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native of Mexico.
were offered to her. Among the Romans, her into Asia Minor, and lived in Ephesus contempofestivals were styled CEREALIA ; and of these, the raneously (according to the belief of the church) most interesting was the feast celebrated by the with the aged apostle John. Tradition tells us rural population shortly before harvest, when the that John held the heretic in such detestation, that, country people, dressed in white, and crowned with on a certain occasion, when he encountered C. in oak-leaves, danced and sang harvest-songs in honour the baths of Ephesus, he immediately left the of the goddess. The feast in April lasted several place, saying to those about him: • Let us flee days, and was celebrated by games of the circus. home, lest the bath should fall while Cerinthus is C. was represented, most commonly, in a chariot within.' It was believed in the ancient church, drawn by dragons, having her head crowned with a that the Gospel by St. John was written in opposigarland of corn-ears, and holding a torch, a basket, tion to the tenets of C.; and the Roman presbyter or a poppy in her hand.
Caius (about the close of the 2d c) supposed that CERES, one of the Planetoids (q. V.), and the first c. had revenged himself by falsely ascribing the of them that was discovered. It was first seen by authorship of the Apocalypse to St. Jolı-it being Piazzi at Palermo, January 1, 1801. He continued to in reality his own work! The Fathers contradict observe its motion till the 13th of February, when one another in their accounts of Cerinthus. Some illness obliged him to discontinue his observations, describe him as a complete Gnostic, in which case which, however, sufficed to enable astronomers he would be the earliest recorded teacher of that approximately to calculate its orbit. It was nearly sect; others say that he held coarse and sensual a year after before it again became visible, owing millenarian views, making the millennium (q. v.), to its approach to the sun. C.'s magnitude is less with the licentious fancy of an Arab, consist chiefly than that of the moon; and it looks like a star in 'nuptial delights;' and that he believed the between the seventh and eightli magnitudes.
Jewish ceremonial law to be in part binding upon CE'REUS, a genus of plants of the natural order Christians. There can be no doubt that c. made
use of the Jewish law at least as a symbol for his Cactea (q. v.), containing about 100 known species, Gnostic doctrines, and also employed millenarian among which are some of the most splendid flowers terins in a symbolical manner; a very natural thing of that order. One of them is the C. speciosissimus, for hiin to do, on the hypothesis which Neander and now one of the most common green-house plants in others have suggested that Gnosticism originated, Britain, and sometimes cultivated even in windows. not among the minds which had received a true Its large flowers are of a fine scarlet colour, the Hellenic culture, but among the Judaising sects, inner petals with a violet tinge: they spring singly whose theosophy was a jumble of the spiritual and from the younger branches. The fruit, when well the material. Č. being the oldest teacher of Judaicoripened, is of a delicious flavour. The plant is a Gnostic principles, there would naturally be a greater
incongruity and want of harmony in his language CERIGNOLA, a town of Naples, in the pro- and ideas than characterised Gnosticism at a later vince of Capitanata, 23 miles south-east of Foggi.. period of its development; and subsequent eccleIt is divided into two parts--the old and new siastical writers, destitute as all of them were of town, in the former of which a portion of the precise historical knowledge and sound principles ancient walls still remain-and is celebrated for of criticism, could hardly avoid misunderstanding the decisive victory obtained over the French a system which is not consistent throughout, but by the Spaniards in 1503, and which established bears evident marks of being formed in a transithe supremacy of Spain in Naples. C. has manu- tion epoch.-Paulus, Historia Cerinthi (Jena, 1799); factures of linen, and a trade in cotton and fruits. Neander, Kirchengeschichte, vol. i., part 2. Pop. between 10,000 and 11,000.
CE’RITE, or O'CHRÖITE, is the Silicate of CE'RIGO, one of the smaller of the seven Ionian Cerium. It is found as a 'mineral in gneiss, at Islands, was anciently called Cythera ; is situated in Westmanland, Redderhyttan, and
Bastnäs. the Mediterranean, and is separated from the coast contains in 100 parts—silica, 16 ; peroxide of cerium, of Morea by a narrow strait; lat. 36° 27' N., long. 26.55; oxide of lanthanum, 33-38; carbonic acid, 23° E. It has an area of about 120 square miles, 4:62; allumina, 1.68; peroxide of iron, 3.53; lime, with a population of 13,000. With the exception of 3.50 ; oxide of manganese, 0-27; and water, 9:1. It a few tracts of land, it is a very barren, dry, and occurs in granular pieces of a clove-brown, cherrymountainous island. In some parts, however, corn, red, or gray colour, with a white streak, a splintery wine, and olive-oil are raised. There are two great fracture, an adamantine lustre, and is translucent caverns in the island-one in the sea-cliff at the at the edges. termination of the wild glen of Milopotamos; the other, known by the name of the Cavern of St.
CERI'THIUM, a genus and the type of a family, Sophia, from a sinall chapel at its mouth dedicated Cerithiado, of gasteropodous mollusca of the order to this saint, is situated at about one and a half Pectinibranchiata of Cuvier. The shell is spiral
, hour's ride from Capsali (q. v.), the capital of the elongated, and many-whirled, with an oval oblique island. The former cavern is said to be three miles aperture which has a short canal in front. The in lergth, and so low that it is necessary to creep, marine, but many inhabiting estuaries and brackish
species of this family are numerous, most of them in many places, on hands and knees to explore it. rather than salt water; some are found in lakes The latter-that of St. Sophia-is a very remarkable one, and possesses singular beauty ; it abounds in
A few belong to temperate climates, enormous stalactites of various shapes and great
but most of the n are tropical, and in mangrove In ancient times, C. was sacred to Venus, swamps they particularly abound. being, according to the old mythology, the island species are very numerous, almost all limited to that received this goddess when she arose from the the tertiary formations. See BagsHot Beds.
CE'RIUM is a rare metal found native in Cerite CERI'NTHUS (abusively named MERINTHUS,
(q. v.) and a few other minerals. It is a white i. e., a halter), a heretic who lived at the close of metal
, has not been obtained in any quantity, is the apostolic age, but of whom we have nothing forms two oxides and a numerous class of salts.
not therefore employed in any manufacture, and better than uncertain and confused It is said that he was a Jew by birth, and studied CEROPLASTIC (Lat. cera, wax), the art of philosophy in Alexandria. From Egypt he passed / modelling in wax. See WAX-WORK.
CEROSTRO'TUM, CESTRO'TUM (Lat.), a | the Customs at the port of registry, and delivered species of encaustic painting upon horn or ivory, i to the captain as a voucher of the character and the lines of the design being burned in with the privileges of the vessel as a British ship. cestrum or burning needle, and wax introduced in
CERTIFICATION, in the law of Scotland, the furrows thus made.
signifies the judicial assurance given to a party CERO'XYLON. See Wax PALM.
of the course to be followed by the judge in case CERRE'TO, a town of Naples, in the province of he disobeys the will of a summons, or other writ Terra di Lavoro, situated on a slope of the Apen- or order of the court. Reiterated contumacy on nines, about 22 miles north-east of Capua. It is a the part of the defender was at one time punished well-built town, with a cathedral, and manufactures with confiscation of his property (1449, c. 29), but of coarse cloth. The district produces good wine. now C. amounts to nothing beyond an intimation Pop. 6000.
that if he fails to appear in the usual manner, the CERRO GO'RDA, the name of several locali- judge will decern, or pronounce judgment against ties of Spanish America.-1. A plateau in Mexico, him. The most important C. is in the process of the most easterly on the route from Vera Cruz to the Reduction-improbation (q. v.). In this action two capital. Here, on 18th April 1847, the Americans terms are allowed for the production of the deed totally defeated the Mexicans.-2. 'A city of Peru, called for, and sought to be reduced. Thereafter, the capital of the province of Pusco, in the depart- an additional ten days are given; but should proment of Junin. It is in the vicinity of the richest duction not be satisfied on their expiry, decree of silver-mines in the republic; and standing at an C. will be pronounced, and this decree has the elevation of 14,100 feet, it has, all the year round, effect of declaring the deed to be forged and the temperature of an English winter. The esti- fabricated. Such a decree, even though pronounced mates of the population range from 7000 to 16,000. in absence, can hardly be recalled. In simple C. G. is 140 miles to the north-east of Lima.
reduction (see REDUCTION), the C. is only to the CERTA’LDO,
effect that the deed shall be void and null, till town of Tuscany, Northern
produced. Italy, is picturesquely situated on the Elsa, about 18 miles south-west of Florence. It is noteworthy as
CE'RTIFIED COPY. See EVIDENCE, the residence of Boccaccio, as well as the scene of CERTIORA'RI (Lat. to be certiorated, or more his death. His house, surmounted with a tower, is fully and accurately informed of), in English law, still standing, and contains the articles of furniture is an original writ issuing, in civil cases, out of the belonging to the poet's time, and a fresco painting common-law jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery, of him by Benvenuto Cellini. Pop. 2100.
and in criminal, from the criminal side of the CERTHI'ADÆ, a family of birds,
family of birds, generally Conrt of Queen's Bench. This writ, which runs placed in the great order Insesscres or Passerinæ, in the Queen's name, is addressed to judges or and tribe Tenuirostres, although some naturalists officers of an inferior court, commanding them to have ranked them in the order Scansores. They certify or to return the records of a cause depending mostly live on the trunks and branches of trees, before them, in order that the party may obtain feeding on insects which they find in the crevices more sure and speedy justice, from such justices as of the bark ; and many of them aid themselves by shall be assigned to determine the cause. their stiff tail-feathers in retaining their position as of C. may be granted at the instance either of the they search for their food on the perpendicular prosecutor or defender; but, to prevent its being
Their claws are long and sharp; the hind- used as an instrument of oppression by the one toe is also elongated, so that they can take firm party against the other, it is provided (5 and 6 hold of the bark or of a small branch; and many Will. IV. c. 33, and 16 and 17 Vict. c. 30) that of them can pass round a horizontal branch, cling. either party, before applying for it, must obtain the ing to its under-surface with their backs to the leave of the court, and enter into recognisances. ground. The bill of many is slender and curved ; The writ passes on a Bill of C., which states the others, however, have a comparatively short and proceedings in the inferior court, so far as they straight bill. The tongue is cartilaginous at the have gone; sets forth the alleged ground of incomextremity, and so fitted to aid in seizing insect prey. petency, by suggesting that the cause is beyond The plumage is usually dull and uniform ; but the the jurisdiction of the court, that the defendant or birds are lively and active in their habits. The witnesses live beyond it, or the like reason why species are numerous and widely diffused; they are substantial justice cannot be done ; and then prays divided into a number of genera. All of them are
the writ to certify and remove the cause into the small birds. The Creepers (q. v.), forming the genus superior court. When the bill is filed the writ of C. Certhia, are regarded as exhibiting the type of the is obtained on motion. family. Wrens and Nut-hatches, although referred
CERTO'SA DI PAVIA, LA, one of the most to it, depart very considerably from this type. Many celebrated monasteries in the world, is situated in small tropical and subtropical birds, which live by the neighbourhood of Pavia, and was founded, 1396, sucking honey from flowers, formerly referred to by Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti, first Duke of Milan, this family, are now separated from it.
to appease his conscience for the murder of his CERTIFICATE, a written testimony to the uncle. The church is a splendid structure in the truth of a certain factor facts. The law of form of a Latin cross, the ground-plan being 249 England recognises certificates for various purposes. feet long by 173 feet broad. It has altogether 12 1. Annual C. of Attorneys. See ATTORNEY. 2. C. chapels, 7 in the whole length of the church, and of appointment of the creditors' assignees to 5 in the transept, some of which are decorated with bankrupt's estate and effects. 3. C. of conformity fine frescoes and paintings. The richly sculptured of a bankrupt. 4. C. of counsel, to enable a pauper façade designed by Ambrogio da Fossano, named to litigate in forma pauperis. 5. C. of the judges Borgognone, was commenced in 1473. The building of the superior common-law courts at Westminster, is made up of various styles, but the pointed prevails which are of various kinds and for various pur- in the interior, which is decorated with frescoes, poses. 6. C. of registry of a ship; which is a copy paintings, &c., by Dan Crespi, Andrea Solari, Campi, of what is entered in the register of the ship in and Ambrogio Fossano, and contains a gorgeous the books of the Custom-house. This C. is granted high-altar, the mausoleum of the founder, and by the collector, comptroller, or principal officer of several monuments.
CERU'MEN. This term is applied to yellow true pictures of chivalry. He had also, it is quite Waxy matter which is secreted by certain glands clear, another object in view-viz., to show that the lying in the external auditory canal, or the passage deeper and truer and more guileless a rature is, whe that leads from the external opening of the ear more will it become the jest and butt of real hfe ; to the membrane of the tympanum. Its main use, but he likewise teaches us that the pure heart and doubtless, is to lubricate this passage. It possesses the high soul obtain a triumph which misfortunes and a peculiarly bitter taste, and some physiologists have blunders cannot tarnish; for the knight, always believed that in consequence of this property it pre- distinterested, generous, elevated, and beneficent,' vents insects from entering the auditory canal. It is though the sweet bells of his intellect are jangled popularly known as ear-wax.
and out of tune,' maintains throughout a firm hold
on our affections and esteem. Charles Lanıb has oil-paint, is a carbonate of lead.' It has several other truly said, that readers who see nothing more than
a burlesque in Don Quixote, have but a shallow names-krems, Nottingham white, flake-white, &c.
appreciation of the work Like all other preparations of lead, C. is liable to be acted upon by exhalations from sewers, or by brought no pecuniary reward to the author. He
Though received with enthusiasm, Don Quixote anything which contains sulphuretted liydrogen, which case it is changed to a dull and leaden hue: had passed so many years, and vainly endeavoured
was left in the obscurity and poverty in which he Neither will it bear to be mixed with any pigment to improve his circumstances. After silence during containing sulphur, such as vermilion. ed that the white oxide of zinc might be substituted amplares (Exemplary Tales), 1613; his Viage al
It is suppos- several years, C. published twelve Novelas E.cfor C. as a white piginent with advantage.
Parnaso (Journey to Parnassus), 1614—his next CERVA’NTÉS SAAVE'DRA, MIGUEL DE,
best production to Don Quixote; and in the followof the greatest imaginative writers of Spain, was ing year he produced eight new dramas, but these born of an old Galician family, at Alcala de Henares,
were indifferently received. In 1614, a certain October 9, 1547. He studied at Salamanca, ani Alonso Fernandez de Arellaneda published at Tarafterwards at Madrid, where he was placed under ragona, in 1614, a so-called continuation of Don Quixthe care of a learned theologian, Juan Lopez de ote, which was made a vehicle of abuse lavished Hoyos, who was then professor of belles-lettres on Cervantes. It appears that C. suffered considerin the university. But his natural love of poetry ably under these despicable attacks; but he revenged led him to spend most of his time in writing himself in noble style by publishing (1615) the true elegies, ballads, sonnets, and a pastoral romance
continuation of Don Quixote. Near the close of his entitled Filena. When 22 years old, C. served career, C. found a patron in the Count of Lemos, for some time as valet-de-chambre to Cardinal who relieved his poverty. During the last few Giulio Aquaviva of Rome. In 1570 he served as a
years of his life, he resided in Madrid, where he volunteer under the command of the papal admiral, died, April 23, 1616. No stone marks the spot Marco Antonio Colonni, and fought gallantly
where his remains were interred. His novel, The against the Turks. At the battle of Lepanto, he Sorrows of Persiles and Sigismunda, was posthuwas maimed for life by a gunshot wound in'te mously published. In 18:35, when the house in left hand. He afterwards took part in various which the poet had lived in Madrid was rebuilt, a campaigns. Captured by an Algerine squadron, he bust of C., by the sculptor Don Antonio Sula, was was made a slave, but was ransomed in 1580, after placed in the front. a four years' captivity. On his return to Spain, he
Among the several editions of Don Quixote, rejoined his regiment in the army sent by Philip II. we may mention the splendid one in 4 vols. to support his claims in Portugal, and distin- (Madrid, 1780); that by Pellicer (5 vols., Madrid, guished himself in the expedition to the Azores. 1798); the fourth published by the Madrid Academy, In 1581, he returned to Spain, and retired into with an admirable life of C. by Navarette (5 vols., private life, to devote his attention to literature. Madrid, 1819); Diego Clemencin's edition, with the Soon after his publication of the pastoral romance,
most complete commentary (6 vols., Madrid, 1833– Galatea (1584), he married, commenced writing for 1839); and a good pocket-edition, published at the stage, and produced, in the course of a few Leipsic (6 vols., 1800-1807). Of the collected years, as many as thirty dramatic pieces, of which works of C., an edition, not containing the comedies, the tragedy Numancia is the most remarkable. appeared at Madrid (16 vols., 1803–1805); and During the years 1588—1599 he lived in straitened another, without the Journey to Parnassus, was circumstances in Seville. In 1605 he once more published in the same city (11 vols. 18:29).' Don appeared as an author, and now in a sphere ex- Aug. Garcia de Arrieta published a selection from actly suited to his genius. In his immortal work, the works of C. (10 vols., Paris, 1826–1832); and Don Quixote, C. intended to put
end a reprint of the collected works is included in that taste for extravagant romances of chivalry Bandry's Coleccion de los Mejores Autores Españoles which had so long prevailed. The first part of (Paris, 1840–1811). England has been fertile in this great satirical work appeared in Madrid, and translations of C.'s immortal work. The first is was received at first coolly, but soon afterwards that of Thomas Skelton, (1612—1620), in addition with loud applause, which, at a later period, was
to which may be mentioned those of Philips, echoed from all parts of educated Europe. . Don Motteux, Smollett, Durfey, Jarvis, and Wilmot. Quixote, though written with a satirical purpose, The two best are those of Skelton and Jarvis. is throughout pervaded by the true spirit of CERVERA, a town of Spain, in the province poetry. With that universality which belongs of Lérida, 28 miles east of the city of that name. to the highest genius, C. connected a universal It is situated on an eminence, is surrounded by human interest with descriptions of local and tem- old walls pierced with nine gates, and the west porary characteristics. He did not intend by his approach is commanded by a castle, which is now in Don Quixote to burlesque the old Spanish knight- a ruinous condition. The university of Lérida was errantry, for, as Mr. Ford remarks (see Handbook of removed here by Philip V., but it was afterwards Spain, part i., p. 238), “the thing had expired a tranferred to Barcelona. The university building, century before his birth ;' but to put an end to the a massive but unsightly edifice, is still standing. absurd and affected romances which it was then c. has manufactures of linen, woollen, and cotton the fashion to read, and which were believed to be I fabrics. Pop. 5300.
CERVE'TERÉ, or CERVE'TRI (ancient Cære i and in the vicinity are productive sulphur-mines. or Agylla), a town of Central Italy, 27 niles west of | Pop. about 10,000. Rome. Though now a place of some 700 or 800 inhabitants, it was formerly one of the most im- Ital. assessare, to impose a tax.
CESS, probably a corruption for assess, from the portant cities of Etruria, possessing, it is said, a used in England as synonymous with the more
It has long been famous collection of paintings before even Rome was
modern noun assessment. founded. Many Etruscan remains of value have Elizabeth, speaks of every man being cessed by the
Camden, in the time of been found here.
pole, man by man, according to the valuation of CE'RVIA, a town of Central Italy, situated on the their goods and lands.' See LAND-TAX. Adriatic, 13 miles south-south-east of Ravenna. It
CE'SSIO BONO'RUM (Lat. cession or surrender is regularly built, has a cathedral and several con- of goods), a process which the law of Scotland hus vents; and from a marsh in the neighbourhood about
like many 50,000 tons of salt are annually obtained, the salt- borrowed from that of Rome, and whichi, works employing a considerable number of the others, is common to it with most of the continental
systems. A C. B. may be defined to be an equitable population, which is about 5000.
relief from the severity of the earlier laws of CE'RVIDÆ AND CE'RVUS. See DEER.
imprisonment for debt, granted to a debtor in conCERVIN, Mort (Ger. Matterhorn ; Ital. Monte sideration of a cession of his goods to his creditors. Silvio), a mountain of the Pennine Alps, about 40 The jurisdiction in cessios formerly belonged exclumiles east-north-east of Mont Blanc, and between sively to the Court of Session, but by 6 and 7 Will. the Valais in Switzerland and the Val d'Aosta in IV. c. 56, it was extended to sheriffs. The principal Piedmont. Above an unbroken glacier line of 11,000 regulations, with reference to this process, at presfeet high, it rises in an inaccessible obelisk of rock, ent in force, are the following: Any debtor in more than 3000 feet highermand is described by prison, or who has been in prison, or even against the late Professor Forbes as the most striking whom a warrant of imprisonment bas been issued, natural object he had ever seen. The total eleva- may apply for a Cessio Bonorum. In his petition, he tion of the mountain is 14,836 feet. The Col of sets forth his inability to pay his debts, and his Mont C., used as a passage for horses and mules in willingness to surrender his estates, and prays for summer, has an elevation of 10,938.
interim protection. This petition must be intimated
in the Gazette. CERVINA'RA, a town of Naples, in the province the sheriff-clerk a state of his affairs, subscribed by
The bankrupt then lodges with of Principato Ultra, 12 miles north-west of Avellino. himself, with all the relative books and papers. It has a convent and several churches, and a trade On a day appointed for the purpose, he is examined in the produce of the district. Pop. 6000.
before the sheriff on oath ; and if bis creditors object CE'SARI, GIUSEPPE (sometimes called GIUSEP- to the petition, they are heard, and a proof, if necesCAVALIERE D'ARPINO),
sary, allowed them. Whatever order the sheriff painter, was born at Rome, 1570, and died there may pronounce is subject to review by the Court of in 1640 (or 1642). He was greatly honoured by Session, or a Lord Ordinary in vacation. Cessios no less than five popes, and his paintings were originating in the Court of Session are sued out in always highly popular. His works--in fresco and the form of a summons, by which all the creditors oil-display lively imagination, gay colouring, and are called as defenders to the action. Any one or great tact in execution; but are deficient in more of them may appear; and the pursuer will not natural simplicity, correctness of design, symmetry be allowed the benefit of the process, till he has of arrangement, and dignity of style. As he was satisfied the court that his insolvency has arisen the most brilliant of the mannerists, he was the from misfortune, and that his disclosure of the state chief object of the attacks made by the artistic of his affairs is full and honest. The burden of reformers, Caravaggio, the Caracci, and their fol- proving objections to his statements, and to the lowers—who constituted the naturalistiếon the evidence which he may produce, will be laid on the conventional or pseudo-idealistic style of painting. creditors. If the debtor can find caution (q. v.) to
CESARO'TTI, MELCHIORE, an excellent Italian attend all diets when called on, the sheriff or the poet, was born at Padua, 15th May 1730, and died Court of Session may grant him liberation or protec30 November 1808. He gained a reputation by the tion whilst the process is pending. A decree of vigour and originality of his style, especially in his C. B. operates as an assignation of the debtor's translation of Macpherson's Ossian (2 vols., Padua, movable estate in favour of a trustee for behoof of 1763). The versification of this work, like that of the creditors. These trustees, like those in sequesC.'s free translation of the Iliad, under the title of trations, are now placed under the supervision of La Morte di Ettore, was admired by Alfieri. c. the Accountant in Bankruptcy. A C. B. differs from unquestionably threw fresh life into Italian litera- a Sequestration (q. v.) in this, that it confers no ture, but few in this country will consider his power on the bankrupt to insist on his discharge, enthusiasm very rational, when it could induce and affords no protection against the attachment of Homer. C.'s best work was his Saggio sulla Filosofia tools; but nothing beyond what is necessary for him to think poor Macpherson a better poet than his subsequent acquisitions by his creditors
debtor has the privilege of retaining his working delle Lingue (Padua, 1785), written in opposition to the academical pedantry of La Crusca.
mere aliment will be allowed, even to half-pay
His style is vigorous, but full of innovations, especially
officers and clergymen. Gallicisms.
CE'STIUS, PYRAMID OF, a Roman monument of CESE'NA, a town of Central Italy, about 12 the Augustan age, situated close to the Porta San miles south-east of Forli, on the Emilian Way. It Paolo, partly without and partly within the walls of is pleasantly situated on a hill-slope, washed by Aurelian. It is known to every English traveller, the Savio. Its principal buildings are the Palazzo being in the immediate vicinity of the cemetery Pubblico, the Capuchin church, and the library where Protestants dying in Rome are buried. The founded by Domenico Malatesta Novello, in 1452, exterior form is perfectly preserved; but of the with a rich collection of MSS. There are many paintings which formerly decorated the internal monasteries and nunneries, as befits a place that walls, only a few traces remain. Several copies of gave birth to two popes--Pius VI. and VII. It has these paintings have been made, of which we may some silk factories, with a trade in wine and silk ; ! mention those edited by Falconieri, 166).
pyramid is 125 feet high, 100 feet in width at the As the C. W. bare no mo:ath, so they have 110 base; the walls 25 feet thick. It is built of brick alimentary canal. Some of them, as the true tapeand tufa, faced with slabs of Carrara marble, now worms, have been supposed to imbibe nourishment perfectly black with age, and rests on a base of by the sucking disks of the head; but these are triavertine 3 feet high. The interior coutains burial- more probable mere organs of attachment, and the chambers of considerable extent. The inner walls canals which are seen to arise behind thein, apparare covered with hard stucco, and the roof is vaulted. ently belong, not to the digestive, but to the vascular Both the walls and the roof were covered with system, and are united by transverse vessels or paintings of female figures. The memory of the vascular rings in the head and in each of the Caius Cestius for whom this pyramid was built has segments. The only trace of a nervous system perished, but it has been supposed that he was the hitherto observed is a single ganglion in the head, Cestius whom Cicero-in the oration pro Flaccom which in some is seen to send off nerves to the mentions as a rich man of business, who, having no suckers. children, left a large sum of money for the erection The division into segments remains imperfect in of a monument to himself. Two fluted columns of some cestoid worms. Those of the genus Ligulawhite marble, now standing before the pyramid of chiefly found in birds and fishes-resemble à long (., with their bases and two other bases, were flat ribbon, not even notched along the edge, and discovered in the excavations of 1663, at the foot containing a mere series of hermaphrodite broodof the pyramid. In the cemetery, the remains of places. When segmentation is perfect, the segments several celebrated men have their resting-place, (proglottides), on separating from the parent system among whom are the poets Keats and Shelley, Wyatt the sculptor, and Bell the anatomist.
CE'STOID WORMS (Lat. cestus, a band thong), a family of Entozoa, or intestinal worms, of the order Coelelmintha (q. v.), consisting of tapeworms and other creatures which resemble them in structure and habits. The number of different kinds of C. W. is great. Their natural history is important in reference to the health of human beings and of the most valuable domesticated animals; and although the subject is not in all respects an agreeable one, it presents much that is interesting and wonderful. Recent discoveries have given it an
Segnients (Proglottides) of Common Tape-worm: entirely new character.
In different States of Expansion and Contraction. C. W., in their most perfect state, when alone
From Von Siebold's work on Tape-worms.) they possess the form from which their name is derived, are in reality compound animals, like many zoophytes and ascidians. They do not, however, \(strobila), possess life and a little power of indelike these, subsist by food entering the system pendent motion, creeping away on moist ground, through mouths with which the individuals com- plants, &c. Their period of separate existence, posing it are furnished , for the joints of a cestoid however, is brief; they burst or decay, and the worm, the individuals composing the system or numerous minute embryos which they contain are * colony,' have no mouth; nor is there any mouth ready to commence their career, is in any way transin what is, on various accounts, quite properly ferred into the stomach of an animal of proper regarded as the head, but nutriment is obtained kind, which is generally different from that whose from the surrounding medium by endosmose (q. v.); intestine their parent inhabited. This may happen nourishing juices entering everywhere through the by their being swallowed- or even the progłottis skin, as in the spongioles of the roots of plants, into itself-along with water, grass, &c. Some of the the cellular tissue or parenchyma of which the C. W. in this embryo state find their appropriate whole body consists. The head of a cestoid worm place in the stomachs of vertebrate, and others in is furnished with organs—different in different kinds those of invertebrate animals. by which it affixes itself to the inner surface of The shell being broken or digested, the young the intestine of a vertebrate animal. When first cestoid worm is set free. It is extremely unlike the it gets into this situation, the body is very short, and proglottis by which it was generated. It presents has no joints; but they soon begin to appear as the appearance of a vesicle furnished with a few transverse striæ, and gradually increasing in size, microscopic hooks. It possesses, however, a power become in most of the kinds very distinct, and at of active migration by means of these hooks, and is last separate from the system in which they were able to perforate the stomach of the animal which produced, and are carried away out of the intestines contains it. To this its instinct seems immediately of the animal which contained them. This does not to prompt it, and it is so minute that it passes take place, however, till they have not only become through the stomach without any serious inconmature in the development of the sexual organs- venience to the animal. It now probably gets into the principal organs to be observed in them—but the blood, and is lodged in some of the capillaries, until they are full of what are called eggs, which, from which it makes its way again by perforation, indeed, are rather young ones ready for a separate until it finds a suitable place in some of the tissues existence, and each enveloped in a sort of protective or of the serous cavities, in the flesh, or in such shell. Each joint of a cestoid worm is androgynous. organs as the liver or the brain ; and here relinWhilst the most matured joints are thrown off from quishing all active migration, it rapidly increases in the posterior end, new joints are continually formed, size, at the same time developing a head, which is as at first, in the part nearest to the head. The in fact that of a cestoid worm, and generally either number of joints thus formed from a single individual encysts itself or is encysted-enclosed in a cyst is very great, as will appear when it is considered (q. v.)—according to circumstances, or according to that tape-worms have been found 20 feet long or its species. Great numbers of such parasites are upwards, and that these have probably been throwing sometimes present in a single animal, causing disease off joints in large numbers before opportunity has and even death. Until recently, they were regarded been obtained of measuring them.
| by naturalists as constituting species and genera