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plant intensely bitter and highly aromatic. medicinal virtues are ascribed to the essential oil which it contains, Oil of Chamomile, which abounds most of all in the involucre. This oil is of a greenish-yellow colour, and is used in the preparation of some medicines. The dried flowers are often administered in the form of an infusion, as a stimulant of the nerves of the abdomen, an alterative and antispasmodic; or are applied to the skin as an anodyne, and on account of their power of promoting absorption and suppuration. The infusion also acts as an emetic, and is often used to assist the action of other emetics. C. flowers find

Chamomile (Anthemis nobilis).

a place in the pharmacopoeia, and are also amongst the most esteemed of domestic medicines, the plant being extensively cultivated for their sake, and very generally finding a place even in cottage gardens. Yet they ought to be used with caution, as they have been known to produce congestion of the brain, and are very apt to aggravate any malady of this kind already existing. A double-flowering variety of C. is more generally cultivated than the single, to supply the C. flowers of the shops, the flowers being whiter and more bulky, but it is otherwise rather inferior. C. is easily propagated by parting the roots. It delights in a dry and rather poor soil.The name WILD C. is given to a very similar plant, also a native of Britain (Matricaria Chamomilla), an annual belonging to a genus closely allied to Anthemis. It may readily be distinguished by the want of scales on the receptacle. Its medicinal virtues resemble those of common C., and although now disused in Britain, it is in some parts of Europe preferred for internal use, because it is less bitter, less nauseous, and generally milder and more agreeable in its operation.-No small quantity of common C. is illegally used in the manufacture of beer in England, and is imported from Germany for this purpose. Yet this plant is so abundant in some parts of the south of England as to form a principal part of the pasture in sheep-walks, and to fill the whole air with its scent. The other British species of C. (Anthemis) are mere weeds; one of them, called Stinking C. (A. Cotula), is so acrid as to blister the fingers, if much handled. But the flowers of the Ox-EYE C., or DYER'S C. (A. tinctoria), a native of many parts of the continent of Europe, yield a beautiful yellow dye, on account of which the plant is often cultivated.

CHAMOND, Sr., a town of France, in the department of Loire, situated at the confluence of the Gier and the Ban, about 7 miles north-east of St. Etienne, on the railway between that place and Lyon. It is a flourishing well-built town, with extensive manuC. has also factures of ribbons and stay-laces. several silk-mills and numerous iron furnaces and foundries; and extensive coal-mines exist in the vicinity. Pop. 10,100.


CHAMORERIL, a lake of Ladakh or Middle Tibet, in lat. 32° 55′ N., and long. 78° 15′ E. It lies at a height of 15,000 feet above the sea, on the plateau between the upper waters of the Sutlej and of the Indus, girt by mountains which rise, at some points, 5000 feet above its own level. Though it is beyond the recognised limits of perpetual congelation, yet it freezes only in winter, and is hence supposed to be of great depth. Necessarily receiving much water from the surrounding mountains, it is without any visible outlet-evaporation alone, even at this elevation, appearing to maintain one uniform surface on a length of 15 miles, and a width of 21.


CHAMOUNI, or CHAMONIX (Lat. Campus munitus), is the name of a wild and romantic valley. and village among the Alps in Savoy. It lies at a distance from all the high roads, at an elevation of about 3400 feet above the level of the sea, and more than 2000 feet above that of the Lake of Geneva. The valley is about 13 miles long, and about 2 broad, and is traversed by the Arve. It is bounded at the east end by the Col de Balme, over which there is a mule-path to Martigny, in the upper valley of the Rhone, and from the other end issues the road to Geneva, which lies at a distance of 534 miles from Chamouni. On the north side lies Mont Breven and the chain of the Aiguilles Rouges, and on the south, the giant group of Mont Blanc, from which enormous glaciers or rivers of ice slide down, even in summer, almost to the bottom of the valley. The chief of these glaciers are—the Glacier des Bossons, des Bois, d'Argentière, and du Tour. By ascending to a point called Montanvert, we come upon the upper course of a glacier, where it expands into a great mountain-lake of ice called the Mer de Glace, in which there is a solitary rock or oasis called Le Jardin, about seven acres in extent, and covered with the most beautiful herbage. excursion to the Jardin is one of the most striking excursions within the range of Chamouni. 1741, the valley was almost unknown; the region was considered a wilderness, and known by the name of Les Montagnes Maudites, or accursed mountains.' In the above year, it was visited by two Englishmen, Pocock and Wyndham, who ascended as far as Montanvert; and a granite block there still bears the name of the Englishmen's Stone. It was only, however, in 1775, that the attention of travellers was effectually called to it by Saussure and Bourrit. The valley is rich in peculiar plants, and furnishes an aromatic and perfectly white honey. The village of C. owes its origin to the Benedictine convent founded between 1088 and 1099. The population of the village is about 2000, who depend partly upon the strangers who visit the valley, and partly upon the pastures and upon hunting. There are several good hotels, and the best guides are to be found here for the neighbouring Alps. It is from C. that Mont Blanc is usually




CHAMPAC (Michelia Champaca), an Indian tree, possessing great beauty both of foliage and flowers, and much venerated both by Brahmanists and Buddhists. Images of Buddha are made of its wood. Its flowers have a pale-yellow tint, and a


sweet oppressive perfume, much celebrated in the simply charging other light wines with carbonic poetry of the Hindus. acid gas. Recently the German purveyors have Rhenish, Main, Neckar, Meissner, and Naumburg succeeded in preparing light wines such as connoisseur. Altogether, it is estimated that the -so much like genuine C., as to deceive even the district produces 1,100,000 hectolitres (24,200,000 gallons) of genuine C., of which, however, the finest growths make but a small part.

CHAMPAGNE, formerly a province of France, now forming the departments of Seine-et-Marne, Aube, Yonne, Haute-Saone, and Ardennes. The province was about 180 miles long by 150 broad, its surface presenting extensive plains with ranges of hills, especially in the north and east. Upon these hills is grown the famous Champagne wine.

In ancient times, C. was known as a part of Gallia, was subjugated by Cæsar, and afterwards was annexed to the kingdom established by the Franks. After the 11th c., it had its own dukes, who were vassals of the French kings. By the marriage of Philippe IV. with Joanna, heiress to the kingdom of Navarre, Champagne, and Brie, C., in 1284, came to the French crown, and was incorporated by Philippe VI. in 1328. During the campaign of 1792, the eastern part, and, in the campaign of 1814, the western part, of C., was the chief arena of warfare.

CHAMPAGNE WINE is the produce of vineyards in the above-mentioned province of Champagne. There are white and red Champagnes; the white is either sparkling or still. Sparkling or effervescent (mousseux) C. is the result of a peculiar treatment during fermentation. In December, the wine is racked off, and fined with isinglass,' and in March it is bottled and tightly corked. The fermentation being incomplete when the wine is bottled, the carbonic acid gas generated in a confined space dissolves in the wine, and communicates the sparkling property to Champagne. To clear the wine of sediment, the bottles are first placed in a sloping position with the necks downward, so that the sediment may be deposited in the necks of the bottles. When this sediment has been poured off, some portion of a liqueur (a solution of sugar-candy in cognac) is added to the wine, and every bottle is filled up with bright clarified wine, and securely with bright clarified wine, and securely

re-corked. The effervescence of the wine thus prepared bursts many bottles, in some cases 10 per cent.; and in seasons of early and sudden heat, as many as 20 and 25 per cent. have been burst. Wine-buyers estimate the value of wine according to the breakage, that which breaks most bottles being considered best. Still or non-effervescent C. is first racked off in the March after the vintage. Creaming or slightly effervescent C. (demi-mousseux) has more alcohol, but less carbonic acid gas than sparkling Champagne.

The best varieties of this wine are produced at Rheims and Epernay, and generally on a chalky soil. Among white Champagnes of the first class, the best are those of Sillery, which are of a fine amber hue, dry spirituous, and possessing a superior bouquet; those of Ay and Mareuil are less spirituous, but are sparkling, with a pleasant bouquet. Other white wines of first class are those of Ilautvilliers, Dizy, Epernay, and Pierry.

In the first class of red C., or Montagne, we have the varieties of Verzy, Verzenay, Mailly, St. Basle, Bouzy, and Thierry, all having fine colour, clearness, good body, sufficient spirit, and a pleasant bouquet. The trade in Champagne wines is chiefly carried on in Rheims, Avise, Epernay, and Chalons-surMarne. The cellars in which the vintages are stored are cut out of the calcareous rock. The fact that the sale of C. is very extensive and lucrative, has naturally given rise to adulterations. Sugar, and the juices of pears or gooseberries, or birch-juice, &c., have been used for making spurious Champagne. It may fairly be reckoned that not even a third part of the wine sold for C. in Paris is genuine. The greater part of it is readily manufactured by


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CHA'MPARTY, or CHA'MPERTY (Fr., from Lat. campi partitio, a division of lands), an offence known to the law of England, which consists in a bargain between the plaintiff or defendant in a suit, and a third party, generally a lawyer, that the latter shall have part of the land, debt, or other thing sued for, in the event of success, and that in the meantime he shall carry on the suit at his own expense. This practice has been strictly forbidden by statute in England from very early times (3 Edward I., c. 25; 13 Edward I., c. 49; &c.); and in Scotland, the rule of the civil law by which the pactum de quotâ litis (q. v.) was held to be a pactum illicitum (4. v.), and as such void, has all along been forbidden by statute to members of the College part of the common law. Such practices were also between the laws of the two countries, however, of Justice (1594, c. 216). There is this difference that whereas in England the offence has always been punished criminally, in Scotland, the only penalty which it entails beyond nullity of the bargain, is deprivation of office. In former times, the evil chiefly apprehended from C. probably was, that the honesty of judges might be tampered with by advocates who were generally their friends, and not unfrequently their very near relatives, if permitted in which they were professionally employed. In to be personally interested in the issue of the causes our own day, the chief danger consists in the encouragement which might thus be given to dishonest and oppressive litigation, and the facilities which would be afforded for nefarious transactions between: the agents on the opposite sides. That practices unknown in the lower strata of the legal profession closely analogous to C., though unnamed, are not in all countries, is but too probable. The necessities of trade have further introduced considerable equitable modifications into the law of C., which will be explained under CHOSE IN ACTION.

CHAMPION (from a Gothic root signifying to contend, fight; Ang.-Sax., camp, fight). In the judi cial combats of the middle ages, it was allowed to women, children, and aged persons, except in cases of high treason or of parricide, to appear in the lists by a representative. Such a hired combatant was called a champion. Those who followed this profession were generally of the lowest class, and were held disreputable; for besides the perils of the combat, they were liable to be executed as well as their clients. They were obliged to wear a peculiar dress of leather, and peculiar armour, which was also held disreputable. They were not allowed to fight on horseback, and appeared in the lists with their hair and nails cut short. Champions are mentioned as early as in the time of Charlemagne: and Otto I. employed them in deciding the succession to the empire. At a later period, in the age of Chivalry, the word C. came to have a more dignified acceptation, and signified a knight who entered the lists on behalf of an injured lady, of a child, or of any one incapable of self-defence. In England, the crown even had its C., who, mounted on horseback and armed to the teeth, challenged, at every coronation at Westminster, all who should deny the king to be the lawful sovereign of the three realms. This practice is understood to have been

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first introduced under Richard II., and it continues in which he explains the names and titles of to make a part of the ceremonial of an English coro- many of the Pharaohs, written on the monuments nation to this day. The name C. was also given in Drovetti's Egyptian Collection at Turin, and to the knight who, during a tournament, had charge attempts to class them into dynasties. His theory to see that no injury or insult should be offered to of interpretation was much controverted at first, but its importance was recognised by such distinguished scholars as Rosellini, Bunsen, Sir William Gell, and others.

the assembled ladies.


CHAMPLAI ́N, a lake separating the states of New York and Vermont, and penetrating, at its north end, about six miles into Lower Canada. empties itself into the St. Lawrence, about 45 miles below Montreal, by the Sorel or Richelieu. It is navigable throughout for vessels of about 100 tons, having its communications improved by one canal on its own river, and by another to the Hudson. It stretches in lat. from 43° 30' to 45° 6' N., and in long. from 73° to 73° 30' W.; its extreme breadth, however, never exceeding 15 miles. Its principal towns are Whitehall at the south, Plattsburg on the west, and Burlington on the east. Both Lake C., and its tributary, Lake George, have been C., and its tributary, Lake George, have been prominent in the history of the country during the rivalry of France and England before the conquest of 1759-1760; during the revolutionary struggle of 1774-1782; and lastly, during the war of 1812-1814, between Great Britain and the United States.

In 1828 he was appointed by Charles X. to accompany a scientific expedition to Egypt, of which de l'Egypte et de la Nubie (Par. 1835–1845). On the results were given by Rosellini in the Monumens his return to Paris, 1830, C. was made a member of the Académie des Inscriptions, &c.; and, in the following year, was appointed to the new chair of Egyptian Antiquities in the College of France; but of lectures, in May 1831, he fell ill, and died, March 4, 1832. According to Silvestre de Sacy, few men, services equal to those which have consecrated to since the birth of letters, have rendered to erudition immortality the name of Champollion.'

soon after the commencement of his intended course

CHAMPOLLION-FIGEAC, JEAN JACQUES, a distinguished French archæologist, was born, 1778, at Figeac, in the department of Lot. After holding in Grenoble the offices of librarian and professor of Greek literature, he was appointed, in 1828, conbut, after the February revolution, was deposed servator of MSS. in the Imperial Library in Paris; from office by Carnot. In 1849, he was appointed, by Louis Napoleon, librarian of the palace of Fontainebleau. Beside the Antiquités de Grenoble (1807), his chief works include the Annales des Lagides and Egypte Ancienne (forming a part of L'Univers Pittoresque); Les Tournois du Roi René, a splendid work, with lithographs by Motte; and several publications of old French documents. Since the death

of his younger and more celebrated brother, C. has been employed in editing the MSS. left by that distinguished scholar, and has given an account of them in the Notice sur les Manuscrits Autographes de Champollion le Jeune (Par. 1842). He died May, 1867.

His son, AIMÉ CHAMPOLLION-FIGEAC, follows the same path of historical antiquarianism, and has published several interesting, useful works.

CHAMPOLLION, JEAN FRANÇOIS an illustrious name in modern Egyptian archæology, was born December 23, 1790, at Figeac, in the department of Lot, France. In 1801, he was introduced to Baron Fourier, secretary to the Institut d'Egypte, who initiated him into the science of Egyptian antiquities. In 1807, C. went to Paris, in order to pursue, with more advantage, his oriental studies; and, in 1809, was appointed professor of history in the Lyceum of Grenoble. In 1811, he published his work, L'Egypte sous les Pharaons, intended as the forerunner of a more elaborate work on Egypt, of which only the geographical section appeared, in 1814. In his endeavour to decipher the Rosetta Stone, C. laboured under the error of supposing that in this inscription the hieroglyphics were wholly ideographic, and the demotic and hieratic characters wholly phonetic. Afterwards, he was led to believe that the hieratic characters were of the same nature as the hieroglyphic, and this conviction he expressed in a communication made to the Académie des Inscriptions, in August 1821. In the same year he published his essay, Sur l'Ecriture Hiératique des Anciens Egyptiens (Grenoble), a work which is now scarce. In this essay he continued to assert the common ideographic nature of both hieroglyphic and hieratic CHANCE, in its original and strict meaning, characters. Meanwhile C. had been made acquainted may be defined as that which determines the course with the conclusions of the acute mathematician, of events, in the absence of law, ordinary causation, Dr. Thomas Young (q. v.), respecting the phonetic or providence. Strictly speaking, it is an idea which use of hieroglyphic signs. Without doubt, it was few would now be disposed to admit as correspondthis important discovery, of which Dr. Young, how-ing to anything which really exists; the religious mind excluding it as inconsistent with the belief in the Divine government, and the philosophical mind rejecting it as inconsistent with a recognition of universal laws of causation. As a word, however, it has always been, and always will be popularly accepted; and its use is correct so far as we overlook, or choose for the moment to throw out of view, the more universal connection of events, and regard them as their emergence, on a superficial view, appears to be determined. The idea of C., as referring to some apparently capricious or at least inexplicable cause of an event, distinguishes it from the word probability, or the degree with which the expectation of an event approves itself to a particular mind, the first expressing what metaphysicians would call on objective, and the second a subjective idea. It is clear that C., being

ever, made no great use, that set C. on the right track of investigation, and led to those brilliant results which were regarded by Niebuhr as constituting the greatest discovery of the century. By a comparison of the name of Ptolemy on the Rosetta Stone with that of Cleopatra on the Philensian obelisk, he was enabled to lay the foundation of an alphabet, which he continued to eleborate until it now forms the basis of modern Egyptian archæology. His first decisive discoveries were made known in his celebrated Lettre à Mons. Dacier (Par. 1822), which was followed by the Précis du Système Hieroglyphique (Paris, 1824; second ed. 1828); but his principal work, the Grammaire Egyptienne, was posthumously published in 1836.

In 1824, appeared his Panthéon Egyptien; and, in 1825, his celebrated letters to the Duc de Blacas,

CHANA'K-KALESSI' (Turkish, 'Pot Castle'), a town of Anatolia, deriving its name from its manufactures of crockery, is situated on the Dardanelles, about 28 miles south-west of Gallipoli. Its castle is the most important on the Dardanelles, which name is sometimes given to the town itself. Pop. some 3000 or 4000.


though their powers and duties are very various. In Austria, Prince Metternich was 'C. of the House, of the Court, and of the State; ' and in Prussia, Prince Hardenberg enjoyed a similar title. In Russia, the title of Vice-C. of the Empire is often given to the minister of foreign affairs. Besides these statepre-chancellors, there were officers in many other capacities to whom the title was given. Every bishop has his C. in the Church of Rome, and there are still Law C. of cathedrals, dioceses, universities, &c.

only legitimate as an expression in popular parlance | -or if admitted as a term in philosophy, one that would at once lead into the most inextricable problems-is a term which is much too indefinite to admit of any kind of measurement; while what we call probability, or the degree with which an expectation approves itself, owing to certain data sented to the mind, does, as we shall hereafter see, admit of a kind of measurement which leads to very important consequences. For these reasons, the consideration of what is sometimes called the

Doctrine of Chances, but what is more properly the Theory of Probabilities, will be found under the


CHA'NCEL (Fr.; Lat. cancellus, a screen). The C. was, and in some churches is still, separated from the nave by a screen of lattice-work, so as to prevent general access thereto, though not to interrupt either sight or sound. As it was in this part of the C. that the service was always C. that the service was always performed previous to the Reformation, the clergy were held to have a special right to it, in return for which its repairs in general still fall on the impropriator, rector, or vicar, and not on the parish. The chief pew in the C belongs to the rector or impropriator, but the disposal of the seats in the church, with this exception, belongs to the ordinary, or, practically, to the churchwardens, to whom the authority of the ordinary is delegated. No monument, moreover, can be set up without the ordinary's consent. The term C. is usually confined to parish churches which have no aisles around the choir, or chapels behind it or around it; and in this case the C. and the choir have the same signification. But in larger churches there are sometimes chancels at the ends of the side aisles, and this whether the choir has the character of a choir in the larger sense, or of a chancel. See


CHANCELLOR (Lat. cancellarius). It is said that the chief notary or scribe of the Roman emperor was called C, either because he was intrusted with the power of obliterating, cancelling, or crossing out (cancellare, to make lattice-work) such expressions in the edicts of the prince as seemed to him to be at variance with the laws, or otherwise erroneous; or because he sat intra cancellos, within the lattice-work or railings (cancelli) which were erected to protect the emperor from the crowding of the people when he sat in judgment. Neither the title nor the office of C. is at all peculiar to England. The C. of France (Chancelier de France), from a very early time, was an officer of state of great power and diguity, under whom several other officers, bearing also the title of C., were employed in the administration of justice and in the defence of the public order. The C. of France was the constitutional interpreter of the will of the sovereign; his functions being, on the whole, analogous to those exercised by the C. of England. As an instance in the change of the value of money, not more remarkable than many which could be cited in our own country, it may be mentioned that, in 1290, the salary of this high official was six sous a day, with the privilege, to him and his, of eating at the court. When he was at Paris, and ate at his own lodgings, he had twenty-sous a day. The office was abolished at the Revolution; and though it was restored by the Bourbons, and even under the first Napoleon the higher-sounding title of Archi-chancelier was revived, many of the functions of the old C. were transferred to the minister of justice, and have ever since been held by him.


In certain more

CHANCELLOR, LORD. There can be no doubt that the existence of the office in England, as in the other states of Europe, is to be ascribed to the infiuence which the constitution of the Roman empire had on the constitutions of the modern nations. This the medium of the church, the profession of the law influence was exercised in no small measure through being generally exercised by ecclesiastics; and it is for this reason, probably, that the bishop and the king are furnished with officers bearing the same title, and exercising analogous functions. The C. is always the confidential adviser of the sovereign in state affairs. It is for this reason that he has been called the keeper of his conscience, and that in England it is to him alone that can be constitutionally that, namely, of modifying legal by equitable conconfided the most special function of sovereigntythe chief distinction exists between the C. and all It is in this latter prerogative that other judges; for, whilst they are held by the letter of the law, he, in theory at all events, is entitled to modify it juxta bonum et æquum. special points of view, there is a similarity between the functions of the chancellors in different states. In all of them he seems to have had the supervision of all charters, letters, and such other public instruments of the crown as were authenticated in the most solemn manner; and therefore when seals came into use, he had always the custody of the sovereign's great seal.'-Stephen's Commentaries, vol. iii. p. 398. It is from this last-mentioned circumstance that the office of C. or Keeper (q. v.), which, by 5 Elizabeth, c. 18, is declared to be exactly the same, is created without writ or patent, by the mere delivery of the great seal, and that the C., if a baron, takes precedency of every temporal lord not a member of the royal family, and of all bishops. except the Archbishop of Canterbury. The C. is a privy-councillor by his office, a member of the cabinet, and prolocutor, or speaker of the House of Lords, by prescription. Though the form in which his tenure of office is terminated, is by the resumption of the great seal by the sovereign, the C. practically resigns office with the party to which he is attached. He has the appointment of all justices of the peace throughout the kingdom, but this privilege he exercises generally on the recommendation of the lord-lieutenants. But the most important, and, as it now seems, somewhat anomalous branch of his patronage, arises out of his having been originally an ecclesiastic. Though the last bishop who held the office was John Williams, Archbishop of York, who was Lord Keeper from July 10, 1621, to November 1, 1625, the C. still continues to be patron of all the crown livings of the value of £20 per annum, or under, in the King's Books-i. c., according to a valuation made in the time of Henry VIII., and confirmed in that of Elizabeth--and visitor of all hospitals and colleges of the king's foundation. As representing the character of the sovereign, again, the C. is the general guardian of all infants, idiots, and lunatics, and has the supervision. of all charitable uses in the kingdom. As regards his judicial patronage, the arrangement is, that the C. appoints in general all the judges of the superior courts, except the two chief-justices, who


In most of the other countries of Europe there are officers of state who bear this, or analogous titles,

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in the lists given in Crawford's Officers of State, aud
Chalmers's Caledonia. On the abolition of the
office, a Keeper of the Great Seal was appointed,
who acts merely ministerially in affixing it to the
writs which pass under it. See GREAT SEAL.

nominated by the prime-minister of the day. Of infe-
rior appointments, the latter also has reserved to him
the commissioners of bankruptcy and the judges
of the county-courts. All these function.s the C.
performs in addition to his extensive duties as the
supreme judge of the Court of Chancery, both as
an ordinary court of common law and of record, and
as an extraordinary court of equity. Much inconve-
nience has arisen from the accumulation of duties in
the single person of this high dignitary, and various
expedients have been devised for lessening the evil.
Vice-chancellors have been appointed, and the duties
of the Master of the Rolls have been extended. The
appointment of a Minister of Justice to share the
C.'s duties has often been discussed, but the change
is too fundamental to find favour in England; and
temporary alleviations of the evil alone are
to be considered practicable, till it assumes dimensions
which render it absolutely intolerable. The salary
of the C. is £10,000 a year, and he has an annuity
of £5000 on his retirement from office. The style
of the C., since the union with Scotland, has been
Lord High Chancellor of great Britain; but he has
scarcely any jurisdiction in Scotland, and in Ireland
there is a separate C., having powers in most re-
spects the same as those of the C. of Great Britain.
To slay the C. is treason under 25 Edward III. c. 2.

CHANCELLOR OF OF A CATHEDRAL is an officer who superintends the arrangements for the celebration of the religious services. His office is quite distinct from that of the

CHANCELLOR OF A DIOCESE, who, as vicar-general to the bishop, is an ecclesiastical judge, appointed to assist the bishop in questions of ecclesiastical law, and hold his courts for him. By 37 Hen. VIII. c. 17, it is provided that the C. of a diocese may be a layman, whether married or single, provided he be doctor of the civil law, lawfully create and made in some university. By the canons of 1603, he must be a bachelor of law, at the least, or a master of arts. There are certain cases, however, in which the bishop must sit in person. In case of complaint against a clerk in holy orders, for any ecclesiastical offence against the Church Discipline Act (3 and 4 Vict. c. 86), the bishop is to hear the cause, assisted by three assessors; of whom the dean of his cathedral, or one of his archdeacons, or his chancellor, must be one; and a serjeant-at-law, or an advocate who has practised five years in the court of the archbishop of the province, or a barrister of seven years' standing, another.

CHANCELLOR OF A UNIVERSITY. The highest honorary office connected with a university is generally that of chancellor. See UNIVERSITY.

CHANCELLOR OF SCOTLAND. Previous to the union of the two kingdoms in 1707, when the office was abolished, the C. of S. performed functions in many respects analogous to those which belong to the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain. He presided in parliament, and was the head of all the courts of judicature; he was the chief counsellor of the king, and keeper of the great seal. From the fact of the distinction between law and equity in the English sense never having been recognised in Scotland, the C. had no judicial functions separate from those of the ordinary courts of law, but he had the principal direction of the Chancery, the constitution of which is described below. In early times, the C. of S., as of England, was very frequently an ecclesiastic; but the first, Constantine, Earl of Fife, in the reign of Alexander I., and the last, the Earl of Seafield, who held the office at the Union, were both laymen; and many other nobles, Earls of Argyle, Angus, Huntly, &c., appear


AND CHAND-MEDLEY, or MELLÉ (Fr. chaud, hot; and mêlée, a fray), as it is called in Scotland, are French expressions borrowed by our law. Though often spoken of as synonymous, they are, in reality, distinct in meaning-the one signifying a casual affray; the other, an affray in the heat of blood or passion. Both ised as pleas in mitigation of the offence of are in this country, and in most others, recoghomicide (q. v.). See also SANCtuary.

CHANCERY (Lat. cancelaria). As the Roman emperors, and after them the various sovereigns who divided the vast inheritance of the empire, had each a Chancellor (q. v.), so in every European kingdom there was an establishment called a C., where these officers performed their functions. If we imagine a large chamber divided by lattice-work (cancelli), the outer half devoted to the people, the inner occupied by the chancellor and his subordinates, engaged in framing edicts, letters of nobility, and the like, and engrossing thera on parchment, and sealing them with the king's own seal in proof of their authenticity, and then handing them through the railings to the people without, we shall have a pretty good conception of the C. in its earliest form.

In France, as there were subordinate chancellors attached to the parliaments of the respective provinces, so there were subordinate chanceries; but the grand C. of France, which followed the person of the king, was alone, in strictness, entitled to the name.

The apostolic C. at Rome, in which, in addition to the documents pertaining to his temporal sovereignty, the bulls and briefs of the pope are authenticated, is presided over by a cardinal, with the title of Vice-chancellor.

CHANCERY, or CHANCELLARY, of Scotland, is a public office in the General Register House, at Edinburgh, managed by the director of C. and his deputies, in which all charters, patents of dignities, gifts of offices, remissions, legitimations, presentations, commissions, brieves, retours, and other writs appointed to pass the great and quarter seals, are

recorded. See GREAT SEAL.

CHANCERY, COURT OF, IN ENGLAND. Besides the functions pertaining to the chancellor in other countries, the Chancellor of England had early assigned to him the office of a judge; and the English C. consequently became a court of law, the peculiar character of which will be rendered intelligible by the following considerations: In assigning judicial functions to the chancellor's department, it was not intended that it should interfere with that other department of government which has everywhere been distinguished both from the legislative and the executive-viz., the judicial. But in all departments, according to the imperial theory from which the idea of the C. at least was derived, the sovereign was supreme, and to his will, or to his sense of justice, there was consequently an appeal in judicial, as in other matters. His chancellor, however, was his adviser in all matters whatsoever; and thus, though not a judge in the stricter sense, it is manifest that his counsel, in judicial matters of the highest importance, would constantly be called in. But further, the king governed by laws, even before he was governed by them; and for the sake of order and his own convenience, he would naturally depart

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