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the C., having some resemblance of sound to its | length. All is fired collectively from the gun, common call-note. The wliole length of the C. is the chain enables the balls to catch and destroy obabout six inches. The tail is very slightly forked. jects which otherwise might possibly escape. The male, in summer, has the top of the head and
CHAINS, on shipboarul, are strong iron links or nape of the neck bluish-gray; the back, chestnut; plates, bolted at the lower end to the ship-timbers, the wings almost black, with two conspicuous and having a block or dead eļe at the upper end. white bar's; the tail, nearly black. The colours Their purpose is to fasten down the shrouds rightly. of the female are much duller than those of the They are brought out laterally at the top by resting Bale. The C. is a very widely distributed species, in the middle against the channels, which are broad leing found in almost all parts of Europe, in thiek planks, very strongly fixed, and projecting some parts of Asia, in the north of Africa, and as horizontally from the side of the ship, one pair for far west as the Azores. In the colder northern each inast. . countries, it is nigratory; in more southern regions,
CHAINS, HANGING IN In atrocious cases, it was it is stationary. Linnæus gave it the specific name usual for courts of justice, in former times, to direct cælebs, from observing that the flocks congregated the bodies of malefactors, after execution, to be hung in winter in Sweden consisted chiefly of males, the in C. upon a gibbet near the spot where the crime females having, as he supposed, songht a milder cli
A partial separation of the sexes is observed was committed; but this, says Blackstone, was 110 also in the great winter-flocks in Britain, but it is part of the legal judgment. The reasons commonly only partial; and Yarrell thinks that the young strike terror into other offenders; and second, that
assigned for the practice are two: first, that it might males of the previous season, which resemble the it might afford ‘a comfortable siglit to the relations females in plumage, are associated with them, and have been mistaken for them. The flocks seen in and frier:ds of the deceased. This barbarous adBritain in winter are believed to be augmented by junct to capital punishment was not finally abolished migration from Scandinavia. The eggs are usually readers to learn that, two years after the passing of
it very recent period, and it may surprise our sparingly streaked and sported with reddish brown: the Reform B:11, it was still in accordance with the The Č. feeds chiefly on insects, and does much law, if not with the custom of England. The act service in summer by destroying aphides and
to abolish the practice of hanging the bodies of caterpillars; but eats also seeds, and is sometimes criminals in chains' (4 and 5 W'ill. IV. c. 26), was persecuted, because in spring it pulls up and eats passed on 25th July, 1834. The last case of hanging young turnips and radishes when in the seed-leaf. in C. mentioned as having occurred in Scotland, if Great numbers of chaffinches are killed for the table that of Andrew Wilson, who poisoned his wife' in in Italy. In Germany, this bird is in the highest 1755 (Hume, vol. ii., p. 482). See Punishments and esteem as a song-bird. Its notes are very clear and loud, but some individuals greatly excel the ordi- CHALA'ZA, in Botany, a membrane which unites nary multitude of their species; and their superior the nucleus and integuments at the base of an ovule. noies, if heard on the Thuringian hills, speedily It is traversed by vessels which supply nourishment attract bird-catchers. Bechstein says that, in Thu- to the ovule. It is often of a different colour froni ringia a cow has been given for à C. with a fine the rest of the integuments, and is conspicuous in voice; and the Germans have taken the trouble to the ripened seed; but it is sometimes difficult to disclassify the different strains of chaffinches, giving tinguish it, particularly in orthotropal seeds, when i; them distinct names, and regarding those birds as is in contact with the hilum, the foramen or micro.. particu arly valuable by which certain of these strains pyle being at the opposite extremity of the seed. are produced. The common Scotch name of the C. See Ovule and SEED. is Shilfa.
The cords which bind the yolk-bag of an egg o CHAGRES, a river entering the Gulf of Darien on the lining membrane at the two ends of the shell the north side of the Isthmus of Panama, near lat. and keep it near the middle as it floats in the alhul9° 18' N. Though, towards its mouth, it varies in men, are also called chalaze. They appear to 19 depth from 16 to 30 feet, it is yet, by reasou at once formed of a peculiarly viscid albumen. of its rapidity and its falls, but little available for
CHALCE'DOY, a city of ancient Bithynia, at 'ne navigation. At its entrance is a port of its own entrance of the Euxine, opposite to Byzantium, Ti Both the town, however, and the stream
was founded 684 B. c. by a coiony from Megara, anc have recently lost nearly all the advantages of their soon became a place of considerable trade and ir position, through the establishment of an inter
portance. It contained several temples, one of winet, oceanic railway, which, on the Atlantic side, como dedicated to Apollo, had an oracle. C. was taken by mences at Aspinwall, about 8 miles to the north.
the Persians, suffered the vicis maineen the Athero. its inventor), is a measure of 22 yards long, com- ans and Lacedæmonians, and finally merged into the posed of 100 iron links, each of which is thus 7.92 Roman empire. During the Mithridatic war, inches long. As an acre contains 4840 square yards, the scene of a bold exploit of the Pontic sovereigin J.) square chains (22 x 22 x 10=4840 square yards), Having invaded Bithynia, all the wealthy Romans : or 100,000 square links, make an acre.
the district fled for refuge to C., whereupon ha broko CHAIN-BRIDGE. See SUSPENSION BRIDGE.
the chains that protected the port, burned four ships,
and towed away the remaining sixty. Under the CHAIN-CABLE. See CABLE.
empire it was made a free city, and was the scene or CHAIN-MAIL, or CHAIN-ARMOUR, much used a general council, held 451 A. D.
Chosides the in the 12th and 13th centuries, consisted of hammer- Persian captured it 616 A. P., after which it recliven, ed iron links, connected one to another into the form until it was finally demolished by the Turks, who of a garment. Such armour was much more flexible used its ruins to build mosques and other edifices at and convenient to the wearer than that which was Constantinople. C. was the birthplace of the phiformed of steel or brass plates, but was less fitted to losopher Xenocrates. bear the thrust of a lance.
The council of C., to which allusion has been made, CHAIN-SHOT, chiefly used in naval warfare, are was the fourth universal council, and was assembled very destructive missiles, consisting of two balls, con by the emperor Marcian for the purpose of drawing nected by a piece of chain eight or ten inches in i up a form of doctrine in regard to the nature of
Christ, which should equally avoid the errors of and Romans, and was at this time a place of great the Néstorians (q. v.) and Monophysites (q. v.). Six military importance, nearly 9 miles in circumferhundred bishops, almost all of the Eastern or ence, and had many fine temples, theatres, and Greek Church, were present. The doctrine declared other public buildings. Aristotle died at Chalcis. to be orthodox was, that in Christ there were two In the middle ages, it was prosperous under the natures, wbich could not be intermixed (this clause Venetians, who held it for nearly three centuries was directed against the Monophysites), and which until its conquest by the Turks in 1470). The lion also were not in entire separation (this was di- of St. Mark is, or was until within recent years, still rected against the Nestorians,) but which were to be seen over the gateway between the bridge a:d so conjoined, that their union destroyed neither the the citadel. Not many ancient remains now exist peculiarity of each nature, nor the oneness of at Chalcis. The streets are narrow, but the houses, Christ's person.
many of which owe their origin to the Venetians, CHALCE'DONY (often mispelled. Calcedony), a
are substantial and spacious. Pop. 5000. beautiful mineral of the quartz family, or rather a
CHA’LCIS, a genus of Saurian reptiles, the type variety of quartz, from which it does not differ in of a family called Chalcido, some of which are popuchemical composition or in any essential character. larly termed snake-lizards, because of the resemIt derives its name from Chalcedon in Bithynia, blance to snakes in the elongated form of the body, near which it is found in considerable abundance, the limbs being also remarkably small, so that this and has been known by the same name from ancient times. It occurs in different kinds of rock, but most frequently in old lavas and trap-rocks, and is found in almost all parts of the world where these exist, or where there are boulders derived from them. It is common in Scotland, and specimens of great beauty are brought from Iceland and the Faröe Islands. It never occurs in crystals. It constitutes the whole or the principal part of many agates. It is generally translucent, sometimes semi-transparent, has not much lustre, and is in colour generally white or bluish white, sometimes reddish white, sometimes milk-white, less frequently gray, blue, green, yellow, brown, or even black. Its fracture is even, or very
Chalcis Cleripes, slightly conchoidal.-C. is much used in jewellery,
One of the largest British species: for brooches, necklaces, and ornaments of all sorts, the largest pieces being sometimes made into little a, the wings of one side, magnified (very destitute of ner
vures); b, hind-leg, magnified; C, antenna, magnified. boxes, cups, &c. It was much used by the ancients, and many beautiful engraved specimens appear in family forms one of the transition links between the antiquarian collections. Chalcedonies with dissemi- Saurian and the Ophidian reptiles. The scales are nated spots of brown and red, were once very highly rectangular, and arranged in transverse bands, withprized, and were called Stigmites or St. Stephen's- out being imbricated or disposed like tiles. The stones. Petrified plauts are sometimes found in C., Chalcido are natives of warm climates, both in the in which they appear to have been encased whilst old and new worlds. it was in course of formation. Specimens of C. The name c. has also beep bestowed on a genus are sometimes found enclosing a little water in the of the order Hymenoptera, allied to the Ichneumons, interior, which gives them a very beautiful appear- which has become the type of a tribe or family, ance; but the water easily escapes, to prevent containing a vast number of species—1500 being which, rings or other ornaments made of such stones supposed to exist in Britain-all of them of emall are kept in distilled water, when not worn. The size, many very minute, many of them very brilancients set a very high value on these enhydrites liant in their colours, and the larvæ of all of them (Gr. en, in, and hydor, water). The Vicentin was parasitic in the larvæ or pupæ, some even in the celebrated for producing them.
eggs, of other insects. The chrysalis of a butterfly CHALCEDONYX (or, erroneously, Calcedonyx), or moth often nourishes a great number of these a name given to agates formed of cacholong, or a parasites; and they become useful in preventing the white opaque chalcedony, alternating with a grayish excessive multiplication of species which destroy translucent chalcedony.
valuable plants. CHA'LCIS, the capital town of the island and CHALCO'GRAPIIY, a pedantic term used to government of Euboea, Greece, situated on the signify engraving on copper, compounded of the Euripus, a strait separating the island from Bæotia, Greek words chalkos
, brass or copper, and grapho, I and 'which at this point is only 120 feet wide. The write. The term is inaccurate when applied, as it Euripus is divided into two channels, of unequil often is, to engraving on other metals, such as steel breadth and depth, by a rock, which is surmounted and zinc. For zinc-engraving, the still more objecby a castle, partly of Venetian and partly oftionable word Zincography has been invented. Turkish construction. A stone bridge, of some 70 CHALDÆ'A. See BABYLON, BABYLONIA. feet in length, conilects the rock with the Bæotian
CHA'LDEE. See ARAMÆA. shore, while a wooden and movable bridge, of about 35 feet, unites it with Chalcis. C. is a place of
CHALDER, an old Scotch dry measure, containvery great antiquity, having been founded, as tradi- ing 16 bolls. See Boll. tion asserts, before the Trojan war, by an Ionian
CHA'LDRON (Lat. caldarium, a vessel for warm colony from Athens. Its rise was rapid. It sent water), an old dry measure used in selling coal, and out numerous colonies, and was the centre of the containing 36 heaped bushels. Coal is now sold trade of the western Mediterranean. Governed by weight. at first by an aristocracy, it fell into the hands of CHALEUR BAY, an inlet of the Gulf of St. the Athenians, who in 516 B. C. divided the lands Lawrence, between Gaspe, a district of Lower Caof C. amongst some of their own number. It sub- nada, and New Brunswick, having a depth of 90 sequently fell under the power of the Macedonians miles from east to west, and a width varying from
12 to 20. The Ristigouche, which enters the gulf | CHALK-BEDS. See CRETACEOUS SYSTEM. from New Brunswick at its very head, marks, at its CHALKING THE DOOR, a mode of warning moutlı, the inter-provincial boundary.
tenants to remove from burghal tenements, long CHA’LICE (Lat. calix, known and still in use in Scotland. The practice is a cup). This ancient time thus described by Mr. Hunter in his valuable work for an ordinary drinking- on Landlord and Tenant:
• A burgh-officer, in cup bas been retained for presence of witnesses, chalks the most patent door the vessels used for the forty days before Whitsunday, which is held to be wine in the holy sacra
a legal warning. There is no execution at the Chalices are com- parish church, but the officer makes out an exemonly made of silver, but cution of chalking,' in which his name must be
not unusual' for inserted, and which must be subscribed by himself them to be of gold, or gilt and two witnesses. This ceremony now proceeds and jewelled.
Chalices simply on the verbal order of the proprietor, but were also made of glass, anciently the interposition of a judge was requisite. Chalice : crystal, and agate ;
but , In such a case, authority was given by one of the Found in a Stone Coffin of these substances have been magistrates to the burgh-officer.' That judicial the 12th century in Chi- abandoned, in consequence ; authority is still assumed to lie at the root of the chester Cathedral.--Copied of their 'fragile nature. proceeding, is apparent from the fact, that the from Parker's Glossary of
The C. is the attribute of execution bears that the warning has been executed
St. John the Evangelist. in her Majesty's name and authority, and that of the CHALK, a soft earthy variety
of limestone or
magistrates of the burgh. The officer ought to carbonate of lime, forming great strata, and claim- notify to the tenant the object of his visit, though ing the attention of the geologist even more than The execution of chalking is a warrant under which
it is not perhaps indispensable that he should do so. of the mineralogist. It is generally of a yellowish- decree of removal will be pronounced by the burghwhite colour, but sometimes snow-white. easily broßen, and has an earthy fracture, is rough court, in virtue of which the tenant may be ejected and very meagre to the touch, and adheres slightly EJECTMENT.
on the expiration of a charge of six days. See to the tongue. It generally contains a little silica, alumina, or magnesia, sometimes all of these. Al
CHALKY ISLAND, in New Zealand, near the though often very soft and earthy, it is some- south-west extremity of Middle Island, about lat. times so compact that it can be used as a building. 46° S., and long. 166° 20' E. It takes its name stone; and it is used for this purpose either in a from being composed of a mass of white limestone, rough state, or sawn into blocks of proper shape and imparts the same to the adjacent bay of 16
It is burned into quicklime, and nearly miles in length, and also to one of the harbours of all the houses in London are cemented with mortar so procured. The silicious particles being separated CHALLENGE. See DUEL. by pounding and diffusing in water, it becomes CHALLENGE. See JURY. whiting, of which the doinestic uses are familiar
CHA’LMERS, GEORGE, an
GEORGE, an eminent historical to every one. Carpenters and others use it for making marks, which are easily effaced: the black- Scotland, 'in 1742. Haring attended King's College,
antiquary, was born at Fochabers, Morayshire, board and piece of C. are now common equally Aberdeen, and afterwards studied law at Edinin the lecture-rooms of universities and in the humblest village-schools. C., perfectly purified, is burgh, he went in 1763 tc North America, where mixed with vegetable colouring matters, such as
he practised as a lawyer till the breaking out of the turmeric, litmus, saffron, and sap-green, to form
war of independence. Being a keen loyalist, he pastil colours ; bút vegetable colours which contain returned to Britain, where he was appointed clerk pastil colours; but vegetable colours which contain to the Board of Trade in 1786. The duties of this an acid are changed by it. See CRAYON. Vienna white of artists is simply purified chalk. In office he continued to discharge with diligence and a perfectly purified state, it is administered as a medi- ability till his death in 1825. Before his appointcine, to correct acidity in the stomach. c. is also ment, he had distinguished himself by various publiextensively used as a manure. See LIME, as a manure. after he devoted himself chiefly to editing the works
cations in political economy; and for some time CHALK, BLACK, is a mineral quite different of various authors and writing biographies. His from common chalk, and apparently receives its great work is his Caledonia ; an Account, Historical name from resembling it in meagerness to the and Topographical, of North Britain ; a production touch, in soiling the fingers, and in being used for displaying profound research into the history of drawing, writing, &c. It is also called DRAWING- Scotland, and abounding in varied erudition. It
It is of a slaty structure, of a bluish or was intended to be completed in 4 vols. 4to. The grayish-black colour, easily cut or broken, and first volume, containing the historical part, appeared makes a perfectly black mark on paper. It is used in 1807; of the other three, which were destined to for drawing, and has a black colour in painting. It give an account of the several counties, the second, becomes red by exposure to heat. It is essentially embracing Roxburghshire, Berwickshire, Haddinga kind of clay (q. v.), and derives its colour from tonshire, Edinburghshire, Linlithgowshire, Peeblescarbon, which it contains. It is found in primitive shire, and Selkirkshire, appeared in 1810; the third, mountains, in Spain, France, Italy, &c., also in the containing the counties of Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, coal formation in Scotland.-BRIANÇON Chalk and Wigton, Ayr, Lanark, Renfrew, and Dumbarton, apFRENCH CHALK are popular names for Soapstone peared in 1824.
A fourth volume is understood to (q. v.).-RED CHALK is Ochry Red Clay-iron-ore
, have been left at his death ready for the press. consisting of clay and much peroxide of iron. It is Ainong his other publications are : Political of a brownish-red colour, and a soinewhat slaty Annals of the United Colonies (Lond. 1780); On the structure, the cross fracture earthy. The coarser Comparative Strength of Great Britain, during the varieties are used chiefly by carpenters for making present and the four preceding Reigns (Lond. 1782, marks on wood; the finer, by painters. It occurs in 1786, 1794, 1362, 1812); A Collection of Treaties thin beds in clay-slate and grauwacke-slate in some between Great Britain and other Powers (2 vols., parts of Germany
Lond. 1790); Life of Daniel Defoe (Lond. 1746);
Life of Thomas Ruddiman (1794); Life of Mary | voluntary contributions at the church-door, admin . Queen of Scots (Lond. 1818); editions of the works of istered by elders. The management of the poor in Allan Ramsay (1800), and of Sir David Lindsay (1806), the parish of St. John's was intrusted to his care by with memoirs; also various pamphlets apologising the authorities, as an experiment, and in four years for those, himself included, who had believed in the he reduced the pauper expenditure from £1400 to authenticity of the Shakspeare manuscripts forged £280 per annum. by Mr. Ireland.
But such hervulean toils began to undermine his CHALMERS, THOMAS, D.D., LL.D., was born at constitution, and in 1823 he accepted the offer of Anstruther, in Fifeshire, 17th March 1780, educated the Moral Philosophy chair in St. Andrews, where at the university of St. Andrews, and in his 19th be wrote his treatise on the Use and Abuse of year licensed to preach the gospel. In 1803 he was Literary and Ecclesiastical Endouments (1827). In ordained minister of the parish of Kilmany, in the following year, he was transferred to the chair Fifeshire, about 9 miles from St. Andrews. of Theology in Edinburgh, and in 1832 published a this period, his attention was entirely absorbed by work on political economy. In 1833 appeared his mathematics and natural philosophy, to the neglect Bridgewater treatise, On the Adaptation of External of the studies appertaining to his profession. To Nature to the Moral and Intellectual Constitution of gratify his love of scientific pursuits, he
It was received with great favour, and formed mathematical and chemistry classes in St. obtained for the author many literary honours ; Andrews during the winter of 1803–1804, and by the Royal Society of Edinburgh electing him á his wonderful enthusiasm and lucidity of exposi- fellow, and the French Institute a corresponding, tion excited intense interest, and obtained for member, while the University of Oxford conferred himself a great reputation. In 1808 he published an
on him the degree 'of D.C.L. In 1834, he was Inquiry into the Extent and Stability of National appointed convener of the Church-extension ComResources, which proved his capacity for dealing mittee; and after seven years of enthusiastic labour, with questions of political economy. Shortly after announced that upwards of £300,000 had been this
, certain domestic calamities, and a severe ill- collected from the nation, and 220 new churches ness of his own, opened up the fountains of his built. Meanwhile, however, troubles were springing soul, and rendered him keenly susceptible to reli- up in the bosom of the church itself. The Evangeligious impressions. . Having to prepare an article on cal party had become predominant in the General Christianity for Brewster's Edinburgh Encyclopædia, Assembly, and came forward as the vindicators of he commenced an extensive study of the evidences, popular rights; the struggles in regard to patronage and rose from his investigations convinced that between them and the Moderate' or 'Erastian Christianity was a fact, and the Bible the veritable party became keener and more frequent, until the word of God.' Then the great genius of the decision of the civil courts in the famous 'Auchman broke forth like sunshine. lle grew earnest, terarder, and Strathbogie' cases brought matters eloquent, devout, and faithful to his pastoral duties to a crisis; and on the 18th of May 1843, C., In July 1815, he was translated to the Tron followed by 470 clergymen, left the church of his Church and parish, Glasgow, where his magnificent fathers, rather than sacrifice those principles which oratory took the city by storm. His Astronomical he believed essential to the purity, honour, and Discourses were probably the most sublimely intel- independence of the church. See articles Dislectual and imaginative that had ever been preached RUPTION and FREE CHURCH. The rapid formation in a Scottish pulpit. They were published in 1817, and organisation of the Free Church were greatly and had a prodigious popularity. During the same owing to his indefatigable exertions, in conseyear he visited London, where his preaching excited quence of which he was elected Principal of as great a sensation as at home. But C.'s energies the Free Church College, and spent the close of his could not be exhausted by mere oratory. Discorer- life in the zealous performance of his learned duties, ing that his parish was in a state of great ignorance and in perfecting his Institutes of Theology. and immorality, he began to devise a schenie for died suddenly at Morningside, Edinburgh, May overtaking and checking the alarming evil.
It 30, 1847. seemed to him that the only means by which this
This is not the place for a criticism on the works could be accomplished was by revivifying, remod- of C., which extend to more than 30 vols. It is elling, and extending the old parochial economy of sufficient to say, that they contain valuable and, Scotland,' which had proved so fruitful of good in in some cases, original contributions to the sciences the rural parishes. In order to wrestle more closely of natural theology, Christian apologetics, and with the ignorance and vice of Glasgow, C., in 1819, political economy; while on minor topies, such as became minister of St. John's parish, “the population the church-establishment question, they exhibit both of which was made up principally of weavers, novelty and ingenuity of argument. As an orator, labourers, factory-workers, and other operatives. C. was unique and unrivalled. We read of men, in "Of its 2000 families,' says Dr. Hanna, more than the history of the Christian church, whom we can 800 had no connection with any Christian church, believe to have been as eloquent, impassioned, and while the number of its uneducated children was earnest, but nowhere do we encounter a man in countless.' We have no space to narrate at length whom intellect, feeling, and imagination were so how vast and successful were the labours of harmoniously combined-a nature so‘nobly planned, Chalmers. It is sufficient to say, that in pursuance to warn, to comfort, and command. Scotland never of his favourite plan, he broke up his parish into produced a greater or more lovable soul, one more 25 districts, each of which he placed under separate gentle, guileless, genial-hearted, or yet more fervid, management, and established two week-day schools, from the strength of a resolute and irresistible will, and between 40 and 50 local Sabbath schools, for before whose impetus difficulties were dashed aside the instruction of the children of the poorer and as by a torrent. There have been some loftier and neglected classes,' more than 1000 of whom attended. more purely original minds in Scotland than C.'s, In a multitude of other ways he sought to elevate but there has never been a truer one, nor a heart and purify the lives of his parishioners. While in whose Christian faith and piety were more intense, Glasgow, C. had matured his opinions relative to sincere, and humane. the best method of providing for the poor.
CHALON-SUR-SAONE, a town of France, in the disliked the English system of a compulsory department of Saone-et-Loire, about 33 miles north assessment,' and preferred the old Scotch method of l of Macon. It is situated on the right bank of the
frone, at the point where that river is joined by the the term acidulo-chalybeate or acidulo-ferruginous is Canal-du-Centre, which unites the Saone with the applied. The Sulphated C. W. contain sulphate of Loire, and secures C. an extensive traffic with the iron (Fe0,803) dissolved in them, and examples of central districts of France, as well as with the this class are afforded at the Isle of Wight (the Sand Mediterranean and Atlantic. The town is generally Rock Spring), Vicars Bridge, Moffat, &c. C. W. well built, good quays line the river, along which are characterised by a more or less inky or styptic also the finest houses extend. Vineyards, wood, taste; by becoming of a purplish black tint when meadows, and cultivated fields surround and add infusion of galls or tea, and some varieties of wine, variety and beauty to the situation. Its manufac- are added; and by giving a pale blue colour on the tures include hats, hosiery, vinegar, oil
, pottery, addition of a few drops of ferrocyanide of potassium jewellery, and imitation pearls; and it has a large (yellow prussiate of potash). Č. W. are of great trade in the agricultural and other produce of the service in cases of debility, and the acidulo-carbonated district. Steam-boats navigate the Saone from C. kind being lighter on the stomach, is generally downwards. Pop. 18,666. C. "occupies the site of preferred; but all C. W. are to be avoided in the ancient Cabillonum or Caballinum.
plethoric, febrile, and inflammatory conditions of CIIALONS-SUR-MARNE, a
the system. in the department of Marne, 107 miles east of
CHAMA, a genus of lamellibranchiate mollusks. Paris by railway. It stands on the right bank of the shell consists of two unequal valves, having the river Marne, which is here crossed by a hand two hinge-teeth in the one valve, and one in the some stone bridge. C. is old; and the houses consist other. The general form of the shell approaches to chiefly of timber, lath, and plaster. The situation, orbicular. The shell is generally thick, and is foliated however, is agreeable, and the town contains some with leaf-like projections, which arise in a somefine public buildings, the principal of which is the what regular manner from its surface; these and cathedral, in the sanctuary of which there is one of the colours of some of the species combining to the finest grand altars in Frarce. On the east side make them very beautiful. The shells of the of the town there is the splendid Promenade du Jard, Chamce are often called Clams or Clamp-shells, a or park, which covers 19 acres, and the walks of name which they share with some of the Pectens, which are shaded by noble trees. In the outskirts Spondyli, &c. They are found only in the seas of of the town are the very extensive Champagne cellars warm climates, none further north than the Mediof M. Jaqueson, whose ordinary stock of bottles terranean. The Linuæan genus C. contained many amounts to between 4,000,000 and 5,000,000, and species now removed to other families, but the whose corks alone cost £6000 per annum. C. has restricted genus C. is the type of a family Chamidæ. manufactures of woollen, cotton, leather, &c., and a Thirty fossil species have been referred to (., four considerable trade in grain, hemp, rape-seed oil, and from the Cretaceous period, and twenty-six from the Champagne wine. Pop. 14,000. Previous to the Tertiary. union of Champagne with France in 1284, C. enjoyed
CHAMA'DE. See PARLEY. a much larger measure of commercial prosperity, and its population numbered about 60,000.
CHAMÆ'ROPS, a genus of palms, with fanCHIALYBÆ'US, a genus of birds very closely shaped leaves, less exclusively tropical than palsus allied to the Baritahs (q. v.), but having a rather are in general, and of which one species, C. humilis, thicker bill, and the nostrils pierced in a broad is the only palm truly indigenous to Europe. It membranous space. The species are natives of New Guinea, and are birds of the most beautiful plumage, remarkable for the brilliancy of their metallic tints, and particularly for the resemblance to burnished steel, to which they owe their name (Gr. chalyps, -ybos, steel). On this account, they are sometimes included under the name of Birds of Paradise; and the skin of C. paradisæus, deprived of its feet, is sold as that of a Bird of Paradise.
CHALYBÆUS, HEINRICH Moritz, a German philosopher, was born 3d July, 1796, at Pfaffroda in Saxony, and educated at the university of Leipsic. After spending some years in teaching, he was appointed in 1839 professor of philosophy in the university of Kiel. His chief works
the Historische Entwickelung der speculativen Philosophie von Kant bis Hegel (Dresden, 1836-a translation of this work into English has been executed by the Rev. Alfred Edersheim of Aberdeen), and the System der speculativen Ethik (Leip. 1850). CHALY'BEATE WATERS
wh are those which contain a considerable proportion of iron in solution. They are of two kinds, Carbonated and Sulphated. The Carbonated C. W. contain carbonate of iron
Chamærops Humilis. (FeO, CO2) dissolved in excess of carbonic acid, and may be recognised by forming an ochry deposit of red extends as far north as to the neighbourhood of Nice. oxide of iron (Fe203) on the surface of the stones It is sometimes called the PALMETTO. The flowers near the months of the springs, owing to the escape are in spathes about 6-8 inches long; the fruit is of the carbonic acid on exposure to the air. Islington a triple blackish spongy drupe, which is eaten, as Spa near London, Tunbridge Wells, and Oddy's Saline are also the young shoots. This palm is so tolerant, C. W. at Harrogate, are examples of this class. of a cold climate, that a specimen has lived in the Where an excess of carbonic acid is present, com- open air in the Botanic Garden of Edinburgh for municating a sparkling aspect to the water and an more than forty years, with the protection of matting acidulous taste, as at Pyrmont, and other places, in winter. In its native regions, the leaves are much