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were offered to her. Among the Romans, her festivals were styled CEREALIA; and of these, the most interesting was the feast celebrated by the rural population shortly before harvest, when the country people, dressed in white, and crowned with oak-leaves, danced and sang harvest-songs in honour of the goddess. The feast in April lasted several days, and was celebrated by games of the circus. C. was represented, most commonly, in a chariot drawn by dragons, having her head crowned with a garland of corn-ears, and holding a torch, a basket, or a poppy in her hand.

CERES, one of the Planetoids (q. v.), and the first of them that was discovered. It was first seen by Piazzi at Palermo, January 1, 1801. He continued to observe its motion till the 13th of February, when illness obliged him to discontinue his observations, which, however, sufficed to enable astronomers approximately to calculate its orbit. It was nearly a year after before it again became visible, owing to its approach to the sun. C.'s magnitude is less than that of the moon; and it looks like a star between the seventh and eighth magnitudes.

CE'REUS, a genus of plants of the natural order Cactea (q. v.), containing about 100 known species, among which are some of the most splendid flowers of that order. One of them is the C. speciosissimus, now one of the most common green-house plants in Britain, and sometimes cultivated even in windows. Its large flowers are of a fine scarlet colour, the inner petals with a violet tinge: they spring singly from the younger branches. The fruit, when well ripened, is of a delicious flavour. The plant is a

native of Mexico.

CERIGNOLA, a town of Naples, in the province of Capitanata, 23 miles south-east of Foggia. It is divided into two parts-the old and new town, in the former of which a portion of the ancient walls still remain-and is celebrated for the decisive victory obtained over the French by the Spaniards in 1503, and which established the supremacy of Spain in Naples. C. has manufactures of linen, and a trade in cotton and fruits. Pop. between 10,000 and 11,000.

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CE'RIGO, one of the smaller of the seven Ionian Islands, was anciently called Cythera; is situated in the Mediterranean, and is separated from the coast of Morea by a narrow strait; lat. 36° 27' N., long. 23° E. It has an area of about 120 square miles, with a population of 13,000. With the exception of a few tracts of land, it is a very barren, dry, and mountainous island. In some parts, however, corn, wine, and olive-oil are raised. There are two great caverns in the island-one in the sea-cliff at the termination of the wild glen of Milopotamos; the other, known by the name of the Cavern of Sophia, from a small chapel at its mouth dedicated to this saint, is situated at about one and a half hour's ride from Capsali (q. v.), the capital of the island. The former cavern is said to be three miles in length, and so low that it is necessary to creep, in many places, on hands and knees to explore it. The latter that of St. Sophia-is a very remarkable one, and possesses singular beauty; it abounds in enormous stalactites of various shapes and great beauty. In ancient times, C. was sacred to Venus, being, according to the old mythology, the island that received this goddess when she arose from the


into Asia Minor, and lived in Ephesus contemporaneously (according to the belief of the church) Tradition tells us with the aged apostle John. that John held the heretic in such detestation, that, on a certain occasion, when he encountered C. in the baths of Ephesus, he immediately left the Let us flee place, saying to those about him: home, lest the bath should fall while Cerinthus is within.' It was believed in the ancient church,* that the Gospel by St. John was written in opposition to the tenets of C.; and the Roman presbyter Caius (about the close of the 2d c) supposed that C. had revenged himself by falsely ascribing the authorship of the Apocalypse to St. John-it being in reality his own work! The Fathers contradict one another in their accounts of Cerinthus. Some describe him as a complete Gnostic, in which case he would be the earliest recorded teacher of that sect; others say that he held coarse and sensual millenarian views, making the millennium (q. v.), with the licentious fancy of an Arab, consist chiefly in 'nuptial delights;' and that he believed the Jewish ceremonial law to be in part binding upon Christians. There can be no doubt that C. made use of the Jewish law at least as a symbol for his Gnostic doctrines, and also employed millenarian terms in a symbolical manner; a very natural thing for him to do, on the hypothesis which Neander and others have suggested that Gnosticism originated, not among the minds which had received a true Hellenic culture, but among the Judaising sects, whose theosophy was a jumble of the spiritual and the material. C. being the oldest teacher of JudaicoGnostic principles, there would naturally be a greater incongruity and want of harmony in his language and ideas than characterised Gnosticism at a later period of its development; and subsequent ecclesiastical writers, destitute as all of them were of precise historical knowledge and sound_principles of criticism, could hardly avoid misunderstanding a system which is not consistent throughout, but bears evident marks of being formed in a transition epoch.-Paulus, Historia Cerinthi (Jena, 1799); Neander, Kirchengeschichte, vol. i., part 2.

CERI'NTHUS (abusively named MERINTHUS, i. e., a halter), a heretic who lived at the close of the apostolic age, but of whom we have nothing

better than uncertain and confused accounts. It is said that he was a Jew by birth, and studied philosophy in Alexandria. From Egypt he passed

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CE'RITE, or O'CHRÖITE, is the Silicate of Cerium. It is found as a mineral in gneiss, at Westmanland, Redderhyttan, and Bastnäs. It contains in 100 parts-silica, 16; peroxide of cerium, 26.55; oxide of lanthanum, 33-38; carbonic acid, 4.62; allumina, 1.68; peroxide of iron, 3.53; lime, 3.56; oxide of manganese, 0-27; and water, 91. lt occurs in granular pieces of a clove-brown, cherryred, or gray colour, with a white streak, a splintery fracture, an adamantine lustre, and is translucent at the edges.

CERI'THIUM, a genus and the type of a family, Cerithiado, of gasteropodous mollusca of the order Pectinibranchiata of Cuvier. The shell is spiral, elongated, and many-whirled, with an oval oblique aperture which has a short canal in front. The species of this family are numerous, most of them marine, but many inhabiting estuaries and brackish rather than salt water; some are found in lakes but most of them are tropical, and in mangrove A few belong to temperate climates, swamps they particularly abound. species are very numerous, almost all limited to the tertiary formations. See Bagshot Beds.

and rivers.

The fossil

CE'RIUM is a rare metal found native in Cerite

(q. v.) and a few other minerals. It is a white metal, has not been obtained in any quantity, is forms two oxides and a numerous class of salts. not therefore employed in any manufacture, and

CEROPLASTIC (Lat. cera, wax), cera, wax), the art of modelling in wax. See WAX-Work.


CEROSTRO TUM, or CESTRO TUM (Lat.), a species of encaustic painting upon horn or ivory, the lines of the design being burned in with the cestrum or burning needle, and wax introduced in the furrows thus made.


CERRETO, a town of Naples, in the province of Terra di Lavoro, situated on a slope of the Apennines, about 22 miles north-east of Capua. It is a well-built town, with a cathedral, and manufactures of coarse cloth. The district produces good wine. Pop. 6000.

CERRO GO'RDA, the name of several localities of Spanish America.-1. A plateau in Mexico, the most easterly on the route from Vera Cruz to the capital. Here, on 18th April 1847, the Americans totally defeated the Mexicans.-2. A city of Peru, the capital of the province of Pasco, in the department of Junin. It is in the vicinity of the richest silver-mines in the republic; and standing at an elevation of 14,100 feet, it has, all the year round, the temperature of an English winter. The estimates of the population range from 7000 to 16,000. C. G. is 140 miles to the north-east of Lima.

CERTAʼLDO, a town of Tuscany, Northern Italy, is picturesquely situated on the Elsa, about 18 miles south-west of Florence. It is noteworthy as the residence of Boccaccio, as well as the scene of his death. His house, surmounted with a tower, is still standing, and contains the articles of furniture belonging to the poet's time, and a fresco painting of him by Benvenuto Cellini. Pop. 2100.

CERTHI ADÆ, a family of birds, generally placed in the great order Insessores or Passerinæ, and tribe Tenuirostres, although some naturalists have ranked them in the order Scansores. They mostly live on the trunks and branches of trees, feeding on insects which they find in the crevices of the bark; and many of them aid themselves by their stiff tail-feathers in retaining their position as they search for their food on the perpendicular stem. Their claws are long and sharp; the hindtoe is also elongated, so that they can take firm hold of the bark or of a small branch; and many of them can pass round a horizontal branch, clinging to its under-surface with their backs to the ground. The bill of many is slender and curved; others, however, have a comparatively short and straight bill. The tongue is cartilaginous at the extremity, and so fitted to aid in seizing insect prey. The plumage is usually dull and uniform; but the birds are lively and active in their habits. The species are numerous and widely diffused; they are divided into a number of genera. All of them are small birds. The Creepers (q. v.), forming the Certhia, are regarded as exhibiting the type of the family. Wrens and Nut-hatches, although referred to it, depart very considerably from this type. Many small tropical and subtropical birds, which live by sucking honey from flowers, formerly referred to this family, are now separated from it.


CERTIFICATE, a written testimony to the truth of a certain fact or facts. The law of England recognises certificates for various purposes. 1. Annual C. of Attorneys. See ATTORNEY. 2. C. of appointment of the creditors' assignees to a bankrupt's estate and effects. 3. C. of conformity of a bankrupt. 4. C. of counsel, to enable a pauper to litigate in forma pauperis. 5. C. of the judges of the superior common-law courts at Westminster, which are of various kinds and for various purposes. 6. C. of registry of a ship; which is a copy of what is entered in the register of the ship in the books of the Custom-house. This C. is granted by the collector, comptroller, or principal officer of

the Customs at the port of registry, and delivered to the captain as a voucher of the character and privileges of the vessel as a British ship.

CERTIFICATION, in the law of Scotland, signifies the judicial assurance given to a party of the course to be followed by the judge in case he disobeys the will of a summons, or other writ or order of the court. Reiterated contumacy on the part of the defender was at one time punished with confiscation of his property (1449, c. 29), but now C. amounts to nothing beyond an intimation that if he fails to appear in the usual manner, the judge will decern, or pronounce judgment against him. The most important C. is in the process of Reduction-improbation (q. v.). In this action two terms are allowed for the production of the deed called for, and sought to be reduced. Thereafter, an additional ten days are given; but should production not be satisfied on their expiry, decree of C. will be pronounced, and this decree has the effect of declaring the deed to be forged and fabricated. Such a decree, even though pronounced in absence, can hardly be recalled. In simple reduction (see REDUCTION), the C. is only to the effect that the deed shall be void and null, till produced.

CERTIFIED COPY. See EVIDENCE. CERTIORA'RI (Lat. to be certiorated, or more fully and accurately informed of), in English law, is an original writ issuing, in civil cases, out of the common-law jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery, and in criminal, from the criminal side of the Court of Queen's Bench. This writ, which runs in the Queen's name, is addressed to judges or officers of an inferior court, commanding them to certify or to return the records of a cause depending before them, in order that the party may obtain more sure and speedy justice, from such justices as shall be assigned to determine the cause. A writ of C. may be granted at the instance either of the prosecutor or defender; but, to prevent its being used as an instrument of oppression by the one party against the other, it is provided (5 and 6 Will. IV. c. 33, and 16 and 17 Vict. c. 30) that either party, before applying for it, must obtain the leave of the court, and enter into recognisances.

The writ passes on a Bill of C., which states the proceedings in the inferior court, so far as they have gone; sets forth the alleged ground of incompetency, by suggesting that the cause is beyond the jurisdiction of the court, that the defendant or witnesses live beyond it, or the like reason why substantial justice cannot be done; and then prays the writ to certify and remove the cause into the superior court. When the bill is filed the writ of C. is obtained on motion.

CERTO'SA DI PA'VIA, LA, one of the most celebrated monasteries in the world, is situated in the neighbourhood of Pavia, and was founded, 1396, by Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti, first Duke of Milan, to appease his conscience for the murder of his uncle. The church is a splendid structure in the form of a Latin cross, the ground-plan being 249 feet long by 173 feet broad. It has altogether 12 chapels, 7 in the whole length of the church, and 5 in the transept, some of which are decorated with fine frescoes and paintings. The richly sculptured façade designed by Ambrogio da Fossano, named Borgognone, was commenced in 1473. The building is made up of various styles, but the pointed prevails in the interior, which is decorated with frescoes, paintings, &c., by Dan Crespi, Andrea Solari, Campi, and Ambrogio Fossano, and contains a gorgeous high-altar, the mausoleum of the founder, and several monuments.


CERU'MEN. This term is applied to yellow waxy matter which is secreted by certain glands lying in the external auditory canal, or the passage that leads from the external opening of the ear to the membrane of the tympanum. Its main use, doubtless, is to lubricate this passage. It possesses a peculiarly bitter taste, and some physiologists have believed that in consequence of this property it prevents insects from entering the auditory canal. It is popularly known as ear-wax.

true pictures of chivalry. He had also, it is quite clear, another object in view-viz., to show that the deeper and truer and more guileless a nature is, the more will it become the jest and butt of real hfe; but he likewise teaches us that the pure heart and the high soul obtain a triumph which misfortunes and blunders cannot tarnish; for the knight, always 'distinterested, generous, elevated, and beneficent,' though the sweet bells of his intellect are jangled and out of tune,' maintains throughout a firm hold on our affections and esteem. Charles Lamb has

truly said, that readers who see nothing more than a burlesque in Don Quixote, have but a shallow appreciation of the work

CE'RUSE, or WHITE-LEAD, the basis of white oil-paint, is a carbonate of lead. It has several other names-krems, Nottingham white, flake-white, &c. Like all other preparations of lead, C. is liable to be acted upon by exhalations from sewers, or by anything which contains sulphuretted hydrogen, in which case it is changed to a dull and leaden hue. Neither will it bear to be mixed with any pigment containing sulphur, such as vermilion. It is supposed that the white oxide of zinc might be substituted

for C. as a white pigment with advantage.

CERVA'NTÉS SAAVEDRA, MIGUEL DE, one of the greatest imaginative writers of Spain, was born of an old Galician family, at Alcala de Henares, October 9, 1547. He studied at Salamanca, and afterwards at Madrid, where he was placed under the care of a learned theologian, Juan Lopez de Hoyos, who was then professor of belles-lettres in the university. But his natural love of poetry led him to spend most of his time in writing elegies, ballads, sonnets, and a pastoral romance entitled Filena. When 22 years old, C. served for some time as valet-de-chambre to Cardinal Giulio Aquaviva of Rome. In 1570 he served as a volunteer under the command of the papal admiral, Marco Antonio Colonna, and fought gallantly against the Turks. At the battle of Lepanto, he was maimed for life by a gunshot wound in tae left hand. He afterwards took part in various campaigns. Captured by an Algerine squadron, he was made a slave, but was ransomed in 1580, after a four years' captivity. On his return to Spain, he rejoined his regiment in the army sent by Philip II. to support his claims in Portugal, and distinguished himself in the expedition to the Azores. In 1581, he returned to Spain, and retired into private life, to devote his attention to literature. Soon after his publication of the pastoral romance, Galatea (1584), he married, commenced writing for the stage, and produced, in the course of a few years, as many as thirty dramatic pieces, of which the tragedy Numancia is the most remarkable. During the years 1588-1599 he lived in straitened circumstances in Seville. In 1605 he once more appeared as an author, and now in a sphere exactly suited to his genius. In his immortal work, Don Quixote, C. intended to put an end that taste for extravagant romances of chivalry which had so long prevailed. The first part of this great satirical work appeared in Madrid, and was received at first coolly, but soon afterwards with loud applause, which, at a later period, was echoed from all parts of educated Europe. Don Quixote, though written with a satirical purpose, is throughout pervaded by the true spirit of poetry. With that universality which belongs to the highest genius, C. connected a universal human interest with descriptions of local and temporary characteristics. He did not intend by his Don Quixote to burlesque the old Spanish knighterrantry, for, as Mr. Ford remarks (see Handbook of Spain, part i., p. 238), 'the thing had expired a century before his birth; but to put an end to the absurd and affected romances which it was then the fashion to read, and which were believed to be


Though received with enthusiasm, Don Quixote brought no pecuniary reward to the author. He was left in the obscurity and poverty in which he had passed so many years, and vainly endeavoured to improve his circumstances. After silence during several years, C. published twelve Novelas Examplares (Exemplary Tales), 1613; his Viage al Parnaso (Journey to Parnassus), 1614-his next best production to Don Quixote; and in the following year he produced eight new dramas, but these were indifferently received. In 1614, a certain Alonso Fernandez de Avellaneda published at Tarragona, in 1614, a so-called continuation of Don Quixote, which was made a vehicle of abuse lavished on Cervantes. It appears that C. suffered considerably under these despicable attacks; but he revenged himself in noble style by publishing (1615) the true continuation of Don Quixote. Near the close of his career, C. found a patron in the Count of Lemos, who relieved his poverty. During the last few years of his life, he resided in Madrid, where he No stone marks the spot died, April 23, 1616. His novel, The where his remains were interred. Sorrows of Persiles and Sigismunda, was posthumously published. In 1835, when the house in which the poet had lived in Madrid was rebuilt, a bust of C., by the sculptor Don Antonio Sula, was placed in the front.

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Of the collected

Among the several editions of Don Quixote, we may mention the splendid one in 4 vols. (Madrid, 1780); that by Pellicer (5 vols., Madrid, 1798); the fourth published by the Madrid Academy, with an admirable life of C. by Navarette (5 vols., Madrid, 1819); Diego Clemencin's edition, with the most complete commentary (6 vols., Madrid, 1833— 1839); and a good pocket-edition, published at Leipsic (6 vols., 1800-1807). works of C., an edition, not containing the comedies, appeared at Madrid (16 vols., 1803-1805); and another, without the Journey to Parnassus, was published in the same city (11 vols. 1829). Don Aug. Garcia de Arrieta published a selection from the works of C. (10 vols., Paris, 1826-1832); and a reprint of the collected works is included in Baudry's Coleccion de los Mejores Autores Españoles (Paris, 1840-1841). England has been fertile in translations of C.'s immortal work. that of Thomas Skelton, (1612-1620), in addition to which may be mentioned those of Philips, Motteux, Smollett, Durfey, Jarvis, and Wilmot. The two best are those of Skelton and Jarvis.

The first is

CERVE'RA, a town of Spain, in the province of Lérida, 28 miles east of the city of that name. It is situated on an eminence, is surrounded by old walls pierced with nine gates, and the west approach is commanded by a castle, which is now in a ruinous condition. The university of Lérida was removed here by Philip V., but it was afterwards tranferred to Barcelona. The university building, a massive but unsightly edifice, is still standing. C. has manufactures of linen, woollen, and cotton fabrics. Pop. 5300.


CERVE'TERÉ, or CERVE'TRI (ancient Cære | and in the vicinity are productive sulphur-mines. or Agylla), a town of Central Italy, 27 miles west of Pop. about 10,000. Rome. Though now a place of some 700 or 800 inhabitants, it was formerly one of the most important cities of Etruria, possessing, it is said, a famous collection of paintings before even Rome was founded. Many Etruscan remains of value have been found here.


CE'RVIA, a town of Central Italy, situated on the Adriatic, 13 miles south-south-east of Ravenna. is regularly built, has a cathedral and several convents; and from a marsh in the neighbourhood about 50,000 tons of salt are annually obtained, the saltworks employing a considerable number of the population, which is about 5000.


CERVIN, MONT (Ger. Matterhorn; Ital. Monte Silvio), a mountain of the Pennine Alps, about 40 miles east-north-east of Mont Blanc, and between the Valais in Switzerland and the Val d'Aosta in Piedmont. Above an unbroken glacier line of 11,000 feet high, it rises in an inaccessible obelisk of rock, more than 3000 feet higher-and is described by the late Professor Forbes as the most striking natural object he had ever seen. The total elevation of the mountain is 14,836 feet. The Col of Mont C., used as a passage for horses and mules in summer, has an elevation of 10,938.

CERVINA'RA, a town of Naples, in the province of Principato Ultra, 12 miles north-west of Avellino. It has a convent and several churches, and a trade in the produce of the district. Pop. 6000.

CE'SARI, GIUSEPPE (sometimes called GIUSEPPINO, or IL CAVALIERE D'ARPINO), an Italian painter, was born at Rome, 1570, and died there in 1640 (or 1642). He was greatly honoured by no less than five popes, and his paintings were always highly popular. His works-in fresco and oil-display lively imagination, gay colouring, and great tact in execution; but are deficient in natural simplicity, correctness of design, symmetry of arrangement, and dignity of style. As he was the most brilliant of the mannerists, he was the chief object of the attacks made by the artistic reformers, Caravaggio, the Caracci, and their followers-who constituted the naturalisti-on the conventional or pseudo-idealistic style of painting.

CESAROTTI, MELCHIORE, an excellent Italian poet, was born at Padua, 15th May 1730, and died 3d November 1808. He gained a reputation by the vigour and originality of his style, especially in his translation of Macpherson's Ossian (2 vols., Padua, 1763). The versification of this work, like that of C.'s free translation of the Iliad, under the title of La Morte di Ettore, was admired by Alfieri. C. unquestionably threw fresh life into Italian literature, but few in this country will consider his enthusiasm very rational, when it could induce him to think poor Macpherson a better poet than Homer. C.'s best work was his Saggio sulla Filosofia delle Lingue (Padua, 1785), written in opposition to the academical pedantry of La Crusca. His prose style is vigorous, but full of innovations, especially Gallicisms.

CESE'NA, a town of Central Italy, about 12 miles south-east of Forli, on the Emilian Way. It is pleasantly situated on a hill-slope, washed by the Savio. Its principal buildings are the Palazzo Pubblico, the Capuchin church, and the library founded by Domenico Malatesta Novello, in 1452, with a rich collection of MSS. There are many monasteries and nunneries, as befits a place that gave birth to two popes-Pius VI. and VII. It has some silk factories, with a trade in wine and silk;


Ital. assessare, to impose a tax.
CESS, probably a corruption for assess, from the
used in England as synonymous with the more
It has long been
modern noun assessment. Camden, in the time of
Elizabeth, speaks of every man being 'cessed by the
pole, man by man, according to the valuation of
their goods and lands.' See LAND-TAX.

of goods), a process which the law of Scotland has CE'SSIO BONO'RUM (Lat. cession or surrender borrowed from that of Rome, and which, like many others, is common to it with most of the continental systems. A C. B. may be defined to be an equitable relief from the severity of the earlier laws of imprisonment for debt, granted to a debtor in consideration of a cession of his goods to his creditors. The jurisdiction in cessios formerly belonged exclusively to the Court of Session, but by 6 and 7 Will. IV. c. 56, it was extended to sheriffs. The principal regulations, with reference to this process, at present in force, are the following: Any debtor in prison, or who has been in prison, or even against whom a warrant of imprisonment has been issued, may apply for a Cessio Bonorum. In his petition, he sets forth his inability to pay his debts, and his willingness to surrender his estates, and prays for interim protection. This petition must be intimated the sheriff-clerk a state of his affairs, subscribed by in the Gazette. The bankrupt then lodges with himself, with all the relative books and papers. On a day appointed for the purpose, he is examined before the sheriff on oath; and if his creditors object to the petition, they are heard, and a proof, if necessary, allowed them. Whatever order the sheriff may pronounce is subject to review by the Court of Session, or a Lord Ordinary in vacation. Cessios originating in the Court of Session are sued out in the form of a summons, by which all the creditors are called as defenders to the action. Any one or more of them may appear; and the pursuer will not be allowed the benefit of the process, till he has satisfied the court that his insolvency has arisen from misfortune, and that his disclosure of the state of his affairs is full and honest. The burden of proving objections to his statements, and to the evidence which he may produce, will be laid on the creditors. If the debtor can find caution (q. v.) to attend all diets when called on, the sheriff or the Court of Session may grant him liberation or protection whilst the process is pending. A decree of C. B. operates as an assignation of the debtor's movable estate in favour of a trustee for behoof of the creditors. These trustees, like those in sequestrations, are now placed under the supervision of the Accountant in Bankruptcy. A C. B. differs from a Sequestration (q. v.) in this, that it confers no power on the bankrupt to insist on his discharge, and affords no protection against the attachment of his subsequent acquisitions by his creditors. The tools; but nothing beyond what is necessary for debtor has the privilege of retaining his working mere aliment will be allowed, even to half-pay officers and clergymen.

CE'STIUS, PYRAMID OF, a Roman monument of the Augustan age, situated close to the Porta San Paolo, partly without and partly within the walls of Aurelian. It is known to every English traveller, being in the immediate vicinity of the cemetery where Protestants dying in Rome are buried. The exterior form is perfectly preserved; but of the paintings which formerly decorated the internal walls, only a few traces remain. Several copies of these paintings have been made, of which we may mention those edited by Falconieri, 1661. The


pyramid is 125 feet high, 100 feet in width at the base; the walls 25 feet thick. It is built of brick and tufa, faced with slabs of Carrara marble, now perfectly black with age, and rests on a base of travertine 3 feet high. The interior contains burialchambers of considerable extent. The inner walls are covered with hard stucco, and the roof is vaulted. Both the walls and the roof were covered with paintings of female figures. The memory of the Caius Cestius for whom this pyramid was built has perished, but it has been supposed that he was the Cestius whom Cicero-in the oration pro Flacco mentions as a rich man of business, who, having no children, left a large sum of money for the erection of a monument to himself. Two fluted columns of white marble, now standing before the pyramid of C., with their bases and two other bases, were discovered in the excavations of 1663, at the foot of the pyramid. In the cemetery, the remains of several celebrated men have their resting-place, among whom are the poets Keats and Shelley, Wyatt the sculptor, and Bell the anatomist.

As the C. W. have no mouth, so they have no alimentary canal. Some of them, as the true tapeworms, have been supposed to imbibe nourishment by the sucking disks of the head; but these are more probable mere organs of attachment, and the canals which are seen to arise behind them, apparently belong, not to the digestive, but to the vascular system, and are united by transverse vessels or vascular rings in the head and in each of the segments. The only trace of a nervous system hitherto observed is a single ganglion in the head, which in some is seen to send off nerves to the suckers.

The division into segments remains imperfect in some cestoid worms. Those of the genus Ligulachiefly found in birds and fishes-resemble a long flat ribbon, not even notched along the edge, and containing a mere series of hermaphrodite broodplaces. When segmentation is perfect, the segments (proglottides), on separating from the parent system

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CE'STOID WORMS (Lat. cestus, a band thong), a family of Entozoa, or intestinal worms, of the order Cælelmintha (q. v.), consisting of tapeworms and other creatures which resemble them in structure and habits. The number of different kinds of C. W. is great. Their natural history is important in reference to the health of human beings and of the most valuable domesticated animals; and although the subject is not in all respects an agreeable one, it presents much that is interesting and wonderful. Recent discoveries have given it an entirely new character.

C. W., in their most perfect state, when alone they possess the form from which their name is derived, are in reality compound animals, like many zoophytes and ascidians. They do not, however, | like these, subsist by food entering the system through mouths with which the individuals composing it are furnished, for the joints of a cestoid worm, the individuals composing the system or 'colony,' have no mouth; nor is there any mouth in what is, on various accounts, quite properly regarded as the head, but nutriment is obtained from the surrounding medium by endosmose (q. v.); nourishing juices entering everywhere through the skin, as in the spongioles of the roots of plants, into the cellular tissue or parenchyma of which the whole body consists. The head of a cestoid worm is furnished with organs-different in different kinds -by which it affixes itself to the inner surface of The shell being broken or digested, the young the intestine of a vertebrate animal. When first cestoid worm is set free. It is extremely unlike the it gets into this situation, the body is very short, and proglottis by which it was generated. It presents has no joints; but they soon begin to appear as the appearance of a vesicle furnished with a few transverse striæ, and gradually increasing in size, microscopic hooks. It possesses, however, a power become in most of the kinds very distinct, and at of active migration by means of these hooks, and is last separate from the system in which they were able to perforate the stomach of the animal which produced, and are carried away out of the intestines contains it. To this its instinct seems immediately of the animal which contained them. This does not to prompt it, and it is so minute that it passes take place, however, till they have not only become through the stomach without any serious inconmature in the development of the sexual organs-venience to the animal. It now probably gets into the principal organs to be observed in them-but the blood, and is lodged in some of the capillaries, until they are full of what are called eggs, which, from which it makes its way again by perforation, indeed, are rather young ones ready for a separate until it finds a suitable place in some of the tissues existence, and each enveloped in a sort of protective or of the serous cavities, in the flesh, or in such shell. Each joint of a cestoid worm is androgynous. organs as the liver or the brain; and here relinWhilst the most matured joints are thrown off from quishing all active migration, it rapidly increases in the posterior end, new joints are continually formed, size, at the same time developing a head, which is as at first, in the part nearest to the head. The in fact that of a cestoid worm, and generally either number of joints thus formed from a single individual encysts itself or is encysted-enclosed in a cyst is very great, as will appear when it is considered (q. v.)—according to circumstances, or according to that tape-worms have been found 20 feet long or its species. Great numbers of such parasites are upwards, and that these have probably been throwing sometimes present in a single animal, causing disease off joints in large numbers before opportunity has and even death. Until recently, they were regarded been obtained of measuring them. by naturalists as constituting species and genera

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Segments (Proglottides) of Common Tape-worm:
In different States of Expansion and Contraction.
From Von Siebold's work on Tape-worms.)

(strobila), possess life and a little power of independent motion, creeping away on moist ground, plants, &c. Their period of separate existence, however, is brief; they burst or decay, and the numerous minute embryos which they contain are ready to commence their career, if in any way transferred into the stomach of an animal of proper kind, which is generally different from that whose intestine their parent inhabited. This may happen by their being swallowed-or even the proglottis itself-along with water, grass, &c. Some of the C. W. in this embryo state find their appropriate place in the stomachs of vertebrate, and others in those of invertebrate animals.

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