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November to April, the temple and its deity are BHAMO', a town of Burmah, on the Upper abandoned even by the attendant Brahmins, on Irrawaddy, 40 miles to the west of the Chinese account of the cold.
frontier, and 180 to the north-north-east of Ava. BHAGAVAD-GITÂ (i. e., Revelations from the It contains 2000 houses, and has round it many
It is the chief mart of the trade Deity) is the title of
a religious metaphysical populous villages. poem, interwoven as an episode in the great Indian with China, the imports being woollens, cottons, epic poem of the Mahabharata (q. v.). Two hostile and silks, which are brought principally by winter armies, the nearly related Kurus and Pândus, are tribes of the neighbourhood, who resort to the town,
B. has also a considerable trade with the drawn up in opposition, ready for battle; the trumpets sound the opening of the combat;' and exchanging their native produce for salt, rice, and a the Pându Ardshuna mounts his chariot, which is sauce made of dried fish. guided by the Deity himself, as charioteer, in the
BHANG, the eastern name for Hemp (q. v.). human form of Krishna. But when Ardshuna BHARTRIHARI is the name of a celebrated perceives in the hostile army his relatives, the Indian writer of apothegms. Little is known regardfriends of his youth, and his teachers, he hesitates ing the circumstances of his life. A legendary story to commence the struggle, held back by the doubt makes him the brother of King Vikramaditya, who whether it were lawful for him, for the sake of lived in the 1st c. B. C., and relates of him, that the earthly gain of reconquering 'his father's king- after a wild licentious youth, he betook himself in dom, to transgress the divinely approved ordi- later years to the ascetic life of a hermit. nances for the government of the state. Upon this, name has been given to a collection of 300 apothegms Krishna sets forth, in a series of eighteen poetic -whether it be that he actually wrote them, or, lectures, the necessity of proceeding, unconcerned as is more probable, that the apothegms were as to the consequences. In the progress of his long popular works, written by many various authors, but discourse, a complete system of Indian religious ascribed, according to the Indian custom, to some philosophy is developed, in which the highest personage well known among the people in legends problems of the human mind are treated with as and tales. Cheerful descriptions from nature, and much clearness of thought as elegance of language. charming pictures of love, alternate in these It is impossible to determine exactly when and apothegms, with wise remarks upon the relations of by whom the work was composed. It is not, life, and profound thoughts upon the Deity and however, one of the first attempts of Indian philo- the immortality of the soul. Bohlen has published sophy, for it is rather of an eclectic nature; and an excellent critical edition (Berlin, 1833), with a before it could have been composed, there must supplement Vario Lectiones (Berlin, 1850), as well have been a period of long-continued intellectual as a successful metrical translation into German cultivation in many philosophic schools. It is not (Hamburg, 1835). B. has a certain special interest unlikely that it was written in the first century as having been the first Indian author known in after Christ. The work is looked upon with great Europe, 200 of his apothegms having been translated reverence in India, and it has accordingly been in 1653, by the missionary, Abraham Roger, in a made the subject of numerous commentaries (the learned work published at Nuremberg, under the best is that of Srîdhara-Svâmin, published in Cal- quaint title, Open Gates to Hidden Heathenism. cutta in 1832), and it has likewise been translated
BHAVANI-KUDA'R, or BHOVANI-KUDAR, a into various Indian dialects. Five different metrical town in the presidency of Madras, in the district versions in Hindi appeared in Bombay, in 1842; of Coimbatoor, 58 miles to the north-east of the city a translation into the Telugu dialect in Madras, of that name. It takes its name from its position 1840; into the Canarese, Bangalore, 1846, &c. The at the confluence of the Bhavani or Bhovani, and best critical edition of the Sanscrit text is that of the Cauvery. It is worthy of notice chiefly for its A. W. von Schlegel (2d ed., Bonn, 1846), to which temples of Vishnu and Siva. is added a Latin translation. Among the other
BHAWLPOO'R, the capital of the protected state translations may be mentioned that into English by Wilkins (Lond. 1785), who had the credit of of the same name in India, is situated on a tributary first making the work first known in Europe ; that of the Ghara, which, formed by the junction of the into German, by Peiper (Leip. 1834); and the Sutlej and the Beas, falls into the Chenab about Greek translation by Galanos (Athens, 1848). W. fifty miles further down, in lat. 29° 24' N., and
It has a circuit of four milesvon Humboldt's treatise, Upon the Episodes of the long. 71° 47' E. Mahâbhârata, known under the name of the Bhagavad- part, however, of the enclosed space being occupied Gitá (Berlin, 1827), contains an admirable exposition by groves of trees; and its population is estimated
at 20,000. B. has manufactures of scarfs and of the philosophy of the poem.
turbans, chintzes and other cottons, and the immeBHAGULPOʻRE, the capital of the district of diate neighbourhood is remarkably fertile in grain, the same name in the sub-presidency of Bengal, in sugar, indigo, tobacco, and butter, with an abundlat. 25° 11' N., and long. 87° E. It stands on the ance of mangoes, oranges, apples, and other fruits, right bank of the Ganges, which is even here 7 in perfection. For external commerce, too, B. is iniles wide in the rainy season. A seminary for favourably placed, standing at the junction of three English instruction has been here established by the routes respectively from the east, south-east, and British government, which, in 1852, numbered 115 south; while, towards the north, the Hindu merpupils—15 Mohammedans, 70 Hindus, and 30 of chants, who are very enterprising, have dealings other denominations. In the vicinity of the town with Bokhara, and even with Astrakhan.-2. are two antiquarian curiosities, being round towers The state of B. lies in lat. 27° 41'—30° 25'; and of about 70 feet in height, of the origin or object long. 69° 30'-—-73° 58' E. The area is about 22,000 of which nothing is known.—2. B., as a district, square miles—the population being perhaps overcontains 5806 square miles, and 2,000,000 inhabi- rated at 600,000, or somewhat more than twenty
It lies south of Nepaul, in lat. 24° 17'—26° seven inhabitants to a square mile. The country is 20' N., and in long. 86° 15' -88° 3' E. Abont a fifth remarkably level: only about one-sixth is capable of of the whole is covered by hills, which, stretching cultivation. The fertile portion, skirting the Ghara away towards the south-west, connect themselves and the Indus, has a purely alluvial soil; but the with the Vindhya Mountains, the grand dividing-ridge remainder, though presenting many traces of former between the Nerbudda and the Ganges.
cultivation and population, is now, from want of
water, an irreclaimable desert either of hard dry oligarchy. The Dherma Rajah, the nominal head, clay, or of loose shifting sands. Besides beasts is treated rather as a god than as a sovereign; while of chase, such as tigers, boars, &c., B. abounds in the Deb Rajah, the actual head, is controlled in domestic animals, such as camels, kine, buffaloes, almost everything by a council of eight. Polyandry goats, and broad-tailed sheep. In few parts of and polygamy equally conspire to keep down the the world are provisions finer or cheaper. The numbers of the population. principal exports are cotton, sugar, indigo, hides, drugs, dye-stuffs, wool, ghee or butter, and provi- state of the same name in India, is a large town,
BHURTPOʻRE, the capital of the protected sions in general. The principal imports are the wares of Britain and India. The khan and a great taining, it is said, about 100,000 inhabitants, in
measuring about eight miles in circuit, and conmajority of his subjects are Mohammedans.
But Hindus are treated with much toleration.
lat. 27° 12' N., and long. 77° 33' E. It is worthy of
The annual revenue is about 1,500,000 rupees, or about 1805 and 1825. The strength of the place lay in a
notice chiefly on account of its two sieges in £150,000.
mud-wall, which was practically shot-proof, and BHEL, or BAEL. See AEGLE.
a surrounding ditch, which might at any time be BHOOJ, the capital of Cutch, in India, situated filled with water from a neighbouring lake. On at the foot of a fortified hill of the same name, the first occasion, Lord Lake's assaults were all where a temple has been erected to the cobra baffled by this trench thus flooded. On the second da capella, in lat. 23° 15' N., and long. 69° 44' occasion, however, Lord Combermere, having arrived E., about 35 miles from the sea. It contains in time to cut off the communications of the garriabout 20,000 inhabitants. Its mosques and pagodas, son with the lake above mentioned, overcame his interspersed with plantations of dates, give to the principal difficulty ; but even then the mud-wall town an imposing appearance from a distance. would yield only to mining.--2. The protected state In 1819 it suffered severely from an earthquake. It of B. is situated in lat. 26° 48'-27° 50' N., and in is celebrated over India for its manufactures in gold long. 76° 54'—77° 49' E.—its area being estimated at and silver.
1978 square miles. The population has been assumed BHO'PAL, the capital of the territory of the to average 300 to a square mile, giving a total of about same name, in India, lies in lat. 23° 14' N., and long. 600,000. The country suffers from want of water, 77° 33' E. It is surrounded by a dilapidated having only three perennial streams, of which two, stone-wall of about two miles in circuit. The fort, however, are mere rills in the dry season; and yet, which is the residence of the nawab, stands on in many parts, the soil is rendered hig produca huge rock outside the town. B. is worthy of tive by means of irrigation. The principal crops notice mainly in connection with two immense are grain, cotton, and sugar. In the height of sumtanks in the immediate neighbourhood—one of them mer, the climate has been compared to the extreme being 2 miles in length, and the other measur- glow of an iron-foundry, the thermometer having ing 4 miles by 17. As each sends forth a river, I been known to stand at 130° F. in the shade. The they have most probably been formed by the rajah's revenue is stated at £170,000 a year; and his embanking and damming up of their respective military force is said to amount to 5400 men of all streams.-The territory of B. is a protected state, under the immediate superintendence of the gover- BIA'FRA, BIGHT OF, a large bay of the Atlantic nor-general. It is situated within the basins of Ocean, on the west coast of Africa, at the head of the Ganges and Nerbudda, in lat. 22° 32 -23° 46' the Gulf of Guinea, between Cape Formosa (which N., and long. 76° 25'—78° 50' E.; its area being esti- divides it from the Bight of Benin) on the north, mated at 6764 square miles, and its population, on and Cape Lopez on the south. Its extreme width an assumed average for Central India, at 662,872. between these two points is nearly 600 miles, its Though the vast mass of the people are Hindus, yet depth, to the mouth of the Old Calabar River, about the government is Mohammedan, and is understood 250 miles. The northern shores of the Bight, comto be more popular in its character than any other prehended under the general name of the Calabar in India.
coast, and the eastern coast, south of Cape St. John, BHOTA'N, or BOO'TAN, a territory in the
are low and flat. Near Old Calabar, the country north-east of India, said to be partly dependent becomes hilly, and opposite Fernando Po, it rises into on Tibet, in lat. 26° 18'—28° 2' N., and long. 88° 32' the lofty range of the Cameroons. The principal - 92° 30' E., being bounded on the N. by the main rivers flowing into the Bight are the Niger, or ridge of the Himalaya, on the E. by Assam, on Quorra, the New and Old Calabar Rivers, the Rio the S. by. Bengal, and on the W. by Sikkim. With del Rey, the Cameroon, and the Gaboon. The an area of 64,500 square miles—more than equal creeks and estuaries of the rivers are generally to that of England and Wales—it is said to con- lined with dense thickets of mangrove, which sometain only 1,500,000 inhabitants. The whole sur. times grow in the water, their lower branches face may be described as mountainous, with a covered with oysters. In the Bight of B. are the gradual slope from north to south. Generally speak- three islands of Fernando Po, St. Thomas, and ing, the middle ranges are the most productive. Prince's Island. The chief European stations on While the south presents but a scanty vegetation, the coast are Duke Town, in Old Calabar, where and the north rises far above the limit of perpetual there is a flourishing missionary station, and Naango, snow, the central regions, at an elevation of 8000 or George's Town, a small commercial town on the or 10,000 feet above the sea, are covered with the estuary of the Gaboon. finest forests of oak and pine. Nearly all sorts of BIA'LYSTOK, a fortified town of Western Rusgrain-wheat, barley, rice, maize, and buckwheat-sia, in the government of Grodno. It is situated on are here and there cultivated on favourable spots; the Bialy, an affluent of the Narew, 45 miles southbut much grain is still imported from Bengal, west of Grodno, in lat. 53° 8' N., long. 23° 18' E. B. being obtained, as well as sugar and tobacco, in is well built ; lime-trees border several of the streets, return for native cloths, rock-salt, rhubarb, Tibet and give it a very pleasant aspect. It has a palace goods, mules, and ponies. The religion is Buddhism, and park, now belonging to the municipality, bút the monastic endowments of its priests absorbing a formerly belonging to the Counts of Braniski, and large part of the national property. The government, called the Versailles of Poland,' a commodious almost purely ecclesiastical, is in the hands of an market, and several churches. It has manufactures
of woollens, hats, leather, soap, tallow, &c. Pop. , At the overthrow of Cresus, when the lonians 11,467.
dreaded an invasion by Cyrus, they were advised BIANCAVI'LLA, a town of Sicily, in the prov- by B. to take their personal property and colonise ince of, and about 14 miles north-west of the Sardinia ; but this advice was rejected, and the city of Catania. It is about 10 miles distant from Ionians, after a vain defence, were subjugated by Mount Etna, on the south-west declivity of which the generals of Cyrus. When the people of Priene mountain it is situated. It has a trade in grain,
It has a trade in grain, ---the birthplace of B.--were making preparations cotton, and silk. Pop. about 6000.
to escape from their besieged city, B., in reply to
not occupied like BIANCHI'NI, FRANCESCO, celebrated for his one who asked why he was antiquarian and astronomical investigations, was
other citizens, employed the words which have received his early education in the Jesuits' College, Græcorum Veterum, &c., 1819. born December 13, 1662, at Verona, where he become a Lațin proverb, Omnia mea mecum porto,
'I carry all my goods with me.'-Orelli, Opuscula At Padua he studied theology, mathematics, and above all, botany; and then proceeded to Rome, BIB, POUT, or WHITING POUT (Gadus luscits where he became intimate with the most distin- or Morrhua lusca), a fish of the same genus with guished savans of the day, and devoted himself to the Cod (q. v.) and Haddock (q. v.), pretty common the study of jurisprudence and foreign languages. on many parts of the British coasts, found also on Alexander Viil. bestowed upon hin a rich bene- those of Norway, Sweden, Greenland, &c. fice, and Clement XI. appointed him secretary to seldom more than a foot long, but remarkably the commission for reforming the calendar. B. differs from all other British fishes of the same was employed to draw a meridian line in the family (Gadidæ, q. v.) in the great depth of its body, church of Santa Maria degli Angeli, in Rome, which equals at least one-fourth of the entire which he successfully accomplished. After travel- length. The hack is arched, and the nape exhibits ling through France, Holland, and England, he a rather sharp ridge. The eyes and other parts returned to Italy, with the design of drawing a
of the head are invested with a singular loose meridian line from the Adriatic to the Mediter- membrane, which the fish can inflate at pleasure. ranean like that drawn by Cassini across France. There is a dark spot at the origin of each of the The operations connected with this project occupied pectoral fins, as in the Whiting (q. v.). The names him eight years; but a variety of other labours, as Bib and Pout, both originally local English names, well as want of means, prevented its completion. were at one time supposed to belong to distinct Besides several memoirs and dissertations on anti- species (called G.lusca and G. barbata), but it appears quarian and astronomical subjects, we may mention now to be pretty certain that these are really one. his Istoria Universale Provata coi Monumenti In Scotland, this fish is generally called Brassy. It Figurata coi Simboli degli Antichi (Rome, 1694), and is well known in the London 'market, is in best his fine edition of the work of Anastasius, De Vitis condition in November and December, and is much Romanorum Pontificum, which was completed by his esteemed for the table. nephew Giuseppe B. (4 vols., Rome, 1718-1734). B. BI'BERACH, a town of Würtemberg, in the died in March 1729, and a monument was erected circle of the Danube. It is situated on the Reiss, in to his memory in the cathedral of Verona.
the charming valley of the same name, about 23 BIARD, AUGUSTE François, a French painter, miles south-south-west of Ulm; and is surrounded known in alınost every department of his art, but by a ditch and by walls flanked with chiefly distinguished for his animated and often It has manufactures of paper, linen, and fustians, comical representations of ordinary life and manners leather, children's toys, &c. Pop. about 5000. In (peinture de genre). B.'s merits, and the school October 1796, Moreau won a great victory over to which he belongs, will be sufficiently under the Austrian general Latour at B., the latter losing
mention that his countrymen 4000 prisoners and 18 pieces of cannon. have styled him the Paul de Kock of painting ! also, in 1800, Moreau again defeated the Austrian He was born at Lyon in 1800, and was at first general Kray. B. fell into the possession of Baden destined for the church ; but subscquently educated in 1802, but four years afterwards, was ceded to at the School of Art of his native city. He travelled Würtemberg. Wieland the poet was born in the in early life in Malta, Cyprus, Syria, and Egypt, immediate vicinity. where he made sketches, and stored his memory BI'BERICH, a village in the duchy of Nassau, with images which he used in after-years. In on the right bank of the Rhine, and about 4 miles 1839, he visited Greenland and Spitzbergen, and of south from Wiesbaden, is noted for its splendid this journey one of the fruits was his famous palace. The views of the river-scenery from B. are picture of a battle with polar bears. The first unrivalled. Pop., including Mosbach, about 3000. picture which gained him distinction was his ‘Babes
BI'BIRI, BI'BIRI BARK, AND BI'BIRINE. See in the Wood' (1828); and one of his best is the GREENHEART. • Beggar's Fainily,' exhibited in 1836; both of which pictures were purchased by the town of Lyon. is the name given by Chrysostom in the 4th c. to
BIBLE (Gr. Ta Biblia, • The Books '--see Book) Many other continental galleries possess examples that collection of sacred writings recognised by of B.'s pictures, and in England they have always
the documents of their divinely been much sought after.
revealed religion. Both as regards language and BIARRITZ, a maritime village of France, in the contents, they are divided into two parts--the Old department of the Basses-Pyrénées, about 5 miles and New Testament, or rather, the Old and New south-west of Bayonne. The French emperor and Covenant; for the word testamentum is only a empress, attracted by its pleasant situation and translation into the later Latinity of the 2d c. of salubrity, have, within recent years, made it a sum- the Greek diatheke, covenant.' The history of the nier residence; and the presence of the court has of Old Testament is connected with that of the New course tended to increase greatly the fame of its by a series of writings not received by Protestants baths and singular grottoes. Pop. 1928.
as canonical, and collectively styled the Apocrypha BI'AS, one of the seven sages of Greece, lived in (q. v.). the time of the Lydian king, Alyattes, and his son, Thé OLD TESTAMENT is a collection of 39 books, Cræsus, about 570 B.C. He was generally employed written partly in the Hebrew, and partly in the as a political and legal adviser in difficult questions. I Chaldaic language, and containing all the remains