th c., there is mention of much celebrated from the most ancient times for its a church dedicated to her at Rome; and in 821, by beauty, its magnificence, and its longevity, as well as order of the Pope Paschal, her bones were deposited for the excellence and durability of its timber. It there. St. C. is regarded as the inventor of the organ, is often mentioned in Scripture; it supplied the and in the Roman Catholic Church her festival-day, I wood-work of Solomon's temple ; and in the poetry November 22, is celebrated with splendid music.

of the Old Testament it is a frequent emblem of Chaucer, Dryden, and Pope have celebrated St. C., | prosperity, strength, and stability. It belongs to and the painters Raphael, Domenichino, Dolce, and the natural order Conifere, and is the Pinus Cedrus others have represented her in fine pictures.

of the older botanists; but is now ranked in the Another St. C. was born in Africa, and suffered mar

genus Abies (see Fir), in the genus Larix (see tyrdom by starvation under Diocletian. The Roman LARCH), by those who make Larix a distinct genus Catholic Church celebrates her festival on the 11th

from Abies, or is made the type of a genus, Cedrus, of February.

distinguished from Larix by evergreen leaves and CECROPPIA, a genus of trees of the natural carpels separating from the axis, and receives the order Artocarpaceæ. C. peltata, a native of the West name of C. Libani. Indies and of South America, sometimes called of the celebrated CEDARS OF LEBANON, only a Trumpet-wood and Snake-wood, is remarkable for its | few now remain. They consist of a grove of some

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400 trees, about three-quarters of a mile in circum- , These trees are more remarkable for girth than ference, partly old trees, and partly young ones. stature, their height hardly exceeding 50 feet. Learned travellers think that most of the trees Their age is variously estimated; the rules by which in the grove may be 200 years old, and several | botanists determine the age of trees are not applicbetween the ages of 400 and 800 years. There able to them, for their stems have ceased to grow in are twelve trees whose age is incalculable-geven regular concentric rings; they owe their prolonged standing very near each other; three more a little existence to the superior vitality of a portion of further on, nearly in a line with them; and two, not their bark, which has survived the decay of the rest. observed by any recent traveller except Lord Russeger is inclined to admit that these trees may Lindsay, on the northern edge of the grove. The possibly number some 2000 years. largest of these two is 63 feet in circumference- The Arabs, of all creeds, have a traditional venerfollowing the sinuosities of the bark; one of the ation for these trees; they believe that an evil fate others measures 49 feet.

would surely overtake any one who shall dare to



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lay sacrilegious hands on the saints, as they fondly than those of the C. of Lebanon, the scales of call them. Every year, at the feast of the Trans- the cones falling off as soon as the seed is ripe, figuration, the Maronites, Greeks, and Armenians and as differing from the C. of Lebanon also in more mount to the cedars, and celebrate mass on a pensile branches and longer leaves ; but Dr. Hooker homely altar of stone at their feet.

expresses a strong opinion that they will prove to The C. has been planted in parks in many parts be really the same species, as well as the C. of of Europe ; it was introduced into England in the ALGIERS (C. Atlantica or Africana), which is found latter part of the 17th c., and a tree of Sion House, in the mountainous regions of the north of Africa. London, is now eight feet in diameter at three The wood of the deodar is resinous, fragrant, feet above the ground. Even in Inverness-shire it compact, and very durable. It is susceptible of a succeeds so well, thať trees of Beaufort Castle, the high polish, and in its polished state has been seat of Lord Lovat, planted in 1783, are now three compared to brown agate. Owing to the abundance or four feet in diameter. On its native mountains, of resin, laths of it burn like candles. Its turpentine the C. is found at the base of the highest peaks, at is very fluid, and although coarse, is inuch used in an altitude of about 8000 feet above the sea. It India for medical purposes; and tar and pitch are seems to delight in a dry open soil, where, however, obtained from the trunk. The deodar has now its roots can have access to abundance of water. become very common as an ornamental tree in Although in foliage and some other particulars the Britain, although few specimens have yet attained C. considerably resembles the common larch, it a very considerable size. On account of its extreme differs in form and habit very widely both from gracefulness when young, it is often planted in the larch and from the pines in general. Its stem situations to which large trees are unsuitable, and bears almost down to the ground irregularly placed is to be seen in many suburban parterres.-The

branches, often of pro- name C. is often given to other coniferous trees digious size and expanse, besides the true cedars. Thus, the Siberian Stone which divide irregularly Pine, or Cembra Pine, is called the SIBERIAN C. (see into branchlets. The PINE), and a species of fir (Abies religiosa) is the leaves are dark green, RED C. of California (see FiR). A species of 10—15 lines long, pointed, Cypress (q. v.) is known as WHITE C., and another united in clusters of 20- as the C. or Goa. Several of the trees which bear 30; on the young shoots the name C. are species of Juniper (q. v.), among they are very numerous, which are the VIRGINIAN C., or RED C. of North and not in clusters; the America, and the BERMUDA C.-which yield the small branchlets also are cedar-wood used for pencils--the SPANISH C. of the crowded together and pen- south of Europe, &c. The name C. is even given to sile. The cones are erect, trees which have no resemblance to the true cedars, oval, broadly rounded at except in the resinous quality of the wood; thus both ends, about four the Cedar-wood of Guiana is produced by Icica inches long, and three altissima, a tree of the natural order Amyridaceae inches in diameter; their (q. v.); the C. of the West Indies (see next article) scales closely crowded, belongs to the natural order Cedrelacere; and the large, and broad. The name BASTARD C. is given in India to a tree of the

cones take two years to natural order Bytineriaceae (q. v.). Cone of Cedar of Lebanon, come to maturity, and CEDAR BADRADOTS

CEDAR, BARBADOES (Cedrela odorata), a tree of hang on the tree for years the natural order Cedrelaceve (q. v.), and of the same before their scales come off and their seeds are genus with the toon of India, à native of the West set free. The wood of the trunk is reddish, and Indies and warm parts of America. It is simply full of a fragrant resin. The ancients kept their called Cedar in the West Indies. It is often writings in cabinets or boxes of cedar-wood." Extra upwards of eighty feet high, with a trunk remarkable ordinary indestructibility and other virtues were for thickness. It has panicles of flowers resembling ascribed to it. It is not nearly so much prized those of the hyacinth. The fruit, bark, and leaves at the present day, because it is soft and light, have the smell of asafoetida, but the wood has an and apt to crack in drying.. This inferiority is, agreeable fragrance. Being soft and light, it is however, not improbably owing to the inferior used for canoes, and for shingles. Havannab cigarage of the trees from which the timber is now boxes are very generally made of it. In France, it procured. A resinous substance, called Cedar Resin, is used in making black-lead pencils. or Cedria, flows spontaneously from the trunk of the C., or from incisions; it resembles mastic, and

CEDAR BIRD. See WAXWING. was anciently used along with other resins in the CEDAR MOUNTAINS, a range of the Cape embalming of the dead. It was also used as a Colony, parallel with the Atlantic, and nearly halfmedicine. In very ancient times, C. Oil, a kind of way between it and the dividing ridge of the turpentine, was prepared from the wood, and was country. They form the height of land between spread on books in order to their better preservation. the Oliphant on the west, and the Great Thorn, its At the present day, the oil and the resin are principal tributary, on the east, varying in altitude scarcely known. The branches of the C., like those from 1600 feet to 5000. They lie about lat. 32° S., of the larch in warm countries, exude a sweet and long. 19° E., in the division of Clanwilliam, and substance, which is known by 'the name of C. supply the village of that name with cedar planks. MANNA.-The DEODAR, or HIMALAYAN C. (Cedrus CE'DRATE. See CITRON. Deodara), a tree held in great veneration by the CEDRELA'CEÆ, a natural order of exogenous Hindus, and of which the name is said to be plants, very nearly allied to Meliaceve (q. v.), and properly Devadara, and to signify god-tree, is chiefly distinguished by the winged seeds, numerous common in the Himalaya mountains, at elevations in each cell of the fruit, which is a capsule. The of 7000-12,000 feet, forming magnificent forests, known species are few, all tropical or sub-tropical and attaining a great size, a height sometimes of trees are shrubs, with pinnate leaves, most of them 150 feet, with a trunk 30 feet or more in circum- trees valuable for their timber. To this order belong ference, an ample head, and spreading branches. mahogany, satin-wood, toon, Barbadoes cedar, the It is described as having cones somewhat larger 1 yellow-wood of New South Wales, &c. The barks

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of some species are febrifugal. That of Soymida | root, stem, and leaves, when fresh, have a disagreefebrifuga, the Rohuna or East Indian Mahogany, has able smell, and are full of a yellow juice, which is been imported into Britain as a medicine.

CEFALU', a town of Sicily, on the north coast, 47 miles east-south-east of Palermo. . It is situated at the foot of a rock, and is surrounded by old walls. It has a cathedral, and the ruins of a Saracenic castle occupy a neighbouring hill. As a seaport, it has little traffic. The inhabitants, numbering some 10,000, are chiefly engaged in fishing.

CEHEGI'N, a town of Spain, in the province of Murcia, 37 miles west-north-west of the city of that name. It has some spacious streets with handsome buildings, and manufactures of paper, cloth, and pottery. Pop, about 10,000.

CEILING (Fr. ciel ; Lat. coelum, heaven). This term seems to have been suggested by the use of arched coverings for churches, and even for rooms, which prevailed in the middle ages, and was not unknown to the Romans. Whether the term was further suggested by the habit of tinting ceilings of a blue colour, and decorating them with stars, or whether that usage arose from the use of the term already introduced, is more doubtful. Arched ceilings among the Romans were known by the name camerce or camera, the Greek origin of which seems to furnish an argument in favour of the view that the arch was known to the latter people. The camera

Common Celandine. was formed by semicircular beams of wood, at small distances from each other, over which was placed a very acrid, causing inflammation when applied to coating of lath and plaster. In later times, the the skin. C. is sometimes used in medicine: it is cameræ were frequently lined with plates of glass; a drastic purgative, and in large doses an active whence they were termed vitrece. But the ceilings poison; in small doses it is said to act beneficially most commonly in use amongst the Romans were on the lymphatic system and on the organs of secreflat, the beams, as in modern times, having been at tion, and to be useful in scrofulous diseases, disease first visible, and afterwards covered with planks and of the mesenteric glands, &c. The fresh juice, plaster. . Sometimes hollow spaces were left between applied externally to warts, corns, &c., removes them the planks, which were frequently covered with boy stimulating them beyond what their languid gold and ivory, or paintings. The oldest- flat C. in vital powers can bear. Mixed with milk, it is existence is believed to be that of Peterborough applied to the eye for the cure of opacities of the Cathedral. Like that at St. Albans Abbey, it is cornea, but is a remedy that requires great caution made of wood, and plastered over like a modern in its use. ceiling. Ceilings of Churches, in the middle ages, / CELA'NO. LAKE OF. See FUCINO. LAKE OF. were generally painted and gilded in the most brilliant manner; and many existing ceilings still / CELASTRA CEÆ. See SPINDLE-TREE. exhibit the traces of early decoration of this kind.' CELEBÉS, a large island of the Asiatic ArchiThe older ceilings generally follow the line of the pelago, lying to the east of the south half of Borneo. timbers of the roof, which in the Early English It stretches between lat. 1° 50' N. and 5° 30' S., and Decorated, are often arranged so as to give the and in long. between 119° and 125° E., its extreme shape of a barrel vault. In ceilings of this descrip- dimensions thus being fully 500 and 400 miles; and tion there are seldom many ribs, often only a single yet it is so irregular in form-branching eastward one along the top. In the perpendicular style, the into four peninsulas from a common root on the west C. often consists of a series of flat surfaces or cants, that it does not contain a single spot which is formed on the timbers of the roof. Though some more than 50 miles from the sea. It has, for nearly times altogether destitute of ornament, they are 200 years, been colonised by the Dutch, whose more frequently enriched with ribs, dividing them possessions number 279,000 inhabitants, about oneinto square panels, with bosses (q. v.) or flowers at sixth of what is estimated to be the entire populathe intersections. Wooden ceilings are sometimes tion. The rest of the island is divided into 13 formed in imitation of stone-groining, with ribs and separate principalities, peopled by distinct races in bosses, examples, of which will be found at York, very different stages of civilisation. Mountains Winchester, and Lincoln. In the Elizabethan age, abound, rising, at one point, to an elevation of 7000 ceilings were generally of plaster, but they were or- feet; and, as is the case with the archipelago as a namented with ribs having bosses or small pendants whole, some of them are volcanic. The minerals at the intersections. It is not unusual for the C. im- are gold, iron, and salt. Besides the ordinary mediately over the altar, or the roodloft, to be richly tropical productions, C. has extensive pastures, with ornamented, whilst the rest is plain.

excellent breeds of horses and cattle. Between 1811 CE'LANDINE (Chelidonium), a genus of plants

and 1816, the Dutch settlements were held by the of the natural order Papaveracece (the Poppy family),

British. The chief town is Macassar, which gives having a corolla of four petals, and à podlike name to the strait between C. and Borneo. capsule. The common C. ( c. majús) is a perennial, CE'LERY (Apium), a genus of plants of the natural with pinnate leaves, lobed leaflets, and yellow order Umbellifero, distinguished by a mere rudimenflowers in simple umbels, frequent under hedges, in tary calyx, roundish entire petals, very short styles, waste places, &c., in Britain, and most parts of and roundish fruit. The common C. (A. graveolens) Europe. It flowers from May to September. The is found wild in Britain and most parts of Europe,



in ditches, brooks, &c., especially near the sea and in 1 given in the Jewish Scriptures (Gen. i. 28), the opinsaline soils. Its leaves are dark green and smooth, ion had become prevalent, even before the time of its petals involute at the tip. The wild plant, Christ, that c. was favourable to an intimate also called SMALLAGE, has a stem about two feet union with God. This notion took its origin in high, a tapering slender root, a penetrating offensive the wide-spread philosophy of a good and an evil odour, a bitterish acrid taste, and almost poisonous principle. The body, consisting of matter; the seat qualities. By cultivation, it is so much changed of evil, was looked upon as the prison of the pure that its taste becomes agreeably sweetish and aro- soul, which was thought to be defiled by bodily matic, whilst either the leaf-stalks much increase in enjoyments. Among the Jewish sect of the Essenes, thickness, or the root swells in a turnip-like manner. accordingly, a life of C. was held to be the chief These parts, blanched, are much used as a salad, or road to sanctity. These ascetic views naturally to impart flavour to soups, &c., and sometimes as a led, in the first place, to the disapproval of second boiled vegetable. They contain sugar, mucilage, marriages. While, therefore, in the first Christian starch, and a substance resembling manna-sugar, churches, every one was left at liberty to marry which acts as a stimulant, particularly on the urino- or not as he thought fit, the objection to those who genital organs, so that a very free and frequent married a second time had become so generally indulgence in the use of C. cannot, in ordinary spread, that the Apostle Paul saw occasion to counsel circumstances, be altogether favourable to health. such Christian converts as were in widowhood to reTwo principal varieties of C. are cultivated, that main so. most common in Britain having long thick leaf. By the 2d c., however, the unmarried life genestalks, which are more or less tubular, sometimes rally had begun to be extolled, and to be held almost solid, and, after blanching, 'either white or necessary for a life of sanctity, although several, at more or less tinged with red; whilst the other, least, of the apostles themselves had been married. called TURNIP-ROOTED C., or CELERIAC, is chiefly Two passages of Scripture (1 Cor. vii. and Rev. xiv. remarkable for its swollen turnip-like root, and is 4) were specially cited as proving that C. was the in most general cultivation on the continent of genuine condition of a Christian; and with the plaEurope. The 'red' varieties of C. are esteemed tonising Fathers of the 2d and 3d centuries, the unrather more hardy than the white. The blanch- married of both sexes were held as standing higher ing of the leaf-stalks is generally accomplished than the married. Accordingly, although there was by drawing up earth to the plants, which are trans- no express law against the marriage of the clergy, planted from the seed-bed into richly manured many, especially of the bishops, remained unmarried; trenches; and as they grow the trenches are filled a second marriage was, in their case, already strictly up, and the earth finally raised into ridges, above prohibited. which little more than the tops of the leaves appear. As the bishops of Rome rose in consideration, and C. is thus obtained for use throughout the winter. I gradually developed a firmer church government, In the northern parts of Britain, the seed is generally they called upon all who belonged to the clerical sown on a hotbed. C. seed is often used for flavour order to live for the church alone, and not marry. ing, when the leaf-stalks cannot be obtained.- This requirement met with constant resistance ; Another species of C. (Apium australe) grows abun- still, it became more and more the custom, in dantly in wet places on the shore about Cape Horn the 4th c., for the higher clergy to refrain from and in Staten Island. It is a large, hardy, and luxu- marriage, and from them it went over to the lower riant plant, and is described as wholesome and very orders and to the monks. Provincial synods now palatable, nearly equal in its wild state to our garden- began expressly to interdict the clergy from marrycelery. It seems well worthy of the attention of ing. The council of Tours (566) suspended for a year horticulturists.

all secular priests and deacons who were found CE'LESTINE, a mineral bearing the same relation with their wives; and the Emperor Justinian by an to strontia (q. v.) that heavy spar bears to barvta. | edict declared all children born to a clergyman, It is essentially sulphate of strontia (Stosos), with after ordination, to be illegitimate, and incapable occasional admixture of sulphate of baryta, carbonate of inheritance. There were still, however, many of lime, oxide of iron. &c., in small proportions. It married priests who resisted the law, and found much resembles heavy spar, but is not quite equal encouragement in the opposition which the Greek

to it in specific gravity ; it is usually blue, often of Church made to that of Rome in this matter of . a very beautiful indigo-blue; sometimes colourless, celibacy. The council held at Constantinople in more rarely reddish or yellowish. Its crystallisa. | 692, declared, in opposition to the Church of Rome, tion is rhombic, like that of heavy spar. Most that priests and deacons might live with their wives beautiful specimens of crystallised C. are found in as the laity do, according to the ancient custom and Sicily. C. derives its name from its colour. It is

ordinance of the apostles. The orthodox Greek used as a source of strontia.

Church has continued to adhere to this decision. CELESTINES, an order of hermits of St.

Priests and deacons in that church may marry beDamianus, founded by Peter de Morrone about 1264,

· fore ordination, and live in marriage after it; but and confirmed as a monkish order by Urban IV. in

they are not allowed to marry a second time. How1264 and 1274. They called themselves C. when

on ever, only a priest living in C. can be chosen as their founder ascended the papal chair under the

bishop or patriarch.

| The Church of Rome continued its endeavours to name of Celestine V. They are regarded as a branch

enforce the law of C.; though, for several centuries, of the great order of St. Benedict; whose rule they follow; they wear a white garment with black hood

| they were attended with only partial success. There and scapulary, and live a purely contemplative life.

still continued to be numbers of priests with wives, In the 13th and 14th centuries, the order rapidly

although the councils were always issuing new

| orders against them. Popes Leo IX. (1048--1054) spread through. France, Italy, and Germany, but

and Nicolas II. (1058-1061) interdicted all priests subsequently decayed. The French C. were secularised by order of Pope Pius VI. in 1776–1778; so

that had wives or concubines from the exercise of also were the Neapolitan Celestines. In the present

any spiritual function, on pain of excommunication.

Alexander II. (1061-1073) decreed excommunicaday, the order is almost extinct.

tion against all who should attend a mass celebrated CE'LIBACY, from Lat. coelebs, unmarried. Not by a priest having a wife or concubine. This decision withstanding the divine commendation of marriage was renewed by Gregory VII. in a council held at CELL-CELLINI.

Rome in 1074, and a decretal was issued that every | France, also, the question, about 1829, was eagerly layman who should receive the communion from the discussed. And in Spain, the Academy of Ecclesihands of a married priest should be excommuni-astical Science took the subject into consideration cated and that every priest who married or lived in a meeting held in 1842; while the Portuguese in concubinage, should be deposed. The decree met Chambers had previously, in 1835, discussed it, with the most violent opposition in all countries; though without result. The same took place in but Gregory succeeded in carrying it out with the Brazil, about 1827. greatest rigour; and though individual instances of During the commotions of 1848, the subject was married priests were still to be found in the 12th again brought into prominence in Germany. The and 13th centuries, the C. of the Roman Catholic German Catholics (q. v.) had already abolished clergy was established, and has since continued C. ; and a general measure was called for in the both in theory and practice.

| Frankfort parliament, in the Prussian Assembly, and The violence thus done to human nature did not in the press. In Austria, also, voices were raised fail to avenge itself in those rude times. The against it ; but here the state took the side of the licentiousness and corruption of the priests and pope, who, in a bull of 1847, had added fresh monks became in many cases boundless, and it was stringency to the rule of C., and condemned its in vain that strict individuals, as well as councils, infringement. strove against it. The immorality and debasement CELL (Lat. cella, from celo, to conceal). The of the clergy became a reproach and by-word in the Latin word had nearly all the significations which mouth of the people, and give a powerful impulse we attach to the English one, and a good many to the religious movement that began in the 16th | besides which we have not borrowed. For example, century. The leading Reformers declared against the whole space within the walls of an ancient the C. of the clergy as unfounded in Scripture, and temple was called the cella. But the interior was contrary to the natural ordinance of God, and Luther frequently divided into several cellæ, in which case set the example of marrying. This was not without each C. took the name of the deity whose statue it effect on the Roman Catholic clergy, and the ques-contained, and was called the C. of Jupiter, Juno. tion of the abolition of C. was raised at the council Minerva, and the like. In these cases, the word of Trent (1563). But the majority of voices decided approached to its general meaning, which, with the that God would not withhold the gift of chastity Romans as with us, was that of a store-room, or from those that rightly prayed for it, and the rule small apartment where objects of any kind were of C. was thus finally and for ever imposed on the stowed away. In modern architecture, the term ministers of the Roman Catholic Church. Those Vaulting C. signifies the hollow space between the who have only received the lower kinds of consecrat principal ribs of a vaulted roof. tion may marry on resigning their office. For all

CE'LLÉ, or ZELL, a town of Hanover, on the grades above a sub-deacon, a papal dispensation is

left bank of the Aller, which at this point becomes necessary. A priest that marries incurs excommunication, and is incapable of any spiritual func

navigable, 23 miles north-east of the city of tion. If a married man wishes to become a priest,

| Hanover. It is situated in the midst of a sandy

| plain, well built, and has a palace with a garden, he receives consecration only on condition that he

in which Matilda, sister of George III., is buried., separate from his wife, and that she of her free will consent to the separation, and enter a religious

The inhabitants, about 10,000, are very industrious.. order, or take the vow of chastity. The priests of

The chief manufactures are linen, hosiery, tobacco, the united Græco-Catholic congregations in Rome

wafers, soap, &c. An active commerce is also have received permission from the popes to continue

carried on by the Aller, and by railway. in marriage, if entered into before consecration, but CELLI'NI, BENVENU'TO, a celebrated Italian gold. on condition of always living apart from their wives worker, sculptor, founder, and medailleur, remarkthree days before they celebrate mass.

able not only for his skill as an artist, but also: Notwithstanding these decisions, the contest for his checkered life, was born at Florence in the against clerical C. has again and again been year 1500, and first displayed skill as a chaser and resumed, in recent times, both within and without gold-worker. His autobiography is a remarkably the Roman Catholic Church. In fact, all attempts curious and interesting work, presenting us with a at innovation within the bosom of Catholicism, con- complete picture of the author's life and character; nect themselves with the attack on C., the abolition his activity, his extraordinary weaknesses, the imof which would deeply affect the constitution and petuosity of his passions, the perilous circumstances position of that church. So far back as 1817, the in which his quarrelsome disposition placed him Catholic Faculty of Tübingen expressed the opinion (for C. thought nothing of committing manslaughter that compulsory C. was one of the chief causes of in a moment of rage), and the ludicrous vanity and the want of Catholic ministers. In 1826, the credulity which are never absent from him. The Catholic clergy of Silesia put in petitions to the book is also of great value in a historico-social point bishop for the abolition of C.; and unions were of view, but does not impress us favorably in regard afterwards formed in Baden, Würtemberg, Bavaria, either to the personal or social morals of the time. Silesia, and Rhenish Prussia, which, along with At an early period, having been banished from alterations in the doctrines and ritual of the Romish Florence, in consequence of an affray,' C. went to Church, combined attacks on the prohibition of Rome, where he was employed by many distinmarriage to the clergy. A work was also published, guished patrons of art, but afterwards was allowed entitled The Introduction of Compulsory Celibacy to return to Florence. Another affray' compelled among the Christian Priesthood, and its consequences, him to flee to Rome a second time, where he secured (Altenb. 1828, new ed. 1815), which excited great the favour of Clement VII. C., by his own account, attention. At last the abolition of the law came to was as great in arms as in art; he declares that it be discussed in the legislatures of Baden, Saxony, was himself who killed the Constable Bourbon and and other countries. The church claimed this the Prince of Orange at the siege of Rome. His subject as belonging exclusively to her jurisdiction, reckless conduct for some years compelled his conand not to that of the state ; and in Würtemberg stant shifting between Rome and Florence, Mantua, the clergy induced the government to suppress the and Naples. In 1537 he went to the court of France, anti-celibacy society ; but this only made their where he was very honorably received. Illness, opponents in the press the more zealous. In lowever, induced him to return yet once more to

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