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CELT—CELTIC NATIONS.

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Among the best editions are those of Krause (Leip. I low to receive the handle, and generally with a loop 1766), Dr. Milligan's 2d edition (Edin. 1831), and one or ear upon its lower surface, as in fig. 7. at Cologne, 1835.

Both stone and bronze celts were probably used CELT (Lat. celtis, a chisel), the name by which for several purposes, serving for chisels, adzes, and certain weapons or implements of the early inhabit- axes, as well as for weapons of war, like the stone Western known amo

hatchets of the South Sea Islanders and other savage ologists. Celts are either of stone or of bronze.

or barbarous tribes. Examples of stone and bronze Stone celts vary in length from about 1 inch to 22 | celts of all classes (together with the moulds in inches: but the most common size is from 6 to 8 which bronze celts were cast) may be seen in the inches in length, and from 2 to 37 inches in breadth. | British Museum at London, in the National Museum They are made of almost every kind of stone, and of the Antiquaries of Scotland at Edinburgh, and in shew considerable diversity of shape, almost all. the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy at Dublin. however, having more or less resemblance to the

This last collection has more than 500 examples of muscle-shell. Fig. 1 in the accompanying wood. / stone celts, about one-half of which were found in cut shews a stone C. of the better kind. The ruder | deepening the bed of the Shannon or its tributaries, celts are generally of slate, shale, schist, or grit ; | between the years 1843 and 1848. A bushel of the finer, of flint, porphyry, geenstone, syenite, or bronze celts has more than once been discovered at agate. Many of the finer celts are beautifully shaped one spot. and highly polished. A remarkable example of this CELTIBE'RI, a powerful people of ancient Spain, class, the property of Sir Coutts Lindsay, found supposed to have sprung from a blending of the Ibenear St. Andrews, in Scotland, is described by Sir | rians or Spanish aborigines with Celtic invaders from David Brewster in the Philosophical Journal for Gaul. The C. inhabited a large inland district of the 1823. Recently, a class of celts found in the later Peninsula, corresponding to the south-west half of geological strata have excited much interest as well | Aragon, nearly the whole of Cuença and Soria, and among archæologists as among geologists. They a great part of Burgos, but the name Celtiberia had are obviously of the same type with the more com- often a wider signification, including the country as mon celts, but of ruder construction, as if fashioned far south as the sources of the Guadalquivir. The by a more barbarous people. The stone C. was C. were divided into four tribes, and were unquesfastened into a handle of horn, bone, or wood, as | tionably one of the bravest and noblest peoples in shewn in the accompanying wood-cut. Fig. 2 rep the Peninsula. Their cavalry and infantry were

equally excellent. For many years, they with-
stood the efforts of the Romans to subdue them, and
it was not till after the campaigns of Sertorious that
they began to adopt the Roman language, dress, and.
manners.

CELTIC NATIONS, one of the groups of the great
Aryan (q. v.) family.

Languages.-In addition to the English, and retreating before it, there are at present four languages spoken in the British Isles--the Irish, the Highland Scotch (or Gaelic), the Manx, in the Isle of Man-all three nearly related to one another, and constituting the northern (Erse, Gadhelic) branch of the Celtic languages; whilst the fourth language, the Welsh, constitutes, together with the Cornish of Cornwall (extinct since 1778) and the Bas Breton of Brittany, the southern (Briton, Cymric, Cambric) branch. The remains of the language of the Gauls or Celts, the ancient inhabitants of France, closely resemble the British and Gadhelic idioms; hence the name Celtic languages has been applied to the whole of

them. The Celtic idions belong to the Indo-GerCelts.

man (Aryan) family, as their numerals shew. Com.

pare resents a C. of serpentine, with a handle of deer-horn,

Old Welsh.

Old Irish, found in one of the Swiss lakes in July 1859. Fig. 3

Sanscrit. represents a stone C. with a wooden handle, found

1. iin

êka 2. dá

dou

đâu in the county of Tyrone, in Ireland.

3. trí
tri

trayas Bronze celts vary in length from about 1 inch to 8 4. cethir (c=k) pedwar

chatvaras or 10 inches, the most common length being about

5. cóic

pimp

panchan
6. se
chvech

shash 6 inches. They are sometimes ornamented with

7. secht (n)

seith

saptan rudely incised lines or circles, and have occasionally

8. oct (n)
wyth

ashtan been found wrapped up in linen, or enclosed in

9. noi (n)

navan 10. deich

dec bronze cases or sheaths. They shew much greater

daçan 20. fichet

ugeint

vinçati diversity of shape than the stone celt. As many as 100. cet

cant

çata four classes have been distinguished by archæologists -1st, The simple wedge-shaped C., most nearly The Gaulish was nearer to the Cymric bran resembling the common form of the stone C., as in numerals 4 and 5 having been petor, pempe. There the accompanying wood-cut, fig. 4. 2d, The wedge-l are a few Gaulish inscriptions which shew a declenshaped C., with sides more or less overlapping, and sion with full inflections; in old Irish, five cases still a stop-ridge or elevation between the blade and the exist, but the terminations are very much mutilated : part which received the handle, as in fig. 5. 3d, in Welsh, they have disappeared. Thus, the Gaulish The wedge-shaped C., with sides greatly overlapping, name Segomaros' is declined : gen. -ri, dat, -ru, acc. with or without the stop-ridge, but with a loop or -ron: the old Irish, fer, a man, has the gen. fir, dat. ear upon, and parallel to, its lower surface, as in .fiur, acc. fer. voc. fir; whilst the corresponding fig. 6. 4th, The socketed C., or the C. with a hol. Welsh gwr is inflexible. Hence it follows that the

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CELTIC NATIONS.

pseudo-simplicity of the Welsh is the result of , inhabitants of Scotland, were Celts of the Cymric grammatical decay, common in all Aryan languages, or Erse branch, is unknown. After the 3d C., and does not at all warrant Latham's theory, that their name disappears, and we hear, instead, of the the Celts branched off from the primitive Indo- Scoti and Picti. As to the latter, the same doubt German nation before the development of case in | prevails; but the Scoti were emigrants from Ireland, flections.

both Scotus and Gadhelus being coinmon national History. Of the separation of the Celts from the names of the old Irish. From Gadhel, the modern other Aryans or Indo-Germans, and their early nii- Gael, Gaelic is derived, which has nothing to do grations to Western Europe, no record has come with the name of the Galli.- Ireland (Hibernia, down, the stories about Milesian colonies in Ireland, whence the modern Eirinn is derived) enters into and migrations from Troy into Wales, being simply the light of history with its conversion to Chrismonkish fictions. At the dawn of history, we find tianity by St. Patrick (460). The four centuries the Gauls (Galli, Celtæ, Galatai) occupying France following on this event are the brightest period (Gallia), which was divided into Aquitania, between in its history. Ireland was then the seat of piety the Pyrenees and Garonne; Gallia Celtica Proper, and learning, and sent forth numerous missionaries, between the Garonne and Seine ; and Belgica, from the by whom many monasteries, centres of civilisation, Seine to the Rhine. The land about the Rhone be- | were founded—as Iona, in Scotland, by Columba ing more early conquered by the Romans than the |(563); St. Gall, by Gallus (615); Würzburg, by rest, was set apart by them under the name of Kilian (687). In the 7th c., we find Irish bishops at Gallia Narbonensis, or Gallia Lugdunensis (from Ratisbon; and Virgilius (Feargal), (died 784), Bishop the towns Narbo and Lugdunum, Narbonne and of Salzburg, played no small part in the ecclesiasLyon). The whole of the four was called Gaul be-| tical history of Germany. But Ireland remained yond the Alps (Gallia Transalpina). A great many politically divided among many princes, and so betribes of Gauls had settled in Lombardy, where they came an easy prey of those black heathens' the founded Mediolanum (Milan), and which therefore Scandinavians, whose invasions began 795, and who took the name of Gallia Cisalpina (Gaul this side founded Norse kingdoms at Dublin, Waterford, the Alps). Other Gauls had penetrated into Spain, Limerick, &c. In the fierce battles between the two where they became mixed with the native Iberians, nations, the prosperity of Ireland rapidly declined, and thus gave rise to the Celtiberians about the and the English conquest (1171) only completed the river Iberus (Ebro). Numerous hosts migrated ruin.—The Isle of Man, inhabited by a branch of the across the Rhine, occupied Southern Germany and Irish, after having been subject to Welsh, Scotch, and Bohemia, and, following the course of the Danube, Norse princes in turn, acknowledged England's sovsome invaded Thrace and Greece (278 B.C.); but ereignty in 1344. being repelled, the main body of them settled in Religion and Mythology.--A few notices in the Asia Minor, in the province called after them classics and the Latin inscriptions of Gaul, are our Galatia. The Romans found the Gauls at first very | rather meagre sources of information on the Celtic formidable enemies ; Rome itself was burned by them paganism. As the three chief gods, or three of the (389 B. C.), but gradually the Romans conquered chief gods, Lucan mentions Teutates, Hesus, and first Gallia Cisalpina (222), then Gallia Narbonensis Taranis, all of them worshipped with human sacri(112), and lastly, Cæsar subjected all France (52 B.c.), fices. Taranis reappears as Jupiter Taranucnus on after which the Gauls soon became Romanised. The an inscription ; and from this identification with JuGauls of Asia Minor, for a long time the terror of piter, as well as from the fact that in Welsh taran all the neighbourhood, were defeated by the Romans means thunder, we may infer that he was the god (187), and their land finally made a province of the of the thunder-storm. Other gods frequently ocempire (25 B. C.).—The Britons (Britanni; Welsh, curring on inscriptions are Apollo Grannus, Apollo Brython) were little known before Cæsar's two un- Belenus, Mars Camulus, Minerva Belisama, &c., all successful expeditions into Britannia; the country of them, however, empty names to us. A remarkawas conquered by the Roman general Agricola ble feature in Gaulish religion was the worship (78–84 A. D.), who secured the new province of certain Mother Goddesses (called on the inscripagainst the inroads of the Caledonians of Scot- tions Junones, Matronæ, Deæ Matres, Campestres, land by a fortification across the Scotch Lowlands, Nymphæ). They are frequently connected with between the Forth and the Clyde, afterwards re- special localities, as in the inscriptions dedicated moved by the Emperor Hadrian further south- to Matronis Lanehiabus, M. Ham:vehis, M. Ruward, to between Solway Firth and the mouth of manehabus, and on the one in Gaulish: Matrebo the Tyne. The Britons were so much influenced Namaucicabo, “to the Mothers of Nîmes.' To this by Roman civilisation--they were also early con- class apparently belongs the Dea Nehalennia, once verted to Christianity—that the heathen Angles represented on a relief with a basket of fruit, and and Saxons, who conquered them in the 5th and a dog for companion. Meia, the geographer, speaks 6th centuries, called them Welsh ; a name which, of an island in the Atlantic, near Gaul, where with the other Teutons, applies to all nations speak there was an oracle superintended by nine maiding languages of Latin descent. A few of the ens, who could cause storms, take the form of any Britons maintained their independence in Cornwall, animal, could cure what otherwise was incurable, Cumberland, and in the mountains of Wales. On and predicted the future. These goddesses, at the last, the name Welsh was ultimately fixed by once motherly and maidenly, residing in field and the English ; they themselves, however, called their wood (cainpestres, nymphæ), givers of plenty and nation Cymro, pl. Cymry (a compound of cyn, with, prophets of the future, are the heathen prototypes in common, and bro, land — having a common of the fées (fairies, as distinguished from 'elfs ') country, countrymen, in contradistinction to the of the middle ages. The little folk’ were known foreign invader), a name which has nothing to do to the Gauls under the name of Dusii. They with Cimbri and Cimmerii. The Welsh remained believed in the existence of individual tutelary genii, independent under different petty princes till 1282, as a stone of Lausanne shews, being erected by when Edward I. conquered them. A part of the three Gauls, Sulfis suis (hence our sylph ?). The Britons went over in the 4th c. to France, where belief in the transmigration of souls was comthey took possession of Brittany, which maintained mon amongst the Gauls, or at least their priests the a doubtful independence under dukes of its own till Druids, so called from their performing sacred rites about 1500.-Whether the Caledonians, the oldest | in oak-woods (Welsh, derw, an oak; derwydd,

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a Druid). These Druids were also the depositaries | The would-be Gaelic original of Macpherson's of knowledge and tradition, and constituted, in work, edited 1807, is in all probability a retranslaGaul at least, a powerful hierarchy, with a supreme tion. Of Irish prose, the annals are the most pontiff. Druids are found both in Ireland and in important part : first, those of Tigernach (1088), Wales, and the fées abound in Welsh tradition ; then the Annales Inisfalienses, A. Ultonienses ; lastly, but it is very doubtful whether the superhuman the Annals of the Four Masters, being a compilation beings appearing in the Welsh poems of the 12th made (1634) from older sources by four Franciscans, and 13th centuries such as Hu Gadarn, the beginning with 242 after the Deluge, and ending reputed founder of Bardic institutions (see beneath) with 1616 A. D.—The oldest remains of Welsh literaGare genuine relics of the British religion. The ture are the songs, so far as they are genuine, of the belief in transmigration lasted very long, as the bards of the 6th c.-Liwarch Hen, Aneurin, Taliesin niedieval Welsh tale of Taliesin speaks distinctly -having chiefly the life and deeds of contemporary of Taliesin's successive existences. Though not princes for their subject, but few in number. In properly mythological, we may mention here the the 10th c., we have the collection of laws by romantic stories of the Britons about King Arthur Howel Dda. The historians Gildas and Nennius, of and his knights. He is first mentioned by Nennius the 9th c., wrote in Latin. in the 9th c. ; but his fable was further developed The great age of Welsh literature is the 12th in the next centuries both in Wales and Brittany, and succeeding centuries, when the energies of the then embodied in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia nation were roused in the struggle with England. Britonum, which served as the groundwork of the In this contest, the bards played a conspicuous French Roman de Brut of Wace. Through these part as agitators. After a long interval, we hear works, and partly, also, through the direct influence again of a great bard, Meylyr (1100); many follow, of the oral traditions of Brittany, it passed into amongst whom Kynddelw (1200) deserves special French literature, and thence spread over all mention, both as a poet (we have 49 pieces of Europe.

his) and a patriot. Welsh poetry consists in Literature.-The Gauls learned writing from the 1. Political lyrics, war-songs, songs in praise of chiefGreeks ; later, they employed the Roman alphabet, tains, elegies on the same. 2. Religious hymns. as do the Welsh and Irish, the now used Irish 3. Pseudonymous poems, ascribed to Merddin character being nothing but the common Anglo-(Merlin), the mythical enchanter, and Taliesin, Saxon form of the Latin alphabet. Besides, how- the old bard, having generally the form of proever, the Irish claim an old character of their own, phesies on the struggle between the Saxons and the Ogham, in which the letters are represented | Welsh, and the ultimate triumph of the latter. by a number of vertical strokes put in a right Thus, in the Avalennau (or Apple-trees), attributed angle to a horizontal line, or else by horizontal to Merlin, the Welsh nation is enigmatically represtrokes to a vertical line. Some of the Ogham sented under the image of 'seven score and seven inscriptions are said to be older than Christianity. sweet apple-trees,' whose fruits, princes (viz., the Even more doubtful is the antiquity of a Welsh English) wish in vain to despoil. 4. The Triads, so-called Bardic alphabet, in which there seem to be short memorial (?) verses in which three remarkable no inscriptions extant, and which is, at anyrate, events, subjects, or persons are respectively menan alteration of the Roman character. A feature tioned, hence the name, embracing history, theology, common to all Celts is the existence of a kind of jurisprudence. 5. Dialogues of dramatic character. literary order, the Bards (q. v.), poets and guardians There were-apparently now lost-also miracle of tradition--in Gaul, nearly related to or part of plays actually represented. the priesthood; in Wales and Ireland, in immediate The only remarkable remnant of Cornish literature connection with the kings.-A Gaulish literature comes under this head, being three ecclesiastical there certainly was, as Cæsar informis us that, in plays of the 14th c.-The Creation, the Passion, and the schools of the Druids, the young men used to the Resurrection.--In Welsh prose, we have first the learn by heart a great number of verses on theolo- chronicles. Geoffrey's chronicle, though Latin, is gical and historical subjects. But these poems were thoroughly national ; then there is that of Caradoc, never written down. It is highly probable that who begins where Geoffrey leaves off; and the Liber rhyme, first used by St. Ambrosius (397) in his Landavensis, a history of the bishops of Llandaff hymns, is of Gaulish origin, this being the common down to 1132. Further, we have the Mabinogion form even of the oldest Irish and Welsh poems.- (Children's Tales)romantic stories. The most The Irish literature began with the conversion, but interesting of these refer to Arthur and his our existing manuscripts are not older than the 9th champions; the lady of the fountain, Peredur, Geraint or 8th century. Interlinear versions of biblical and now revived by Tennyson), Arthur's boar-hunt. other theological, or of grammatical writings, are Amongst the non-Arthurian tales, special mention about the oldest manuscripts, many of which, in is deserved by the Mabinogi of Taliesin, interconsequence of the missionary zeal of the nation, spersed with verses, relating the adventures, transare to be found at St. Gall, Milan, and other formations into animal shape, and transmigrations continental places. Then there are ecclesiastic of that bard. There are besides some scientific hymns, one of the oldest ascribed to Patrick. A writings, a treatise on medicine, another on geometry, renowned author of poems in the tenth c. was and one on Welsh prosody by Edeyrn (1260). This Eckad O'Flin. Secular poetry of ancient times last, a grammatical essay in and on a vernacular there has come down to us none, but we have testi- tongue, is paralleled in the middle ages only by monies as old as the 12th c., of the existence of Icelandic literature, to which, upon the whole, the such, ascribed in a general way to the old pagan Welsh, although not quite so high, bears a marked hero Oisin, son of MacCumhal. The existing resemblance. specimens, mostly warlikemexcept some dialogues Concluding Remarks.--Altogether, the Celts are a between Oisin and St. Patrick-are recent. Those very important branch of our Indo-German family. Gaels that went over to Scotland, took, of course, the incessant warfares of the Gauls bespeak at least similar traditions with them. With a partial knowl- activity of mind and body; the Irish missions have edge of these, Macpherson composed (1765) the work done a great deal for European civilisation ; whilst which he declared (rather loosely) to be an English the traditions of the Britons have deeply influenced translation of the songs of the old Scotch poet medieval literature. The one great defect of the Ossian, son of Fingal (the true Oisiu was an Irishman). ! Celts is incapacity for political organisation. Their CELTIS-CEMENTS.

very enthusiasm, lively feeling, and vivid imagina- , action of water, softens and disintegrates, and some tio, have ever prevented them from taking coolly of the lime dissolves away. Lime which contains and deliberately those measures which lead to 20 to 30 per cent. of clay, or fively divided silica, national unity; hence it is that they gave way produces à mortar which is not liable to this before the more practical Roman and Teuton. But softening, but possesses the property of hardening while they lost their independence, and oftentimes | under water; such lime is called hydraulic, and the their very language in the contest with the foreigner, mortar made from it, hydraulic cement or mortar. whose strong hand moulded them into national | Puzzolana, a porous lava found at Puzzuoli, unity, yet they reacted on him in their turn. They near Naples, has been long celebrated for its propare fast disappearing by merging into the English ; erty of forming a hydraulic cement, when mixed but if the quiet resolution, the sturdy common with ordinary lime. It is mainly composed of sense, the talent for public life, state organisation, silicates of alumina, lime, and soda. Portland and political dominion, that characterise the mod- cement, so named from its resemblance to Portland ern British nation, are altogether Teutonic-on the stone when dry, is made from clay found in the other hand, their genuine refinement of manner and valley of the Medway, which is intimately mixed feeling, and their high poetical susceptibilities, are with the neighbouring chalk, and then burned. to no small extent due to the adınixture of Celtic Roman cement is similar to the Portland, but of a blood.

darker colour; it contains a larger proportion of CELTIS. See NETTLE-TREE.

clay, and solidifies more rapidly. These C. should CEMBRA NUT AND CEMBRA PINE. See

be mixed with a sufficient quantity of water, to form

a moderately thick paste; the surfaces to which PINE.

they are applied should be well wetted, and the CEMENTATION OF STEEL is the process cement kept slightly moist until it hardens. The followed in the production of Blistered Steel (q. v.), solidification of hydraulic cements depends upon the or steel of ceinentation.

combination of the lime with the silica and alumina CEMENTS. A cement is a substance used to forming, first a hydrated compound, and finally a make the surfaces of solid bodies adhere to one true silicate. They expand slightly in solidifying. another; it is applied in a liquid or viscous state, The following receipts include some of the most and hardens after the surfaces are brought together. useful and reliable C. applicable to the purposes When fused metals or alloys are used in this manner, specified : For water-tight joints, such as slate they are called solders. There is a great variety of cisterns, aquaria, &c., and for uniting broken pieces C. derived from animal, vegetable, and mineral of stone, and fiiling up metallic joints—take equal substances. The animal C. are chiefly composed of parts of red and white lead, and work them into a gelatine and albumen as their bases. Joiners' glue stiff paste with boiled linseed oil. When used for is an example. See Glue. The binding materials metal joints, it should be made rather thin, and of vegetable C. are gums, resins, and wax. The both pieces of metal, as well as the washer, well mineral C. are chiefly of lime and its compounds. In smeared with it. This cement slowly hardens, blit many C., animal, vegetable, and mineral substances becomes ultimately of almost flinty hardness. We are combined. The simplest of the mineral C. is have before us an aquarium, holding fifteen gallons plaster of Paris, which is used for uniting slabs of of water, made of plate-glass, cemented at the angles marble, alabaster, and many similar purposes. It to mahogany columns with this composition. It is mixed with water to the consistence cf thick cream, has stood without leaking for above three years, in and then applied. This hardens rapidly, but is not spite of much rough handling and moving about; very strong. Its hardening depends upon the true and the cement is now so hard, that it is difficult to chemical combination of the water with anhydrous scratch it with a knife. sulphate of lime, of which plaster of Paris is com- Cement composed of ox-blood thickened with posed, and the formation thereby of a solid hydrate. finely powdered quicklime, is used by coppersmiths, The plaster of Paris may be mixed with thin glue, for securing the edges of rivets of copper boilers, with diluted wbite of egg, or a solution of size or and for steam-joints. Another cement for steamgum, instead of water, and is strengthened thereby. | joints is made with borings or turnings of cast-iron

Keene's marble cement is prepared by steeping mixed with a little wal ainmoniac and flower of plaster of Paris in a concentrated solution of alum, sulphur. It should be stirred up with a small then recalcining and powdering. This powder is quantity of water, just sufficient to moisten it, then mixed with water in the same manner as plaster rammed into the juint, which should be bolted up of Paris. It is used as a stucco for internal decora- as tightly as possible : 5 lbs. of iron borings to tions, takes a high polish, and when coloured, forms 2 oz. of sal ammoniac, and 1 oz. of sulphur, are the beautiful imitations of mosaic, marbles, scagliola, &c. proportions recominended. A cement of this kind

A mixture of paper-pulp, size, and plaster of may be made of 4 lbs. iron borings, 2 lbs. pipeParis in equal proportions, forms a useful cement, clay, and 1 lb. of powdered earthenware fragments and is also used as a sort of papier-mâché for casting made into a paste with salt and water; or 2 parts into architectural ornaments, &c.

litharge in fine powder, 1 part very fine sand, and Common mortar is one of the most important of 1 of quicklime that has slaked spontaneously in the lime cements. It is composed of slaked lime, or a damp place. These should be mixed, and kept a mixture of this with sand; its hardening depends from the air, and made into a paste with boiled upon the slow formation of carbonate of lime by linseed oil when about to be used. This is a valuthe absorption of carbonic acid from the atmos- able cement for steam-joints, for mending cracks phere, and a partial combination with the silica of in boilers, ovens, &c. Beale's Patent Fireproof the sand. Cow-hair is sometimes mixed with it, to Cement, for similar purposes, is composed of chalk, bind it when laid in masses. In order to obtain a 12 parts; lime and salt, each 4 parts ; Barnsey fine smooth paste, which is required for good mortar, sand, 2 parts; iron filings or dust, 1 part ; and blue the lime should be slaked rapidly by adding about or red clay, 1 part. These are ground and calcined three parts of water to one of lime ; if the quantity together. of water is too small, a coarser or semi-crystalline Electrical Cement—so called from its use in uniting hydrate of lime is produced by the slaking. For the the cylinders of electrical machines to their axes, mode of applying mortar, see BRICKWORK.

and for a variety of similar purposes is composed Ordinary mortar, when exposed to the continuous I of 5 lbs. rosin, 1 lb. each of bees'-wax and red ochre, CEMENTS-CEMETERY.

STE.

and 4 oz. of plaster of Paris. This is Singer's for- 1 of very strong glue, adding two very small bits of mula. A cheaper cement of this kind may be made gum galbanum or ammoniacum, which must be from 14 parts rosin, 2 red ochre, and 1 plaster of rubbed or ground till they are dissolved. Then Paris. These should be melted together till the mix the whole with a sufficient heat. Keep the frothing ceases, and the composition runs smoothly. glue in a phial closely stopped, and when it is to be This is applicable to a variety of purposes, where used, set the phial in boiling water. This cement a cheap and tolerably adhesive cement is required. has a great reputation, but our experience does not It will serve as bottle-wax for sealing the tops of confirm it. We have tried the above, and several corks; but this is usually prepared from 4 parts other receipts, with very little success. We doubt rosin with 1 of tallow or suet, and red ochre or whether the true method of preparing it is known other colouring matter added.

in this country, and suspect that it still remains For mending earthenware and china, &c., a variety one of the oriental trade-secrets. White of egg, of C. are recommended. For ornamental glass or thickened with finely powdered quicklime, forms a china, which is not subjected to heat or rough usage, useful cement, especially if the cemented article is Canada balsam that has evaporated until rather warmed for a short time in a slow oven, hard, is a very useful cement; from its transpa- Cutlers' Cement, used for fixing knives and forks rency, it makes an almost invisible joint. The in handles, is made of equal weights of rosin and surfaces should be slightly warmed, and the balsam brick-dust melted together; or, for a superior brushed over them, after which they should be kept quality, 4 parts of rosin, 1 of bees-wax, and 1 of pressed together for a short time. Thick copal or brick-dust. inastic varnish may be used in the same manner. Mahogany Cement, used for stopping cracks and Gum shell-lac, dissolved in spirits of wine in suffi- holes in mahogany, may be prepared by melting cient quantity to form a treacly liquid, forms a 4 parts of bees-wax with 1 of Indian red, and as stronger cement than the above, but its colour is much yellow ochre as is found requisite to give the objectionable for some purposes. The shell-lac colour. If shell-lac be substituted for the bees-wax, may be dissolved in naphtha, but is not equal to and less red used, a much harder cement is made. that in spirits of wine. The liquid glue sold in the For French Cement, Rice Glue, and other light C, shops is usually prepared in this manner; another for joining paper articles and artificial flowers, see kiud is made of a mixture of the solutions of shelllac and India rubber. The cement sold in sticks | CEMETERY, from the Greek, may mean any at fairs and in the streets of London by loquacions grave-yard, or other place of deposit for the dead; itinerants, is shell-lac or gum mastic fused and but it has lately acquired a special meaning, applicmoulded into a convenient form, and is one of the able to those extensive ornamental burial-grounds most useful C. when properly applied, by heating which have recently come into use in this and the surfaces to be joined just sufficiently to fuse the other European countries, as the practice of burying shell-lac, and then smearing them thinly with it, and within and around churches was gradually abanpressing them together. If shell-lac is heated much doned (see BURIAL). The fine burial-grounds of the above its fusing-point, it becomes carbonised and Turks, extending over large tracts adorned by cedars rotten, and therefore great care must be used in and other trees, may have suggested the plan to fusing any composition of which it is an ingredient. Europeans. It was first exemplified on a great scale The marine glue, a mixture of shell-lac and India in Paris, in which, as the largest walled town in rubber, is a remarkable cement, and when applied, Europe, the disposal of the dead was long a matter as the last, with the precautions just alluded to, is of extreme anxiety and difficulty. There are few so strong, that glass or china cemented with it, and considerable towns in Britain near which there is then dashed on the ground, or otherwise broken not at least one C., and the legislation mentionagain, will give way in any part rather than that ed under the head of BURIAL, has rendered their cemented. This cement may be purchased ready establishment, to a certain extent, a legal necessity. made. For the mode of preparing it, see GLUE. There was at first a natural feeling of regret at the

Universal Cement, used for the above and many prospect of deserting places of deposit for the dead other purposes, is prepared as follows: Curdle skim- so hallowed by ancient use and recent associations as milk with rennet or vinegar, press out the whey, I the church and the churchyard. In many instances, and dry the curd at a very gentle heat, but as however, the places thus professedly hallowed were quickly as possible. When it his become quite dry, in reality surrounded by degrading and disgusting grind it in a coffee or pepper mill, and next triturate circumstances. On the other hand, the new places it in a mortar until reduced to a very fine powder. of interment began to develop humanising and Mix this powder with oth of its weight of new elevating influences, in beautiful trees and flowers, dry quicklime, also in very fine powder, and to natural scenery, and works of monumental art. The every ounce of the mixture add 5 or 6 grains of new cemeteries are in many instances cheerful open powdered camphor; triturate the whole well to- places of recreation, and in them the place of rest gether, and keep it in small wide-mouthed phials for the dead has rather tended to improve than well corked. When required, make it into a paste to undermine the health of the living. One of with a little water, and apply it immediately. the oldest established and most celebrated of the

Cheese Cement is similar in composition and uses. European cemeteries, is that of Père la Chaise Take two parts of grated cheese and one of quick-|(q. v.), near Paris, the arrangements of which have lime in fine powder; beat these together with white been generally followed in the cemeteries of London of egg to form a paste, and use immediately.

and other English cities; with, however, this disThe following is the reputed formula for preparing tinct difference, that the English cemeteries are the Armenian or Diamond Cement, used by the Arme- divided into two portions--one consecrated for the nian jewellers for attaching diamonds, &c., without burials of members of the Established Church, over any metallic setting: 'Dissolve 5 or 6 bits of gum- whose remains the funeral service is read, and one mastic, each the size of a large pea, in as much unconsecrated for the burials of dissenters. In the rectified spirit of wine as will suffice to render it Scottish cemeteries, of which there are good speciliquid; and in another vessel dissolve as much mens at Edinburgh and Glasgow, no such distincisinglass, previously a little softened in water- tions exist. Iu tho United States, as at Philadelphia though none of the water must be used in French and New York, there are cemeteries equal in pcint brandy, or good rum, as will make a 2-ounce phial J of arrangement to any in Europe.

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