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life. The most celebrated Buddhistic relic in C. is the altar to the top of the head. The cave-temple the Dalada, or sacred tooth of Gautama, at Kandy, of Dambool was built 100 B. C., and is the most which is guarded with jealous care, and preserved cele' cated in the island. The bell-shaped tapering in an elegant shrine; but it is well known that the dago vis of C., as relic shrines, answer to the pagodas original relic was destroyed by the Portuguese, and of Burmah-which they very much resemble—and the present substitute is a piece of discoloured ivory, the topes of Afghanistan. The ruins of the Jaytabearing no resemblance to a human tooth. In all wanarama dagoba still reach the height of 249 feet; Buddhist countries, the sacred buildings present, its di imeter is 360 feet; and from base to pinnacle with certain modifications, the same general character it is covered with trees of the largest size. This (see articles BUDDHISM, BURMAH, &c.); and in C. enormous structure contains 20 millions of cubical we find the three classes represented by the dagoba, feet; and Sir J. E. Tennent concludes that to erect or relic-shrine (datu, a relic, and gabbhan, a shrine), such a mass of masonry, even in the present diy, the temple proper, and the vihara or monastery. 'would occupy 500 bricklayers from six to severa The laborir bestowed on these edifices in the early years,' at the cost of a million sterling. The Ambusages of the Singhalese monarchy is truly astonishing. tella of Mihintala is another remarkable digoba. A

very famous object in connection with Buddhism in C. is the sacred Bo-tree of Anarajapoora (Perpub, Ficus religiosa), which was planted there 288 year's I'. C., and is by far the oldest tree in the world of which an authentic history exists. See Bo-TREE. Amongst the antiquities of C. must be mentioned those wonderful monuments of the former greatness of the Singhalese people the ruined tanks; with

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The Gal-wihara at Pollanarrua.

In the north of the island, ruined cities-buried for ages in the depths of the forest-have been discovered, revealing monuments that in dimensions may almost compare with the pyramids of Egypt. The most remarkable of these vestiges of an early civilization is Pollanarrui, the ancient capital of C.; and here is the celebrated Gal-wihara, a rock-hewn temple, supposed to be the only example in Ceylon of an attempt to fashion an architectural design ont of the rock, after the manner of the cave-temples of

The Ambustella Dagoba, Mihintala. Ajunta and Ellora.' The reclining figure of Gautama on the right (see cut, which with the other illustra- which almost nothing of a similar kind, whether

ancient or modern, can be compared : 30 colossal reservoirs, and about 700 smaller tanks, still exist, thongh for the most part in ruins. The restoration of these magnificent works of irrigation has recently been begim. Brahmanism or Ilinduism (q. v.) is the faith of the Tamils or Malabars, but the Moormen are Moliammedans. After the expulsion of the Dutch Christians, Protestant missions to the natives of C. were commenced by the Baptists in 1813. The Wesleyan Methodists followed in 1814, the Americans in 1816, the Church of England in 1818, and Christian instrnction has made some progress amongst the native populations. Of these the peasantry of the Kandıan hills have proved the least accessible to its influence. Schools, collegiate institutions, and female seminaries, under the direction of the missionaries, are in successful operation.

The goricrement of C. is administered lov a governor appointed by the crown, and he is assisted by a cabinrt council, composed of his principal

officers. There is also a legislative council, 10 HIMOINS

which all measures are submitted ; but its decisions are still sulject to the veto of the governor. The

revenue for the year endiny 31st December, 1868, Entrance to the Temple of Dambool.

amounted to £125,265, and the expenditure for

the same time amounted to quite £974,950. C. tions are reduced from Sir J. E. Tennent's Ceylon) is possesses that great test of a prosperous colony45 feet in length; the upright one measures 23 feet; an increasing revenue.

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in the year

it and the sitting inage on the left is 10 feet from'amounteil to £747,000. The colony made great




progress under the able administration of Sir H. usurpation of the Malabars (237 B. c.), foreign Ward. An objectionable tax, however, on the mercenaries from the Coromandel coast, to whom import of grain, and also on its home cultivation, the native sovereigns had entrusted the defence still exists.

of the island. Several Malabar invasions are Imports and Exports.-The imports are miscel. chronicled in the history of C., and these foreigners laneous; the principal exports consist of coffee, coir long contended with the native princes for supreme in fibre and manufactured, ciunamon, cocoa-nuts, authority. Passing on to 1071 A. D., a native cocoa-nut oil of which, in 1858, the

1858, the enormous dynasty was then re-established in the person of quantity of 1,767,413 gallons, valued at £212,184, Wijayo Bahu, which, for 100 years, delivered the were exported-areca-nuts, cardamons, bêche-de-mer, country from the dominion of the Malabars. Prakarrow-root, curry stuff-, ghee, dried and salted fish, rama Bahu commenced a reign, in 1153, the most hides, elephants, plumbago, pearls, etc. Cocoa nut renowned in the records of Ceylon. He devoted oil to the value of £283,518, cinnamon valued at himself to religion and agriculture, and besides many 1:135,657, ar: : coffee valued at £2,986,100 were ex- notable religious editices, he caused no less than ported in 1868. The export of coffee from 1865 to 1470 tanks to be constructed, subsequently known 1868 has been of the average value of £2,400,000. as the seas of Prakrama. Thirty years after the Pearls to the value of £25,525 were exported in death of this monarch, the Malabars landed with

a large army, and speedily conquered the whole The following official returns are taken from the island. In 1235, a native dynasty recovered a part government blue book for 1869. Total values of the of the kingdom. During the reign of Dharma Prakimports and exports of C. in 1868 were respectively, rama IX. the Portuguese first visited C., 1505; £4,403,177 and £3,786,722. The commercial inter- but it was in 1517 that they first formed a permacourse of Ceylon with the United Kingdom is shown inent settlement at Colombo for trading purposes. in the following tabular statement:

Their encroachments soon raised the patriotic Kan

dyans, and it is a remarkable fact, that though at Exports from Ceys | Imports of British the first visit of the Portuguese in 1505 they were

home produce even ignorant of the use of gunpowder, they, after a to Ceylon.

while, excelled their enemies as musketeers, and £3,707,717

£ 687,189

were finally able to bring 20,000 stand of arms to 3,256,250

1,082,973 bear against them. “Amity, commerce, and religion,' 3,221,512

was the Portuguese motto; but their rule in C. is 3,671,49+


a sad story of rapacity, bigotry, and cruelty. They

were at last driven from the island by the Dutch The number of ships entered at ports in C. in the in 1658, after a contest of twenty years, when, as year 1859 were 2960, of which 292 were from the Sir J. E. Tennant remarks, the fanatical zeal of the United Kingdom, and 2573 colonial; total tonnage, Roman Catholic sovercign for the propagation of 338,731. The number of ships cleared at ports in the faith, was replaced by the carnest toil of the C. for the same year were 2962, of which 291 were Dutch traders to intrench their trading monopolies; from the United Kingdom, and 2578 colonial; total and the almost cliivalrous energy with which the tonnage, 392,661. To the ancient world C. was soldiers of Portugal resisted the attacks of the famous as a place of traffic. Egyptians, Greeks, native princes, was exchanged for the subdue!! Romans, Persians, and Arabians traded to its ports, humbleness with which the merchants of Holland and many particulars, such as geographical position endured the insults and outrages perpetrated by the and natural productions, seem to identify Point de tyrants of Kandy upon their envoys and officers.' Galle with the Tarshish of the Hebrew historians. But the purely military tenure of the Dutch was

The history of C., of which the limits of this destined to give place to the colonisation of the article will only allow the briefest possible outline, British. It wag during the great European war may be conveniently divided into ancient and succeeding the French Revolution, that the English modern, and the latter into the Portuguese, Dutch, gained possession of the island.

the island. On the 1st August and British periods.

1795, an expedition under Colonel James Stuart The records of its early history came to light in landed at Trincomalee, which was speedily captured, 1826, and Mr. Turnour, devoting himself to their and finally the garrison of Colombo surrendered study, composed an Epitome of the History of C., on the 16th February 1796. By this capitulation, from the year 543 B. c. to 1798 A. 1. ; and he records all the Dutch settlements and strongholds in c. the reigns of 165 kings, who reigned during this were ceded to the English; though the island was space of 23 11 years. The most famous of the Sin- not formally annexed to the British crown till the ghalese books is the Mahawanso, a metrical chroni- Peace of Amiens, 27th March 1802. The native cle, in the Pali language, which gives an account of sovereigns, however, continued in the possession of the island during the above 23 centuries. The their mountain territory; but at length the Kandyan story begins with the invasion of Wijayo (543 B. C.), king, Wikrama Raja Singha, after perpetrating the son of a petty Indian sovereign in the country most frightful atrocities on his own people, seized watered by the Ganges. He subdued the Yakkhos, and murdered certain native merchants, British subthe aboriginal inhabitants; married a daughter of jects, trading to Kandy. War followed, January one of the native chiefs, whom he subsequently 1815; Kandy was taken, and the tyrant sent a caprepudiated for an Indian princess; and founded å tive to the fortress of Vellore. On the 20 March dynasty that held undivided sovereignty in C. for 1815, a treaty was concluded with the native chiefs, nearly eight centuries. He bestowed on his kingdom by which the king was formally deposed, and his his patrimonial name of Sihala (whence Singhalese, territories annexed to the British crown. Ceylon), and promoted the settlement of colonists Since then, the island has made rapid strides in from the mainland. In the reign of king Deveni- | material prosperity.

The mountain forests have piatissa (307 B. c.), Buddhism was established as been replaced by plantations of coffee, of which, in the national religion, and his reign was further the year 1857, there were 403 under cultivation, remarkable by the planting of the sacred Bo-tree, giving an average crop of 347,100 cwt. per annum. 288 B C.; and now commenced the erection of Many important public works have been completed, those stupendoris buildings already noticed. The and others are still in progress. A magnificent next important epoch in Singhalese history is the mountain-road now connects Colombo wich Kandy.



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A legislative council has been formed, and a charter incrustations of the soft portions of the dorsal and of justice promulgated; while trading monopolies, anal fins, and often of the spinous parts also, with slavery, and religious disqualifications have been scales, the fins appearing to taper gradually out of entirely abolished.--See Ceylon, Physical, Historical, the thickness of the body, which is in general re. and Topographical, &c., by Sir James Emerson Ten- markably compressed, so that, without dissectioni, it nent (Lond. 1859); a very complete and learned is impossible to tell where they begin. The scales are work on the island, written in popular and eloquent strongly ctenoid (q. v.). The typical genus Chætodon, language; and Christianity in Ceylon, by the same author (Lond. 1850).


CEZIMBRA, a town of Portugal, in the prorince of Estremadura, on a bay of the Atlantic, about 18 miles south of Lisbon. Here the Moorish king of Badajoz, who had advanced to succour the place, was defeated in 1165 by Affonso Henriques. C. has active fisheries, and a population of 500J.


CHADWICK,, Edwin, a distinguished social and sanitary reformer of the present day, was born in

Chætodon. the vicinity of Manchester, 24th January, 1801. He studied law, but early devoting his attention to ques- and those most nearly allied to it, have hair-like tions of social, sanitary, and political science, he teeth, so that their jaws resemble brushes; some attracted the notice of Lord Grey's goverument, by fishes of the family, however, have trenchant teeth whom he was appointed an assistant-commissioner, on the jaws, and some, as Brama (q. v.), have cardto inquire into the operation of the poor-laws in like teeth both on the jaws and palate. “Most of the

His report, published with C. are tropical; only one species, Brama Raii, is others in 1833, commanded most attention, being ever found in the British seas. They generally freremarkable alike for the wide and searching charac- quent rocky shores. Their colours are often exter of its investigations, the happiness of its illustra- tremely gay, and usually disposed rather in stripes tions, and the convincing proofs it furnished as to or bands than in spots. “The eye of man receives the necessity of reform in the system of administra- the greater pleasure from their contemplation, in tion. Its merit was recognized by those who had that, being of moderate or small size, and haunting the power to reward him ; and on the organisation of habitually the coral basins of the transparent tropithe new Poor-law Board, C. was appointed secretary: cal seas, they disport themselves in the beams of a In connection with this Bourd, and the General Board vertical sun, as if desirous of exhibiting their splenof Health, C. for twenty years was energetic in the did liveries to the greatest advantage in the blaze origination and administration of remedial measures of day.' Many singularities of form occur in this relative to the distribution of poor-law funds and to family, as the long slender snout of the Chelmons, the sanitary condition of the country. And not the whip-thong-like prolongation of some of the rays content with investigating these great subjects, his of the dorsal finis in Heniochus and Zanclus, the indefatigable mind sought further exercise in inquir- wing-like dorsal and anal fins of Platax, the sharp ing into the constitution of the constabulary force, recurved horns of the Buffalo-fish (Taurichthys), &c. with a view to the better prevention of offences and To this family belong the Archer-fishes (q. v.), whose the readier detection of criminals. On a change singular habits have been already noticed.—The being made in the Board of Health in 1834, C. re- flesh of most of the C. is of very fine flavour. tired with a pension. He has since taken great CHA'FER, a common name of those bectles or interest in promoting competitive examinations for coleopterous insects, which either in the perfect or government offices; and indeed in almost all ques. larva state, are destructive to plants; particularly tions of social economy, being an active member of those which devour the wood, bark, or roots of trees. the Association for the Promotion of Social Science. From these, however, it is sometimes extended to

CHÆRONEI'A, a city of Bæotia, in ancient some coleopterous insects which have no such habit. Greere, near the Cephissus, on the borders of Phocis. The word C. is seldom used alone, but generally as It is celebrated on account of several important bat- part of a name, with some prefix; thus, we have tles fought in the neighbourhood. In 447 B. C., the Cock-chafer, Rose-chafer, Bark-chafer, &c. Baotians here obtained a victory over the Athenians; CHA'FF-CUTTER, a name commonly given to and in 338 B. C., Philip of Macedoni signally defeated an implement now much used by farmers for cutting the united forces of the Athenians and Beotians, hay and straw into half-inch lengths. The adand so crushed the liberties of Greece.

A mound vantage of this consists not so much in facilitating of earth, about a mile from the modern village of mastication or digestion, as in preventing animals Kapurna, which occupies the site of the old city, from wasting their food. No small amount of still marks the place where the Thebans who fell in mechanical ingenuity has been applied to the conthe battle were buried; and a magnificent lion, struction of chaff-cutters, the simplest and oldest which Colonel Mure pronounced to be the most in- kinds of which are mere hand-inachines, with a teresting sepulchral monument in Greece,' was ex- single large knife, the hay or straw being pushed cavated from this tumulus some years ago. At C., forward in a trough or box, whilst others are driven also, 86 B. C., Sulla defeated the generals of Mith- by horse, steam, or water-power, and are not a little ridates. Plutarch was a native of this town. A few complicated. ancient remains yet exist.

CHAFFINCH (Fringilla coelebs), one of the most CHÆTODO'NTIDÆ, a family of acanthop- cominon British birds, a species of Finch (q. v.), and terons fishes, nearly corresponding to the genus probably that to which the name Finch, now so Chætodon (Gr. hair-tooth) of Linnæus; and also extended in its signification, originally belonged; named SQUAMIPENNES (Lat. scaly-finned), because fink, the German form of the name, and pink and of the most distinctive character of the family, the twink, English provincial fornis still appropriated to



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