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CHAMALARI-CIIAMBER OF COMMERCE.

used for thatching, and for making brooms, hats, which, in addition to six councillors of state, con chair-bottoms, &c. They abound in an excellent sisted of twelve merchants or traders, delegated by fibre, which the Arabs mix with camel's hair, and the principal commercial towns of the kingdom, an make into tent covers : cordage, and sometimes arrangement which led within the next few years to siilcloth, are made of it in Spain; it is imported the formation of chambers of coinmerce everywhere into France, and used for making carpets, under in France. We thus find that the chamber at Lyon the name of African Hair. The French in Algeria 'was instituted in 1702, those of Rouen and Tonlouse make paper and pasteboard of it; and it is sup- in 1703, of Montpellier in 1704, of Bordeaux in posed that it may prove a valuable commercial 1705, &c. By an order of council of 30th August commodity, as a mitterial for paper-making.-Other 1702, a direct relation was established between species of the genus abundant in India, China, &c., these various chambers and the central Council of serve similar purposes, and deserve attention in Commerce. They were authorised to transmit to connection with paper.-To this genus belongs also the Controller-general of Finances memoirs setting the West India palm, which yields the material for forth their views on commercial subjects, and on chip-bats (see BRAZILIAN Grass); and the Palinetto contemplated measures of the central government (q. v.) of North America is by some botanists referred which were submitted to them for their opinion. to it.

No uniform legislation regulated the election of the CHAMALARI, a peak of the Himalava between members of these chambers or their internal organiTibet and Bhotai, in lat. 28° 4' N., and long. 90° E., i sation, but it is certain that the agents of the central siid to have an elevation of 27,200 feet, or more government possessed the power of entering them than 5 miles and a furlong.

and taking part in their deliberations, and it is CHAMBER, of a piece of artillery, or small arm,

probable that municipal authorities of the place is a contracted part of the bore, at the breech end.

were usually numbered amongst their members.

li These chanibers were all suppressed by a decree The C. contains the charge of powder, but is too small

of the National Assembly in 1791, but they were. to contain the shot or shell. Some of these cavities

re-established by a consular edict in 1802, which fixed are spherical, some cylindrical, some conical with a

the population of the towns in which they might hemispherical termination, and some pear-shaped.

be established, and the number of their members, Cirronades and shell-guns are usually chambered.

i who were to be chosen from amongst the merchants The charge just fits the C., and the ball or shell

who had carried on trade in person for a period of coines in contact with it. Chambered guns are more slow to load and fire than those which are not

| not less than ten years. Sixty of the best known chambered ; and therefore the adoption of this form

merchants, presided over by the prefect or the depends very much on the kind of service in which

maire, were charged to elect the members of these

new chambers. They then presented to the governthe weapon is to be employed. Its primary use is

ment two candidates for the office of member of in kinds of ordnance in which the charge is small

the general council of commerce, instituted at P:ris compared with the calibre, and in which, conse

under the Minister of the Interior. This organisaquently, there would be great loss of power unless the charge were confined within a comparatively the ordonnances of September 1851 and August

tion was again modified in 1832, and still later by limited space at the time of the explosion.

1852, by which these bodies are now regulated. In CHAMBER-COUNSEL, a barrister or advocate

accordance with that decree, the members of these who gives opinions in his own chambers, but does bodies are now elected by the chief merchants of not, or rarely dous, plead in court.

each town chosen for that purpose by the prefect. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, a body of mer- Their number cannot be less than 9, nor more than chants and traders, associated for the purpose of 21. They hold office for six years, one-third of their promoting the interests of its own members, of the number being renewed every two years, but the town or district to which the society belongs, and members resigning being re-eligible. The functions of the community generally, in so fır as these have now assigned to these chambers in France are—to reference to trade and merchandise. Of the means give to the government advice and information on by which these objects are sought to be accom- industrial and commercial subjects; to suggest the plished, the following may be mentioned as the means of increasing the industry and commerce of most prominent : 1. By representing and urging their respective districts, or of improving commeron the legislature the views of their members in cial legislation and taxation; to suggest the execumercantile affairs ; 2 By aiding in the preparation of tion of works requisite for the public service, or legislative measures having reference to trade, such, which may tend to the increase of trade or comfor example, as the Bankrupt Acts; 3. By collecting merce, such as the construction of harbours, the statistics bearing upon the staple trade of the deepening of rivers, the formation of railways, and district ; 4. In some places, by acting as a sort of the like. On these and similar subjects, the advice court of arbitration in mercantile questions; 5. By of the chambers, when not volunteered, is demanded attaining by combination advantages in trade which by the government. There exist at this moment might be beyond the reach of individual enterprise. 47 chambers of commerce in France of the kind

These institutions are of continental origin, and, which we have described, and in most of the other like so many others which England has' borrowed countries of continental Europe, there are similar froin that source, were first introduced into Scot- institutions for the purpose of conveying inforland. The oldest C. of C. in France is that of mation and advice to the central government, and Marseille, which dates from the end of the 14th or making it acquainted with local feelings and interests commencement of the 15th century. This chamber in commercial matters. was invested with very remarkable powers. It The oldest C. of C. in Great Britain is believed shared in the municipal jurisdiction, and in the to be that of Glasgow, which was instituted administration of justice in mercantile questions. 1st January 1783, and obtained a royal charter, It was several times suppressed and re-established, which was registered at Edinburgh on the 31st of and it was not till 1651) that its powers were fixed, the same year. That of Edinburgh was instiand that it received its ultimate organisation. The tuted in 1785, and incorporated by royal charter in second chamber in France was that of Dunkerque, 1786. The Manchester chamber, since so famous which was established in 1700. The same year a for its exertions in the cause of free-trade, was council-jeneral of commerce was instituted at Paris, : not established till 1820, and for many years it CHAMBERLAIN-CHAMBERS.

continued to be the only institution of the kind in on her right hand. During the sitting of parliaEngland. In Hull there has been a C. of C. since ment, he has charge of the House of Lords, and 1837, but those of Liverpool, Leeds, and Bradford, issues tickets of admission on the opening or proronotwithstanding the great trading and manufac- gation of parliament. Some fees and perquisites beturing interests of these towns, were not established | long to him. till 1850, in which year, strangely enough, a similar Lord Willoughby d'Eresby and the Marquis of institution was established in South Australia. The Cholmondeley are joint-holders of the office, in right annual incoine of the Manchester chamber is up. of their mothers, the ladies Priscilla Barbara, and wards of £600, that of Liverpool about £800, .con- | Georgiana Charlotte Bertie, sisters and co-heirs of tributed entirely by the subscriptions of members, Robert, fourth Duke of Ancaster; and the repreamounting generally to £1, 1s. à year. The Edin- sentatives of the families discharge the duties alterburgh C. of C. now consists of 300 members, coin- | nately in each succeeding reign. prising a large portion of the bankers, merchants,

: CIIAMBERS, EPHRAIM, deserves mention here as and manufacturers of Edinburgh and Leith. The

the compiler of the first English cyclopædia. He fees for admission have been commuted to an en

was born at Kendal in the latter part of the 17th c., trance fee of £5, 5s.

i and was an apprentice to a globe-maker in London, CHAMBERLAIN, Lord, or King's C., as he when he conceived the idea of his cyclopædia. The was formerly called, has been one of the principal first edition of the work, in 2 vols., appeared in cfficers of state from very early times, and for 1728 ; ten years later, the 2d appeared; and in the eenturies he was an influential member of the gov- year following, the 3d. The 4th was issued in 1741. ernment. He has the function of endorsing the à vear after the editor's death. A 5th appeared in king's answer on petitions presented to him, and 1746, and a 6th, with new matter, in 1750. This very often of communicating his majesty's pleasure work' forms the basis of Dr. Rees's Cyclopædia in 45 to parliament and to the council. He was always quarto vols., and may be considered as the forerunla member of the council himself, ex officio. Though ner of the now countless publications of an encyclohe has long ceased to have any sliare in the respon- pædic character (see EnCYCLOPÆDIA). C. was an insibilities of government, the C. is still an officer of defatigable worker, but a man of only very modevery high standing in the royal household. He has rate attainments. control over all the officers and servants of the

CHAMBERS, WILLIAM and ROBERT, the editors royal chambers, except those of the bedchamber,

il and publishers of this Encyclopædia and other works; over the establishment attached to the Chapel

born at Peebles, W.in 1800, R. in 1802. W.C. began Royal, the physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries of

business as a bookseller in Edinburgh, 1819. Between the household. The C. has further the oversight

1825 and 1830, he wrote the Gazetteer of Scotland, of the Queen's musicians, comedians, trumpeters,

11 vol.; and the Book of Scotland, 1 vol. R. C. also messengers, &c.; and all tradesmen and artificers in

began business as a bookseller in Edinburgh, and her service are appointed by him. When the office

from 1823 to 1830, wrote successively the Traditions of Keeper of the Great Wardrobe was abolished in

of Edinburgh, 2 vols.; Popular Rhymes of Scotland, 1782, the duties of providing the state-robes of the

| 1 vol. ; Picture of Scotland, 2 vols.; and Histories of royal family, the household, and officers of state,

Rebellions in Scotland and Life of James I., 5 vols. devolved on the lord chamberlain. All theatres in towns in which a royal palace is situated, require to

Next, he edited Scottish Ballads and Songs, 3 vols. ;

and Biography of Distinguished Scotchmen, 4 vols. be licensed by the Lord C., and no new play c.in be

W. C. projected Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, and performed anywhere without his licence. All per

having gained the assistance of his brother, that sons desiring to be presented at levees or drawing

cheap periodical was commenced on the 4th of Febrooms, require to send their cards to the Lord C.,

ruary 1832, about six weeks in advance of the Penny and it is his duty to see that the persons thus apply

Magazine. United from this period in the business ing are entitled by station and character to be pre

of publishing, W. and R. C. have issued a series of sented to the Queen. The C, also issues her Majesty's invitations to balls, parties, &c. In accordance

works designed for popular instruction, and, like

the Journal (now amounting, in its different series, with ancient custom, the Lord C. is still a member

to 40 vols.), free of any sectarian or political bias. of the Privy Council. His salary is £2000 a year,

| Among these works are Chambers's Information for but his tenure of office depends on that of the politi

the People, 2 vols. ; Chambers's Educational Course, cal party to which he belongs.

about 10 vols. ; Cyclopædia of English Literature, The Vice-chamberlain is the depty and assistant 2 vols.; Miscellany of Useful and Entertaining Tracts, of the Lord C., and in his absence exercises the full 20 vols. ; Papers for the People, 12 vols. ; and the authority which belongs to his principal. His office present Encyclopædia. It is proper to say that in existed in the time of Richard II. He is also del conducting these laborious 'undertakings, they have pendent on the administration, and is usually a necessarily depended on a number of accomplished member of the Privy Council. His salary is £924 literary assistants. The later productions of W. per annum.

C. are Things as they are in America, 1 vol.; CHAMBERLAIN, THE LORD GREAT, is quite Slavery and Colour in America, 1 vol. (both works a different officer from the Lord Chamberlain the result of a visit to the United States in 1853);

(q. v.) The Lord Great C. is a hereditary officer of the Youth's Companion and Counsellor, 1 vol.; and · great antiquity, and formerly of great importance. pamphlets on Improved Duellings and Co-operation He has the government of the palace at Westminster, among the Working Classes. R. C. has " latterly and, upon solemn occasions, the keys of West- written a work on Ancient Sea Margins, 1 vol., and minster Hall and of the Court of Requests are edited the Life and Works of Robert Burns, 4 vols. delivered to him. At these times, the Gentleman A collection of his historical works and miscellaUsher of the Black Rod, the Yeoman Usher, audneous papers has been issued under the title of Select the door-keepers, are under his orders. At corona- | Writings of Robert Chambers, 7 vols. His latest tions, state trials, banquets, and the like, the fitting- production is Domestic Annals of Scotland, 3 vols. up of the Hall devolves on him. When the Queen In 1859, William presented to Peebles the “ Chamber's goes to parliament, he delivers the sword of state to Institution.” In 1865 he became Lord Provost of any member of the administration whom he chooses, Edinburgh, and organized and carried out many useful to be borne before her Majesty, he himself walking measures of sanitary improvement. The crowning

CHAMBERS-CHAMBRE ARDENTE.

labour of the brothers Chambers in cheap literature, surmounted by a vast number of turrets, minarets, is their Encyclopædia. R. C. died March 17, 1871. and cones; its most prominent features, however, be

CHAMBERS. PRACTICE BEFORE A JUDGE OR Vice. | ing six enormous round towers, each 60 feet in diameCHANCELLOR AT. It is to applications to the court ter. The double spiral staircase in the central tower is in banc alone that the name of motions is properly of great architectural interest, being so contrived given. But there are certain matters of subordi

that parties pass up and down without meeting each nate importance, regarding which applications are

regarding which applications are other. The castle has no less than 440 chambers made to a single judge at chambers. Pratice at C. | C. was the scene of the gallantries of Francis I. is of a more summary nature than that in court; Here He

| Here Henri II., Louis XIII., and Louis XIV. resided ; but its importance has been increased by the Com

and at one of the brilliant fêtes given at the castle mon-law Procedure Acts, and particularly by 15 and by the latter, Molière performed, for the first time, 16 Vict. c. 76, s. 52, authorising a judge at C. to de- his play of the Bourgeois Gentilhomme. Among cide upon the sufficiency of pleadings in certain

the other occupants of C. were Marshal Saxe, cases.

Stanislaus, king of Poland, and Marshal Berthier, In the Courts of Equity, incidental matters requir

upon whom it was bestowed by Napoleon I. After ing to be cleared up in order to the completion of

his death, it was purchased from his widow by a decrees, are investigated either by the Master of the number of legitimnists, and presented to the Duc de Rolls, or by one of the vice-chancellors, sitting at C.,

Bordeaux. or by their clerks as their representatives. By 15 CHAMBORD (IIENRI CHARLES FERDINAND and 16 Vict. c. 18, ss. 26-3), it is provided that MARIE DIEUDONNÉ D’ARTOIS, DUC DE BORDEAUX), this course may be adopted with all such matters as

COMTE DE, the representative of the elder branch may be more conveniently disposed of at C. than in of the House of Bourbon, and of its claims to the open court.

French throne, was born in Paris, September 29, CHAMBERS OF AGRICULTURE. The benefits 1820. He is the grandson of Charles X., and the derived from the Chambers of Commerce (q. v.) in son of the Duke of Berri, who was murdered by France has led to the establishment in that country | Louvel, February 14, 1820. The Duke of Ang011of similar institutions for the promotion of agricul- | lême, Charles X.'s eldest son, being childless, the ture. By a law of 20th March, 1851, they were Duke of Berri was heir presumptive; and as, at his placed in most respects on the same footing as the death, he left only a daughter, the joy was great Chambers of Commerce, but a subsequent decree when, seven months after, his widow gave birth (25th March, 1852,) deprived them of many of their to a prince, who received the title of Duke of privileges. At présent, each arrondissement has a Bordeaux-that of Comte de C., ky which he has chamber of agriculture, of which the members are latterly been known, being derived from the Castle named by the prefect, who alone can convoke them, of c. (q. v.), presented to him at his baptism. He and deterinine the sphere of their labours. The | was baptized amid circumstances of great pomp government is no longer bound, as formerly, to con- with water brought by M. de Châteaubriand from sult them; and having lost the right of communi- | the river Jordan, and received the appellation cating directly with the ministry, they stand, for the of l'Enfant du Miracle ('the Miraculous Child '). present, at a great disadvantage as compared with When Charles X. abdicated the crown at the the chambers of commerce. No such institutions revolution in 1830, he did so in favour of his exist in this country, though in some respects their grandson, the Duke of Bordeaux. The people, functions are performed, in an irregular manner, by however, insisted on the Citizen King,' and the our agricultural societies.

elder Bourbons were banished. On the death of CHAMBERY, a town of Saroy, of which it is the Charles X., the Duke of Angoulême assumed the capital, beautifully situated in a rich vine-clad val- title of Louis XIX., and another party proclaimed ley, between two ridges of hills, about 45 miles west- the Duke of Bordeaux king; but at last a re'consouth-west of Geneva. Though situated at an eleva. | ciliation was brought about by Prince Metternich. tion of nearly 1000 feet above the sea, the climate In 1839, the prince visited Italy, accompanied of C. is mild: the scenery around, with the river by his mother, and was received by the petty Leysse flowing through the valley, is exceedingly courts with great distinction. After the death of fine. The town itself, however, is dull and uninter. | the Duke of Angoulême in 1844, the heads of the esting. Some towers and other fragments of the old different fractions of legitimists met to pay their castle of the Dukes of Savoy, which dates from the united homage, and the Duke of Bordeaux made 13th c., still remain. C. is celebrated for its manu-a 'pilgrimage to Belgrave Square’ to receive it. facture of silk-gauze. It has also manufactures of In 1846, he married the eldest daughter of the soap, leather, hats, lace, and a trade in metals and Duke of Modena, who had never acknowledged

Pop, about 20.000. St. Réal and Comte | the monarchy of July. After the revolution of Xavier le Maistre were natives of Chambery. From 1848, many legitimists were returned to the National the middle of the 16th c. to the peace of Utrecht. | Assembly. In 1850, the Duke of Bordeaux, or 1713, C. was under the dominion of France : aná | Count of C. as he now styles himself, appeared

from the Revolution to the Congress of Vir | at Wiesbaden, where a congress of his adlierents euna, 1815, when it was restored to the House of assembled to consult as to their future policy. Savoy; but in 1860, by the cession of Savoy, it has Ilere the prince still declared for peace. In truth, again come under the rule of France.

all his appearances' in public have been weak and CHAMBORD, a celebrated royal castle of France,

effeminate, consisting wholly of pompous drawingin the department of Loir-et-Cher, situated in the

room levees, where those present attempt to forget midst of a vast walled park 21 miles in circumfer

the logic of facts,' and persuade themselves that ence, about 12 miles east of Blois. Its foundation

the Count of C. is a king, and themselves the orwas laid in 1526, by Francis I., who employed 1,810

naments of a resuscitated court. As the Count of men constantly in its erection until his death. The

C. is without heirs, a union, or "fusion,' as it is work was continued with less zeal by his suc

called, of the partisans of the elder Bourbons with cessors, Henri II., Henri III., Charles IX. ; and

il the Orleanists, came to be much talked of, and was Louis XIV. and Louis XV. also made some additions

at last effected. to it. The building, which marks the transition CHAMBRE ARDENTE (the Fiery Chamber'), between the fortified castle and Italian palace, is a name given at different times in France to an

win

CHAMELEON-CHAMISCO.

extraordinary court of justice, probably on account fable, current among the ancients and until recent of the severity of the punishments which it times, of their living on air. Their celebrated awarded, the most common being that of death power of changing colour is not equally fabulous, by fire. In the year 1535, Francis I. established and perhaps it would be rash in the present state an Inquisitorial Tribunal, and a Chainbre Ardente. of knowledge on the subject to assert how far Both were intended for the extirpation of heresy. it has been exaygerated. It is probably in part The former, of which the pope was a corresponding under the control of volition, and may be used, as meniber, searched out, by means of spies, cases of heresy, and instructed the processes; while the latter both pronounced and executed the final judgment. Under Henri II., the activity of the C. A. receired a new impulse, the entrance of that monarch into Paris on the 4th July 1549, being

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Francis himself, gallant and gay, as courtly history represents him, also seemed to relish a spectacle of this kind, for on various occasions he and his mistress presided at a burning. By and by, the C. A. relaxed in its penalties, and a cry was got up among the more bigoted Roman Catholics that it was conniving at heresy. This seems to have roused the lurking devil' in its members, and in order to wipe away the reproach, they commenced a series of unheard-of cruelties, which, along with other events, contributed to originate the religious war of 1560. In 1679, Louis XIV. employed it for a new and more praiseworthy purpose-viz., to investigate

Chameleon. the numerous reports of poisoning cases which the trial of the Marchioness Brinvilliers (q. v.) caused

has been asserted, to render the animal less easy to be circulated. Many persons of the first rank,

k of observation, by assimilating it to the colour of such as the Maréchal de Luxembourg, and the su

surrounding objects; it may depend in part on the Princess Louise of Savoy, were examined on suspi

nis action of light; it is certainly connected with the cion, but no one was executed except the pretendo

far and oiher passions of the creature. Milne ed sorcerer, Voisin (1686), after whose time the C.

Edwards has discovered that it depends upon the

presence of two differently coloured layers of pigA. ended its activity.

ment in the skin, CHAMELEON, a southern constellation within Chameleons are natives of the warm parts of the the antarctic polar circle, arid containing nine stars. | Old World, but are most abundant in Africa. One CHAMELEON (Chamæleo), a genus of saurian sp

Quion species is found in some parts of the south of Europe, reptiles, constituting a distinct family, of very pecu

as near Cadiz. The whole number of kuown species liar form and structure, and on various accounts

is small. ---When brought, as they frequently are, to highly interesting. The body is much compressed;

Britain, they soon die, apparently because of the the dorsal line sharp, in some of the species rising

coldness of the climate. into an elevated crest; the back of the head is also

The fables which, in former times, were current elevated into a sort of cone. The neck is very

regarding the C., were extremely numerous and short, and does not admit of the head being turned,

ridiculous. It supplied not a few of those medifor which, however, compensation is found in the

cines to which absurd credulity ascribed the most remarkable powers of motion possessed by the

marvellous powers. large prominent eyes, which more independently CHAMFERING. In Architecture, an angle of one another, and are covered with a membrane which is slightly pared off, is said to be chamfered. pierced only with a small hole for the pupil to The chamför is sometimes made slightly concave, in look through. There are no external cars. The which case it is called a hollow chamfer. Chamfers, skin is not covered with scales, but, like slagreen, in Gothic architecture, have frequently ornamental rough with granules. The legs raise the body terminations of various kinds. The term C. is aprather higher than in most of the saurians; the i plied to wood-work as well as stone. toes, both of the fore and hind feet, are divided

al CHAMIER, FREDERIC, an English novelist, was into two sets, one directed forward, and the

il born in London, 1796. He entered the navy as other backward, so that each foot has the power of grasping like a hand. The tail is long and

a midshipman in 1809, and distinguished himself prehensile. The lungs are very large, and are

in the American war. He left the service in 1833. connected with air-cells that lie among the muscles

The success of Marrrat in depicting sea-life led and beneath the skin, so that the animal · has a

without success, though in invention and humour remarkable power of inflating itself with air. The

| he falls short of his model. Ilis best romances tongue is remarkably extensile, and is the organ by which the animal seizes the insects which consti

are-Life of a Sailor (3 vols., Lond. 1834), Ben tute its food, being darted at them with unerring

Brace (3 vols., Lond. 1835), The Arethusa (3 vols.,

Lond. 1836), "Trevor Hastings (3 vols., 1811), Pasaim, whilst a viscous saliva causes them to adhere to it, and they are carried with it into the mouth.

sion and Principle (3 vols., 1843), Tom Bowline Chameleons are slow in their movements except

(3 vols., 1839), Jack Adams (3 vols., 1838), &c. All those of the eyes and tongue, and remain long

his works have been translated into German. Having fixed in one spot, awaiting the approach of insects,

been in Paris in February 1848, C. wrote a Review which they seize on their coming within reach. Of

of the French Revolution of 1848 (Lond. 1849), in They all live among the branches of trees. Their which he gives a rather prejudiced view of some of power of fasting is great, and along with their the prominent actors. gulping of air in respiration, and their habit of CIIANISSO, ADELBERT rox, one of the most inflating themselves with air, gure rise to the celebrated of German lyric poets, was born in 1781

1

CHAMOIS-CIIAMOMILE.

at the castle of Boncourt, in Champagne. His , and so bent back at the tip as to form a hook. parents settling in Prussia in 1790, lie became a The colour is brown, deeper in winter than in sunpage of the queen, and entered upon a military | mer; the tail is black; the head is of a pale-yellow career. But when the campaign of 1806 broke out, colour, with a dark-brown'band along each cheek. he returned to France, for though no admirer of The usual sunimer resort of the C. is in the Napoleon, he was unwilling to fight against his higher regions of the mountains which it inhabits, native land. At this time, he was thrown into the not far from the snow-line, and it is often to be circle of Madame de Staël at Coppet, and there seen lying on the snow. In winter, it descends to began that study of natural philosophy which he the higher forests. The aromatic and bitter plants afterwards pursued at Berlin. In 1814, Count of the mountain pastures are its favourite food. It Rumjanzow, chancellor of the Russian empire, is-like the ruminants generally-very fond of salt; prepared an exploring expedition round the world and many stones are met with in the Alps, hollowed at his own expense; C. accompanied it as naturalist. out by the continual licking of the C, on account of He embarked at Cronstadt under Captain Otto von the salt petre with which they abound. It is gregilKotzebue, chief of the expedition, which, however, rious : flocks of one hundred are sometimes seen; failed in its main object-that of discovering a north- but in the Swiss Alps, where the numbers have been east passage. Subsequently, he obtained a situation much reduced by hunting, the flocks are generally in the Botanical Garden of Berlin, was made a mem- | very small, and often consist only of a few indiber of the Academy of Science; and after a happy | viduals. Old males often live solitary. The C. prodomestic life, died there in 1838, universally loved duces one or two young at a birth, in the month of and honoured. He wrote several works on n:tural March or April. history, but his fame rests chiefly on his poetical / It is an animal of extraordinary agility, and flocks productions. As early as 1804–1806, lie, together may often be observed sporting in a remarkable with Varnhagen von Ense, piiblished a Musen manner among the rocky heights. It can leap over Almanach. In 1813, he wrote his original and ravines of 16 to 18 feet wide; a wall of 14 feet high amusing fiction called Peter Schlemihl, the story of presents no obstacle to it; and it passes readily up the man who loses his shadow, w!ich has been or down precipices which almost no other quadruped translated into almost all the languages of Europe. I could attempt. It is said to descend obliquely alThe character of luis poetry is wild and gloomy, and most perpendicular precipices of more than 20 feet, he is fond of rugged and horrible subjects. In his striking i!s feet once or twice against the rock, as if political songs, he succeeds well in humour and to stay and guide its descent, and alighting securely, irony; nor is he deficient in deep and genuine feel- often on a very narrow ridge of rock, with its hind ing. Indeed, several of his ballads and romances feet first, and bringing the fore feet almost into conare master-pieces in their way. We may instance tact with them. one of his longest poems, Salas y Gomez, written The hunting of the C. is an occupation attended in terza rima, as a proof how peculiarly German the with great hardships and much danger, but of cast of C.'s mind was, despite his French origin. His which, nevertheless, some of the Swiss peasants collected works, in six volumes, appeared at Leipsic become passionately foud. The hunter sometimes in 1836–1839. He died in 1838.

goes out on the adventurous chase alone; but more CHA'MOIS (Antilope rupicapra, Ger. Gemse), a

frequently several go out together, dividing into species of antelope (q. v.) inhibiiing the Alps and

parties; and whilst the flock of C. flee from those other high mountains of Central and Southern Europe,

whose approach they first descry, an opportunity of as the Pyrenees, the Carpathians, and the mountains

using the rifle is obtained by their comrades. The scent of the C. is extremely keen; and when by this sense it is apprised of the approach of the hunter, it becomes alarmed and restless until it sees him, upon which it rushes hastily in an opposite direction, and so falls into the ambuscade. When a flock of C. is feeding, one is always on the watch, and by a sort of whistle announces apprehended danger.

-The flesh of the C. is highly esteemed. Its skin is made into leather, and from it the original shaminoy or shammy leather, so much prized for softness and warmth, was obtained, although the name has now become common alio to leather prepared from the skins of other aniinals. See SIAMMOY. - When taken young, the C. is easily tamed.-The C. of the Persian mountains is smaller and of a paler colour than the European variety, and its horus bend from the base.

CHAMOMILE, or CAMOMILE (Anthemis), a genus of plants of the natural order Composite,

sub-order Corymbiferoe, distinguished by imbricated Chamois.

bracts, a scaly conical receptacle, a ray of one row of female florets, those of the disk hermaphrodite,

the achænia obscurely four-cornered, and destitute of Greece: also those of some of the Mediterranean of pappus. The species are annual and perennial islands, Caucasus, Taurus, and other mountains of herbaceous plants, chiefly natives of Europe and the west of Asia. It is one of the antelopes some other temperate parts of the world. Several are times designated capriform or goatlike, because of found in Britain, amongst which is the COMMON C. their departure from the typical or true antelope (A. nobilis), the most important species of the genus, form, and approach to that of the goats. The C, is well known for its medicinal virtues, a perennial about the size of a large goat, but the neck is plant, with a stem about a foot long, procumbent longer in proportion, and the body shorter; the and much branched, each branch terminated by horns seldom more than six or seven inches long, a flower (head of flowers) more than an inch black, rising nearly straight up from the forehead, I broad, with yellow disk and white ray, the whole

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