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quite distinct from the C. W., of which they are, wide tail, with its upper lobe strongly notched

really the young; and the name scolex, formerly beneath; the mouth at the fore-end of the snout;

given to one of these supposed genera, has now spout-loles distinctly visible, rather behind the eyes;

become a common name for the young of all C. W. eyes destitute of nictitating membrane ; small gill-

in this stage, as larva is the common name for the openings; and the front of the mouth armed with

young of insects in their first stage after being sharp angular teeth, whilst the margins and inner

İnatched from the egg. Those scolices which inhabit surface of the jaws are covered with pavement-like

vertebrate animals very generally become distended teeth, presenting a general continuity of surface, as

with a watery fluid, and in this state were formerly in skates, and disposed in rounded oblique scrolls-

regarded as Hydatids (q. v.); little else, indeed, the former evidently adapted to the seizing of food,

appearing without very careful examination, but a the latter to the crushing and bruising of it. The

small bag filled with fluid, the scolex head being Port-Jackson Shark or ·Nurse' (C. Philippi) of the

formed within the bag, although capable of being Australian seas, and the Cat Shark of Japan and

evirted from it, as the finger of a glove which has China (C. Zebra), seem to differ chiefly in the patterns

been drawn in at the end is turned out, Such is of colour. The Cestraciontidæ are particularly inte-

the young of the common tape-worm (Tonia solium), resting to geologists; for the oldest fossil sharks

formerly known to natu- belong in great part to this family, of which ‘remains

ralists as Cysticercus cel- are found even in the Palæozoic strata ; they become

lulosc, and found in the more numerous in the Carboniferous series ; they are

flesh of the pig and of very numerous in the Lias and Chalk formations;

some other animals, and but there they cease almost entirely, the strata of

sometimes of man. It is tlie Tertiary series scarcely containing any of them ;'

this scolex, existing in whilst now the species are reduced, as we have

great numbers, which seen, to one or two, and other types of shark have

produces in the pig the become more prevalent.

diseased state commonly

CE'STRUM, the style or spatula used by the


Cysticercus Cellulosæ

as measly; and ancients in encaustic painting in wax and ivory.
(magnified) : it is very unsafe even See ENCAUSTIC.
a, the head, much magnified. to handle measly pork in


raw state, because

person who pos-

scolex accidentally getting into the mouth, and thence

sesses the equitable right to deal with property, the


into the stomach, is likely to become a formidable legal estate in which is rested in a trustee.
inmate of the intestinal canal

. It does not appear and his trustee, that no action at law will lie between

is such a confidence between the cestui que trust
that this particular species has the power of multi-
plying in its scolex state, or the circumstances in them, but they must settle their differences and
which it exists in the flesh of the pig may be arrange their disputes in a court of equity. The
unfavourable to its so doing, and the prodigious French phrase, and is so ungainly and ill adapted

phrase cestui que trust is a barbarous Norman law
numbers sometimes existing in a single animal have
probably all entered by the mouth in the way already

to the English idiom, that it is surprising that the
described, the contents of a single proglottis or joint good sense of the English legal profession has not
of a tape-worm being perhaps sufficient to account long banished it, and substiinted some phrase in
for them; but some scolices, as that called Conurus the English idiom, furnishing an analogous meaning.'

-Wharton's Law Lexicon, p 130.
cerebralis, found in the brain of sheep, and the cause
of the disease called staggers-now known to be the

CE'STUS (Gr. kestos, embroidered), a girdle worn
scolex of a Tænia of the dog-are proliferous by a by Greek and Roman women close under the breasts,
sort of pullulation, so that clusters of scolices cover and so distinguished from
the same parental vesicle. Until, however, the the zone, worn round the
scolex reaches the intestine of an animal suited to loins. The C. of Venus
it, its propagation is entirely unsexual, and no organs

was covered with alluring
of sex exist; but no sooner is it there, than it begins representations, so that
to develop itself into a a cestoid worm, and to produce Juno borrowed it when
androgynous joints, fertile of new embryos, as already she desired to win the love
described. Thus we have in these creatures all

of Jupiter.–Cestus—or,
instance, in its relations the most important known, more correctly, CÆSTUS,
of the recently discovered alternation of genera- from the Lat. cælere, to

The slay—is also the name of
transference of the scolex from its place of growth the covering for the hands
to that in which it becomes a cestoid worm, usually worn by Roman pugilists.
if not always takes place by the animal which It was at first nothing
contains it being eaten by that whose intestine is more than a leathern thong
suitable to its perfect development. Each kind of or bandage to strengthen Roman Cestus.
cestoid worm is limited to certain kinds of vertebrate the fist ; but afterwards it
animals, and it has been proved by experiment that was covered with knots and nails, and loaded with
if introduced into the stomach, of other kinds, the lead and iron, &c., to increase the force of the blow.
scolices soon die. The only C. W. which infesť the It was not uncommon for a pugilist armed with
human species are Bothriocephalus (q. v.) latus, and the C. to dash out the brains or break the limbs
Tape-worms (q. v.). See Von Siebold's interesting of his antagonist. The Roman pugilist (cæstuarius)
work on Tape and Cystic Worms, printed for the was often represented in sculpture.
Sydenham Society (London, 1857.)

CETA'CEA (Gr. ketos, a whale), an order of
CESTRACION, a genus of sharks, regardled Mammalia (q. r.) greatly differing in general form
as constituting a distinct family, Cestraciontidæ, and habits from the rest of that class, so as indeed
although not more than two species are known as to be popularly reckoned among fishes. The C.
now existing. is characterised by having two | have a fish-like form, terminating in a fish-like tail or
dorsal fins and one anal, the first dorsal situated tail-fin, which, however, is not vertical, as in fishes,
over the space between the pectorals and ventrals; but horizontal, and is the great instrument of
a spine forming the front of each dorsal ; a short progression ; being mored by very powerful muscles,

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commonly with an oblique downward and lateral | true C. have molar teeth or grinders like the Manamovement, like that by which a boat is propelled in tidæ; all the teeth which any of them have are sculling, but sometimes by direct upward and down- conical; but some of the largest are entirely destiward strokes, when greater velocity is requisite. tute of teeth. The females of all of them have the

There are no hinder teats situated far back on the abdomen. The forelimbs, and even the limbs of the true C. are mere fins, the slight power pelvis is represented of grasping with them, which the Manatidæ possess, only by two small having entirely disappeared. The resemblance to rudimentary bones, | fishes is increased in many of them by the presence suspended in the soft of a dorsal fin. There is a wonderful provision parts, so

that the to enable them to spend some time under water, body tapers gradually before returning again to the surface to breathe and uninterruptedly arterial plexus or prodigious intertwining of branches towards the tail. The of artéries, under the pleura and between the ribs, fore-limbs are exclu- on each side of the spine. This being filled with

sively, or almost ex- oxygenated blood, after the animal has spent some Tail-fin of Whale.

clusively, adapted for time at the surface breathing, the waits of the

swimming, their bones, system are supplied from it, whilst breathing is sushowever, appearing in the skeleton as those of a pended, so that some whales can remain below even hand, placed at the extremity of an arm, of which for an hour. The position of the nostrils is remarkthe bones are much abbreviated and consolidated, able, almost on the very top of the head, so that the with little power of motion except at the shoulder- animal can breathe as soon as the head comes to the joint, and are entirely concealed in the soft parts of surface of the water; and the nostrils are furnished the animal. The head is connected with the body with a valve of singular but very perfect construc

without any apparent tion, a sort of conical stopper of fibrous substance, neck, and the vertebræ preventing the ingress of water even under the of the neck are partly pressure of the greatest depths. The nostrils appear ankylosed or soldered to be little used for the purpose of smelling, the sense together. The skin is of smell being one which these animals either do not naked, having no gene- possess at all, or in a very imperfect degree; but ral covering of hair, they are much used, not only for breathing, but also although some of the for spouting, or the ejection of water from the mouth, species possess con- for which reason they are generally called blow-holes

spicuous whiskers. The —the water being forced through them by the Bones of Fore-limb of Whale. C. agree with quadru- compression of two large pouches or reservoirs

peds, notwithstanding which are situated beneath them. This compression the great differences already indicated, in the most is accomplished by an action similar to that of important parts of their organisation. They are swallowing; the throat, however, not being open, but viviparous, and suckle their young, for which they closed. The height to which the water is thrown exhibit great affection; they are also warm-blooded, into the air is extraordinary, and the spouting of the breathe by lungs, and not by gills, and come to the whale is one of those wonders of the ocean never to surface of the water for the purpose of inhaling air. be forgotten by those who have seen it. An approach to their fish-like form is to be seen in A peculiarity in the skin of the true C. adapts Seals (q. v.) and other Phocido (q. v.); in which, them for their manner of life. The skin is extremely however, the hinder limbs are largely, although thick, the inner part of it consisting of elastic fibres peculiarly developed, whilst the fish-like tail-fin is interlacing each other in every direction, the interwanting; the skin has a covering of hair; and the stices of which are filled with oil, forming the subhead and fore-limbs more resemble those of ordinary stance usually called blubber. The oil deposited in quadrupeds.

this unusual situation, not only serves the ordinary The C are usually divided into two sections- purposes of fat, but that also of keeping the body the Herbivorous and the Ordinary C.; but the warin, which to a warm-blooded animal, continually former, constituting the family of Manatidæ (q. v.), surrounded witli water, is of great importance; have recently, by some systematic naturalists, been whilst the elasticity of this extraordinary skin rejected from this order altogether, and associated affords protection in the great depths to which some with the Pachydermata. They differ very widely of the whales descend, and in which the pressure from the ordinary or true C., not only in their adap- must sometimes amount to a ton on every square tation for the use of vegetable instead of animal inch. food, which appeurs both in their dentition and in The number of known species of C. is not great, their digestive apparatus, but also in their pectoral but their natural history has as yet been very imperinstead of abdominal teats, and in their want of fectly studied. All of them are large animals, some b'ow-holes and of any provision for retiring to great of them by far the largest that now exist. Almost depths of the ocean, and remaining there for a all of them both herbivorous and ordinaryconsiderable time, without returning to the surface marine, but some of the smaller species ascend large to breathe.

rivers to a great distance from the sea; and one, of The ordinary or true C. are divided into the the family. Delphinidæ, belongs exclusively to fresh

(Dolphin, Porpoise, Beluga, waters, being found only in the upper tributaries of Narwhal, &c.), Platanistido, fresh water Dolphins, etc. the Amazon and the elevated lakes of Peru. Physeteridre (Cacholot, or Spermaceti Whale, etc.) Fossil Cetacea have been hitherto discovered only and Balænidæ (Greenland Whale, Rorqual, &c.), | in the tertiary formation. Their remains represent the distinguishing characters of which are given species not only belonging to each of the recent under separate heads. They all feed on animal families of true C., but have supplied materials food, some of them pursuing and devouring fishes; } for forming a new family intermediate between the others, and these the largest, subsisting chiefly on true whales and the herbivorous cetacea. These smaller prey, mollusks, small crustaceans, and even fossils were originally described as reptiles; but they zoophytes, which they strain out of the water by a have been satisfactorily shewn to be carnivorous C. peculiar app:iratus in their mouths. None of the l by Owen, who, from their remarkable conjugate CETOTOLITES-CEYLON.



After the

teeth, has given the family the name of Zeuglodonta. Moors, who held it until 1415, when it was captured In all, six or seven species have been described be- by the Portuguese. It was annexed, with Portugal, longing to this family, from the Eocene and Miocene to the crown of Spain in 1580, and was the only beds of Europe and America. The Platanistide ap- place on the African coast retained by Spain when pear first in the Miocene strata, and continue through Portugal was restored to its independence in 1640. the newer beds. Twelve species have been found in CEVADI'LLA. See SABADILLA. the Miocenes of North America, one of which (Rhabdosteus sp.) had a defensive muzzle like a sword-fish.

CEVENNES (ancient Cebenna), the chief moun

With its Of Physeteridre, three species have been noticed in tain-range in the south of France. Pleiocene and Pleistocene strata, belonging to the re- between the river-systems of the Rhone and the

continuations and offsets, it forms the water-shed cent genus Physeter. Fossil Balænido occur in the Garonne. Its general direction is from north-east Miocene and newer beds. Only four species have been found in Europe, but seven in Eastern North to south-west, commencing at the southern extreAmerica, some of them of great size. A nearly com

mity of the Lyonnais mountains, and extending plete skeleton of the Eschrichtius cephalus was found under different local names as far as the Canal du in Maryland, and the skull of Mesoteras kerrianus, Midi, which divides it from the northern slopes from North Carolina, is 18 feet in length.

the Pyrenees. The central mass of the C. lies in

the departments Lozère and Ardèche, Mont Lozère CETOTOLITES, a name given by Owen to reaching an elevation of 4884 feet, and Mont fossil cetacean teeth and ear-bones, which occur in Mézen (the culminating point of the chain) an great abundance in the Red Craga of Suffolk, a mem- elevation of 5794 feet. The average height is from ber of the Pleiocene period. They are rubbed and 3000 to 4000 feet. Their masses consist chiefly of water-worn, and have evidently been washed out of amphibolic rocks, grauwacke, and limestone, covered some earlier strata, which remain yet unrecognised. with tertiary formations, which in many places are The extent of these earlier strata must have been interrupted by volcanic rocks. very great, seeing that the remains now extend over The C. has been celebrated as the arena of relia large district in Essex and Suffolk, and attain a gious warfare. As early as the 12th c., the several thickness, in some places, of not less than 40 feet. sects known by the names, the ‘Poor of Lyon, ' Professor Henslow, in 1843, drew the attention of the Albigenses (q. v.), and the Waldenses (q. V.), were agricultural chemists to this deposit, as a source of known and persecuted in this district. materials for manure, and since then superphosphate revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV. manures have been manufactured from it to the in 1685, a series of cruel 'persecutions of the value of many thousand pounds annually; a striking Protestants in the C. began, especially in 1697, example of the valuable practical results which after the Peace of Ryswick. "Dragonnades' (q. v.) frequently flow from a purely scientific discovery. were employed to enforce the doctrines of the

CETRA'RO, a town of Naples, in the province of monks sent as missionaries into the heretical disCalabria Citra, situated on the Mediterranean, 24 trict. All persons suspected of Protestantisin met miles north-west of Cosenza. It has anchovy fisher with the most harsh and cruel treatment. Some ies, and a population of about 6000.

of the inhabitants emigrated, others fled into the CETTE, a seaport town of France, in the depart- fastnesses of the mountains. Driven to desperation, ment of Hérault, is built on a neck of land between the persecuted people at length rose to arms, and the lagoon of Thau and the Mediterranean, in lat. the murder of the Abbé du Claila, who 43° 24' N., long. 3° 42' E. The town, which is at the head of the dragonnades, gave the signal entered by a causeway raised above the Thau of a general insurrection in 1702.

Tlie insurgent lagoon, and a bridge of 52 arches, is fortified, and peasants · were styled Camisardspossibly from the harbour is defended by a citadel and forts. The camise, a smock worn by the peasantry; Headed space enclosed by the piers and breakwater forming by bold leaders, the most famous of whom were the harbour is about 30 acres, and has a depth of Cavalier and Roland, they defeated the troops from 16 to 19 feet. A broad deep canal, lined sent against them by Louis again and again, until with excellent quays, connects the port with the that king thought the insurrection of sufficient Lake of Thau, and so with the Canal du Midi and importance to require the presence of the distinthe Rhone, thus giving to C. an extensive inland guished general, Marshal · Villars; but he was traffic; it has likewise an active foreign commerce. recalled before the revolt had been put down, and The principal trade is in wine, brandy, salt, dye- it was left to the Duke of Berwick to extinguish stuffs, perfumery, and verdigris. Other chief im. it in blood; the contest terminating in an entire ports are wool, cotton, grain, oil, and colonial pro- desolation of the province, and the destruction or duce. C. has ship-building yards, and fisheries of banishment of a great portion of the inhabitants. oysters and anchovies. Pop. 19,000.

The embers of religious hatred still remained CEU'TA, a town belonging to Spain, situated in glimmering through the following century, and, the kingdom of Fez, on the north coast of Africa, after the restoration of the Bourbons in 1815, burst and opposite to Gibraltar, in lat. 35° 54' N., and out into flames in the terrible persecution of the long. 5° 16' W. It is strongly fortified, and defended Protestants in Nîmes (q. v.) and other places in

See Histoire des Troubles by a citadel and forts erected on Mount Hacho, the the south of France. ancient Abyla, or South Pillar of Hercules. It is des Cevennes, ou de la Guerre des Camisards the most important of the four Spanish presidios, or

(Villefranche, 1760), and Schulz's Geschichte der convict establishments, on this coast.

Camisarden (Weimar, 1790).

The harbour is small, and not very safe ; and the population,

CEYLANITE. See SPINEL. stated at 8000 or 10,000, is composed of Spaniards, CEYLON (the Taprobane of the Greeks and Moors, Negroes, Mulattoes, and Jews, mostly very Romans, and the Serendib of the Arabian Nights), poor, and employed in trade and fisheries. Many a valuable island and British colony in the Indian of the Spaniards living here are state-prisoners, and Ocean, to the south-east of the peninsula of even the garrison is partly manned by convicts. Hindustan, from which it is separated by the Gulf C., formerly called Septa or Septum, was taken from of Manaar and Palk's Strait. Recent observations the Vandals in 534 by Justinian, who fortified the have shewn its true place to be between 5° 55' place anew. In 618, it fell into the hands of the and go 51' N. lat., and 79° 42' and 81° 55' E. long. Western Goths; afterwards it was taken by the Extreme length from north to south, from Point

who was CEYLON.


Palmyra to Dondera Head, 266 miles; greatest wilth, I Harbours.--Point de Galle (q. v.) and Trincomalee from Colombo to Sangerankande, 1404 miles. ! (q. v.) are the two harbours of Ceylon. The former Area, including dependent islands, 24,454 square is small and dangerous, but the latter is unsurpassed miles.

as a safe and commodious port. The variation of the Physical Features. In natural scenery, C. can tides is very trifling; the rise and fall not generally vie with any part of the world; and as it rises from exceeding 18 to 24 inches, with a third of increase the ocean, clothed with the rich luxuriance of a at spring-tides. tropical vegetation, it seems to the voyager like In climate, C. has a great advantage over the some enchanted island of Eastern story. Its hills, mainland of India, and as an island, enjoys a more * draped with forests of perennial green,' tower equable temperature. The average for the year in granülly from height to height, till they are lost in Colombo (q. v.) is 80° in ordinary seasons. April clouds and mist. Near at hand, a sea of sapphire | is the hottest month ; and in May the south-west blue dashes against the battlemented rocks that monsoon commences amid a deluge of rain, and Occur at isolated points, and the yellow strauds are continues the prevailing wind till October, when the shaded by groves of noble palms. In shape, C. re- north-east monsoon sets in : 80 inches is the average sembles a pear, but its inhabitants more poetically annual fall of rain, though in an exceptional year, compare it to one of their elongated pearls. Undu- 120 inches have been registered. The beautiful tablelating plains cover about four parts of the island, and land of Neuera Ellia was first visited by Europeans the fifth is occupied by the monntain-zone of the in 1826, and is now used as a sanitarium. Here central south, which has an elevation of from 6000 the thermometer in the shade never rises abore 70°, to 8000 feet above the sea-level. Pedrotallagalla, | while the average is 62° ; the nights are cool and rethe liighest mountain in the range, attains the height freshing. The north of the island, including the of 8230 feet; the celebrated mountain of Adam's peninsula of Jaffna, the plains of Neuera Kalawa, Peak, 7420 feet; and the table-land of Neuera Ellia, and the Wanny, may be reckoned as a third climatic 6210 feet.

division. Ilere the annual fall of rain does not Geology.-The mountain system is mainly com- exceed 30 inches, and irrigation is largely enıployed posed of metamorphic rocks, chiefly gneiss, frequently in agriculture. broken up by intruded granite With the exception Flora.—The general botanical features of C., of some local beds of dolomitic limestone, the gneiss especially of the lowlands, are nearly identical with is everywhere the surface rock, and the soil is com- 'those of Southern India and the Deccan, although posed of its disintegrated materials. No fossils, as it possesses a few genera of plants not to be found Wils to be expected, have been noticed in C., if we in those regions. Its phænogamic plants are limited except the semi-fossil remains of mollusca, crustacea, to about 3000. The beautiful ixoras, erythrinas, and corals, belonging to living species, which oceur buteas, Jonesias, and other flowering shrubs bloom in the rude breccias of the north in the neighbour- in the forests. At an elevation of 6500 feet, the hood of the sea. The northern part of the island is acanthaceæ cover large tracts of ground, and she rising, and there also the land is making encroach- tree-fern reaches the height of 25 feet.

On the highments on the sea froin another agency. The immense est ground, rhododendrons attain to the size of masses of corals continually increasing, retain the timber-trees. The Coral-tree (Eurythrina Indica), débris brought from the Indian continent by the cur- the Murutu (Lagerstroemia Reginæ), and the Jonesia rents of the sea, and thus form a flat, ever-increasing asoce are amongst the most magnificent of the flowermadrepore plain.

ing trees. The fig tribe are planted in the vicinity Of metals and minerals, iron, in the form of a of the temples. In the forests, climbing-plants and carbonate, can be obtained in great quantities, and epiphytes of prodigious size and striking appearance of such purity as to resemble silver. Tin is found cover the trees with a mass of parasitical foliage of in the ailuvium at the base of the mountains, and on extraordinary growth. The Palmaceæ are very conthe heights the rare metal tellurium has been disco- spicuous in the vegetation of C., although not more vered. Nickel and cobalt are scarce. Anthracite than 10 or 12 species are indigenous: the cocca-palm and rich veins of plumbago exist on the southern --of which it is estimated there are not less than 20 range of hills. The gems of C. have been celebrated millions of trees—the taliput, the palmyra—which from time immemorial, and they are most plentiful forms extensive forests in the north of the islandin the alluvial plains at the foot of the hills of Saff- and the jaggery palm, are the most noteworthy. Of ragam. Sapphires, rubies, the oriental top:17, gar-. timber-trees, 90 species are known, and amongst nets, amethysts, cinnamon stone, and cat's-ere, are these the satin-wood holds the first rank. The the principal gems and precious stones of the island. flora of the highlands, above 2000 feet, and up The most valuable is the sapphire'; and one of these, to 6000 or 7000, though much resembling that of the found in the year 1853, was worth more than £1000. | Neilgherri's, has a marked affinity to the vegetation The value of the precious stones annually found in of the highlands of Malacca and Java, especially the the island has been estimated at £10,000. The 1 latter. pearl.fishery in the Gulf of Manaar has long been Fauna.-- A knowledge of the fauna of C. has been celebrated, and the revenue derived from it by gov- greatly advanced by the labours of Drs. Templeton ernment for the year ending 31st December, 1857, and Kelaart and Mr. Edgar Layard. Quadrumanous was £21,550, 158. 6d. Eighty-seven seconds is about animals are represented by the Loris gracilis, and the longest time the best divers can remain under five species of monkeys. Sixteen species of the water, and 13 fathoms is the greatest depth to which | Cheiroptera or bat tribe exist in C.; and what is very they descend.

remarkable, many of these rival the birds in the brilRivers.---The most important river in C. is the i lian«y of their colours. The Pteropus Edwardsii (the Mahawelli-ganga. It has its source in the ricinity flying-fox of Europeans) measures from 4 to 5 feet of Addam's Peak, and after draining more than 4000 from tip to tip of its extended wings. Of the larger squire miles, it separates into several branches, and Carnivora, the bear and Leopard; and of the smaller, enters the ocean near Trincomalee. The south side the palm-cat and the glossy genette (the civet of the island is watered by ten rivers of considerable of Europeans) may be mentioned. The dreaded size, which flow into the sea between Point de Galle tiger of India, the cheeta, the wolf, and the hyæna, and Manaur. On the east coast, the rivers are are happily not met with in Ceylon.' Deer, buffaloes, smaller, but still more numerous, and many others and the humped ox of India are amongst the Rritinverse the northern and eastern provinces. minantia ; the little musk-deer (Moschus meminna)


is less than two feet in length. The Pachydermata manner of living unaltered for more than 2000 are represented by the elephant and the wild boar; years. They appear to be without the instinct of the former, which is for the most part tuskless, is worship, and have no knowledge of a God. The emphatically lord of the forests of Ceylon. The tribe is divided into the Rock Veddals and the most remarkable of the Cetacea is the digong. | Village l'eddahs. The former hide themselves in Whales are captured off the coast. 320 species of the jungle, live by the chase, and sleep in trees Birds have been ascertained by Drs. Templeton and or caves. They use fire to cook their meat, and Kelaart and Mr. Layard. The song of the robin and their greatest gastronomic treats are the iguana long-tailed thrush, and the flute-like voice of the lizard and roasted monkey. Their language-if oriole, are heard over the whole mountain zone, and the few words they make use of can be called by far down into the neighbouring plains. Eagles, the that name—is a dialect of the Singhalese. The beautiful peregrine falcon, owls, swallows, king- Village Veddahs locate themselves in the vicinity fishers, sun-birds, bulbuls, crows, parroquets, pigeons, of the European settlements, on the eastern coast, pea-fowl, jungle-fowl, and many others of the fea- living in rude huts of mud and bark, and are thered tribe might be mentioned did space permit. hardly more civilised than their brethren of the Myriads of aquatic birds and waders, amongst which jungles. The exertions of government to reclaim the flamingo is conspicuous, cover the lakes and this harmless but degraded people have in some lagoons. The crocodile is the largest reptile in the degree succeeded, and a promising colony has been island ; tortoises and lizards are also found. There formed. are a few species of venomous snakes, and of these The native population of C. in 1867 was 2,078,294. the ticpolonga and the cobra da capello are the most The European and other inhabitants, including the deadly.

military, amount to about 18,000. Sir J. E. Tonnent Inhabitants.—The Singhalese, the most numerous is of opinion that C., when in the height of its piosof the natives of C., are the descendants of those perity, 1:ust have been ten times as densely popucolonists from the valley of the Ganges, who first lated as at the present day. settled in the island 543 B, C. In their customs, cos- Religion.-- The Singhalese are devoted to Budtume, arid general appearance, they have remained dhisın (q. v.), which is the prevailing religion of unchanged since the days of Prolomy. The dress the island. It does not exist, however, in that of the men, who have delicate features and slender state of purity in which it is still found in the limbs, is singularly effeminate, and consists of a Indo-Chinese peninsula. Its sacred books are comboy or waist-cloth, very much resembling a identical with those of Burmah and Siam, and petticoat; their long hair, turned back from the both record the doctrines of Gautama in the Pali forehead, is confined with combs, and earrings language; the deviations are in matters of practice. are worn by way of ornament. The women, in The Malabar kings adulterated Buddhism to a conaddition to the comboy, cover the upper part of siderable extent with Bralımanism, introducing the tlie figure with a white muslin jacket, and adorn worship of Hindu deities into the Buddhist temples, themselves with necklaces, bangles, rings, and and this continues more or less to be the case. jewellery. The Singhalese are false and cowardly, More than once have the Buddhists of C. sought to but manifest a strong affection for their rela- restore the purity of their faith—at one time sending tives, and a reverence for old age. Polyandry still deputies to Siam, at another to Burmal, with this ìingers in the interior of C., and was formerly o!ject in view. The Burman or Amarapura sect universal; it is now, however, chiefly confined to have long been the reformers of Singhalese Budthe wealthier classes, amongst whom one woman dhism, and maintain no very friendly relations with has often three or four husbands. The Kin- the party, who, supported by the priests of Siam, dyans, or Ilighlanders, are a more sturdy race, and acknowledge the civil power in matters of religion, maintained their independence for three centuries sanction the worship of Hindu deities and the after the conquest of the low country by European employment of the priesthood in secular occupa: settlers. The Malabars, or Tamils, have sprung from tions, uphold caste, and restrict the sacred books. those early invaders of C., who from time to time ('aste was acknowledged by the Singhalese privr swept across from Southern Hindustan, and con- to the introduction of Buddhism, which in principle tended with ihe Singhalese kings for tlie sovereignty is opposed to it; but so firmly was it rooted, that of the island. They have formed the chief popula- it still endures, though more as a social than a tion of Jaffna for full 2000 years, and constitutionally sacred institution. Gautama Buddha is said to excel the Singhalese and Kandyans. The Moormen, have risited C. three different times to preach his who are the most energetic and intelligent of the doctrine, and his Sri-pada, or sacred footstep, on native communities, are met with in every province the summit of Adau's Peak (q. v.), suill commands as enterprising traders. They are a very distinct the homage of the faithful. Buddhism was not, race from the Singhalese, but have no tradition of liowever, permanently introduced into C. till 31.7 their origin. Europeans generally believe them to B. C., when Mahindo, obtaining the support of the be of Arab descent, but Tennent is of opinion that king, established it as the national faith. The 'they may be a remnant of the Persians, by whom influence of the priests gradually increased, and, by the island was frequented in the fourth and fifth the piety of the Singhalese kings, monasteries were centuries.'

richly endowed; for though the Buddhist monk The 'burghers' of C. are a people of European is individually forbidden to possess goods, a comdescent, who have become naturalised. Those of munity may own property to any extent; and it is Portuguese extraction hold the lowest place, and a remarkable fact that, at the present day, no less are mostly tradesmen and artis:ins; but the Dutch than one-third of the cultivated land of the island is burghers frequently fill responsible posts, and are computed to belong to the priesthood, and is exempt employed in the government offices.

from taxation. The priests of C. are divided into Besides the races already alluded to, there is a two orders--the Samanaros, and those who, after a remarkable tribe of outcasts—the Veddahs--hardly time of probation, receive the higher grade of Uparemoved from the wild animals of the forest, and sampada. The fraternity are not raised by educabelieved to be descended from the Yakkhos, the tion above their countrymen, and the respect paid aboriginal inhabitants of the country. They occupy them is directed more to the dress than to the person a district in the eastern part of the island, and of the individual. Any member is at liberty to lay have there preserved their ancient customs and aside his ascetic character, and return to a secular



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