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plant intensely bitter and highly aromatic. Its CHAMOND, Sr., a town of France, in the departmedicinal virtues are ascribed to the essential oil ment of Loire, situated at the confluence of the Gier which it contains, Oil of Chamomile, which abounds and the Ban, about 7 miles north-east of St. Etienne, most of all in the involucre. This oil is of a on the railway between that place and Lyon. It is greenish-yellow colour, and is used in the prepara- a flourishing well-built town, with extensive manution of some medicines. The dried flowers are factures of ribbons and stay-laces. C. has also often administered in the form of an infusion, as a several silk-mills and numerous iron furnaces and stimulant of the nerves of the abdomen, an alterative foundries; and extensive coal-mines exist in the and antispasmodic; or are applied to the skin as vicinity. Pop. 10,100. an anodyne, and on account of their power of CHAMORERIL, a lake of Ladakh or Middle promoting absorption and suppuration. The infu- Tibet, in lat. 32° 55' N., and long. 78° 15' E. It lies sion also acts as an emetic, and is often used to at a height of 15,000 feet above the sea, on the assist the action of other emetics. C. flowers find plateau between the upper waters of the Sutlej and

of the Indus, girt by mountains which rise, at some points, 5000 feet above its own level. Though it is beyond the recognised limits of perpetual congelation, yet it freezes only in winter, and is hence supposed to be of great depth. Necessarily receiving much water from the surrounding mountains, it is without any visible outlet-evaporation alone, even at this elevation, appearing to maintain one uniform surface on a length of 15 miles, and a width of 21.

CHAMOUNI, or CHAMONIX (Lat. Campus munitus), is the name of a wild and romantic valley. and village among the Alps in Savoy. It lies at a distance from all the high roads, at an elevation of about 3400 feet above the level of the sea, and more than 2000 feet above tliat of the Lake of Geneva.

The valley is about 13 miles long, and about 2 broad, and is traversed by the Arve. It is bounded at the east end by the Col de Balme, over which there is a mule-path to Martigny, in the upper valley of the Rhone, and from the other end issues the road to Geneva, which lies at a distance of 537 miles from Chamouni. On the north side lies Mont

Breven and the chain of the Aiguilles Rouges, and Chamomile (Anthemis nobilis).

on the south, the giant group of Mont Blanc, from

which enormous glaciers or rivers of ice slide down, a place in the pharmacopeia, and are also amongst even in summer, almost to the bottom of the valley. the most esteemed of domestic medicines, the plant The chief of these glaciers are—the Glacier des being extensively cultivated for their sake, and very Bossons, des Bois, d'Argentière, and du Tour. By generally finding a place even in cottage gardens. ascending to a point called Montanvert, we come Yet they ought to be used with caution, as they upon the upper course of a glacier, where it expands have been known to produce congestion of the brain, into a great mountain-lake of ice called the Mer de and are very apt to aggravate any malady of this Glace, in which there is a solitary rock or oasis kind already existing. A double-flowering variety calleil Le Jardin, about seven acres in extent, and of C. is more generally cultivated than the single, to covered with the most beautiful herbage. The supply the C. flowers of the shops, the flowers being excursion to the Jardin is one of the most striking whiter and more bulky, but it is otherwise rather excursions within the range of Chamouni. Until inferior. C. is easily propagated by parting the 1741, the valley was almost unknown; the region roots. It delights in a dry and rather poor soil. was considered a wilderness, and known by the The name Wild C. is given to a very similar plant, name of Les Montagnes Maudites, or accursed also a native of Britain (Matricaria Chamomilla), an mountains. In the above year, it was visited by annual belonging to a genus closely allied to Anthe two Englishmen, Pocock and Wyndham, who mis

. It may readily be distinguished by the want of ascended as far as Montanvert; and a granite block scales on the receptacle. Its medicinal virtues there still bears the name of the Englishmen's resemble those of common C., and although now Stone. It was only, however, in 1775, that the attendisused in Britain, it is in some parts of Europe tion of travellers was effectually called to it by preferred for internal use, because it is less bitter, Saussure and Bourrit

. The valley is rich in peculiar less pauseous, and generally milder and more plants, and furnishes an aromatic and perfectly agreeable in its operation.—No small quantity of white honey. The village of C. owes its origin 10 common C. is illegally used in the manufacture of the Benedictine convent founded between 1088 and beer in England, and is imported from Germany for 1099. The population of the village is about 2000, this purpose. Yet this plant is so abundant in some who depend partly upon the strangers who visit the parts of the south of England as to form a principal valley, and partly upon the pastures and upon part of the pasture in sheep-walks, and to fill the hunting. There are several good hotels, and the whole air with its scent. The other British species best guides are to be found here for the neighbourof C. (Anthemis) are mere weeds; one of them, ing Alps. It is from C. that Mont Blanc is usually called Stinking C. (A. Cotula), is so acrid as to

ascended. blister the fingers, if much handled. But the flowers CHAMPAC (Michelia Champaca), an Indian of the Ox-EYE C., or Dyer's C. (A. tinctoria), a tree, possessing great beauty both of foliage and native of many parts of the continent of Europe, flowers, and inuch venerated both by Brahmanists yield a beautiful yellow dye, on account of which and Briddhists. Images of Buddha are made of its the plant is often cultivated.

wood. Its flowers have a pale-yellow tint, and a




sweet oppressive perfume, much celebrated in the simply charging other light wines with carbonic poetry of the Hindus.

acid gas. Recently the German purveyors have CHAMPAGNE, formerly a province of France, Rhenish, Main, Neckar, Mejssner, and Naumburg

succeeded in preparing light wines

such as now forining the departments of Seine-et-Marne, Aube, Yonne, Haute-Saone, and Ardennes. The connoisseur. Aliogether, it is estimated that the

—so much like genuine C., aś to deceive even the province was about 180 miles long by 150 broad, district produces 1,100,000 hectolitres (24,200,000 its surface presenting extensive plains with ranges gallons) of genuine C., of which, however, the finest


growths make but a small part. these hills is grown the famous Chanıpagne wine.

In ancient times, C. was known as a part of CHAMPARTY, or CHAMPERTY (Fr., from Gallia, was subjugated by Cæsar, and afterwards Lat. campi partitio, a division of lands), an offence was annexed to the kingdom established by the known to the law of England, which consists in a Franks. After the 11th c., it had its own dukes, bargain between the plaintiff or defendant in a suit, who were vassals of the French kings. By the and a third party, generally a lawyen that the latter marriage of Philippe IV. with Joanna, heiress to shall have part of the land, debt, or other thing sued the kingdom of Navarre, Champagne, and Brie, for, in the event of success, and that in the meanC., in 1284, came to the French crown, and was time he shall carry on the suit at his own expense. incorporated by Philippe VI. in 1328. During the This practice has been strictly forbidden by statute campaign of 1792, the eastern part, and, in the in England from very early times (3 Edward I., c. campaign of 1814, the western part, of C., was the 25; 13 Edward I., c. 49; &c.); and in Scotland, chief arena of warfare.

the rule of the civil law by which the pactum de CHAMPAGNE WINE the produce of quotà litis (q. v.) was held to be a pactum illicitum vineyards in the above-mentioned province of (9. V.), and as such void, has all along been Champagne. There are white and red Champagnes ; forbidden by statute to members of the College the white is either sparkling or still. Sparkling or effervescent (mousseux) C. is the result of a peculiar of Justice (1594, c. 216). There is this difference treatment during fermentation. In December, the between the laws of the two countries, however, wine is racked off, and fined with isinglass,' and that whereas in England the offence has always in March it is bottled and tightly corked.' The been punished criminally, in Scotland, the only fermentation being incomplete when the wine is penalty which it entails beyond nullity of the bottled, the carbonic acid gas generated in a con

bargain, is deprivation of office. In former times, fined space dissolves in the wine, and communicates the evil chiefly apprehended from C. probably was, the sparkling property to Champagne. To clear the that the honesty of judges might be tampered with by wine of sediment, the bottles are first placed in a

advocates who were generally their friends, and not sloping position with the necks downward, so that unfrequently their very near relatives, if permitted the sediment may be deposited in the necks of the

to be personaliy interested in the issue of the causes bottles. When this sediment has been poured off

, in which they were professionally employed. In some portion of a liqueur (a solution of sugar-candy

our own day, the chief danger consists in the encourin cognac) is added to the wine, and every bottle is agement which might thus be given to dishonest filled up with bright clarified wine, and securely and oppressive litigation, and the facilities which re-corked. The effervescence of the wine thus prepared bursts many bottles, in some cases 10 the agents on the opposite sides. That practices per cent.; and in seasons of early and sudden heat, closely analogous to C., though unnamed, are not as 20 . . Wine-buyers estimate the value of wine according in all countries, is but too probable. The necessities to the breakage, that which breaks most bottles being considered best. Still or non-effervescent C. table modifications into the law of C., which will be is first racked off in the March after the vintage: explained under Chose in Action. Creaming or slightly effervescent C. (demi-mousseux) CHAMPION (from a Gothic root signifying to has more alcohol, but less carbonic acid gus than contend, fight; Ang.-Sax., camp, fight). In the judi sparkling Champagne.

cial combats of the middle ages, it was allowed The best varieties of this wine are produced at to women, children, and aged persons, except in Rheims and Epernay, and generally on a chalky cases of high treason or of parricide, to appear in soil. Among white Champagnes of the first class, the lists by a representative. Such a hired comthe best are those of Sillery, which are of a fine batant was called a champion. Those who fol. amber hue, dry spirituous, and possessing a superior lowed this profession were generally of the lowest bouquet; those of Ay and Mareuil are less spirituous, class, and were held disreputable ; for besides the but are sparkling, with a pleasant bouquet. Other perils of the combat, they were liable to be executed white wines of first class are those of Ilautvilliers, as well as their clients. They were obliged to wear Dizy, Epernay, and Pierry.

a peculiar dress of leather, and peculiar armour, In the first class of red C., or Montagne, we have which was also held disreputable. They were not the varieties of Verzy, Verzenay, Mailly, St. Basle, allowed to fight on horseback, and appeared in Bouzy, and Thierry, all having fine colour, clearness, the lists with their hair and nails cut short. good body, sufficient spirit, and a pleasant bouquet. Champions are mentioned as early as in the time of The trade in Champagne wines is chiefly carried | Charlemagne: and Otto I. employed them in decidon in Rheims, Avise, Epernay, and Chalons-suring the succession to the empire. At a later period, Marne. The cellars in which the vintages are stored | in the age of Chivalry, the word C. came to have a are cut out of the calcareous rock. The fact that more dignified acceptation, and signified a knight the sale of C. is very extensive and lucrative, has who entered the lists on behalf of an injured lady, naturally given rise to adulterations. Sugar, and of a child, or of any one incapable of self-defence. the juices of pears or gooseberries, or birch-juice, In England, the crown even had its C., who, mounted &c., have been used for making spurious Champagne. on horseback and armed to the teeth, challenged, at It may fairly be reckoned that not even a third | every coronation at Westminster, all who shouid part of the wine sold for C. in Paris is genuine. deny the king to be the lawful sovereign of the three The greater part of it is readily manufactured by realms. This practice is understood to have been




United States.


first introduced under Richard II., and it continues in which he explains the names and titles of to make a part of the ceremonial of an English coro- many of the Pharaohs, written on the monuments nation to this day. The name C. was also given iu Drovetti's Egyptian Collection at Turin, and to the knight who, during a tournament, had charge attempts to class them into dynasties. His theory to see that no injury or insult should be offered to of interpretation was much controverted at first, but the assembled ladies.

its importance was recognised by such distirguished CHAMPLAI'N, a lake separating the states of

scholars as Rosellini, Bunsen, Sir William Gell, and

others. New York and Vermont, and penetrating, at its north end, about six miles into Lower Canada. It

In 1828 he was appointed by Charles X. to empties itself into the St. Lawrence, about 45 miles accompany a scientific expedition to Egypt, of which below Montreal, by the Sorel or Richelieu. It is de l'Egypte et de la Nubie (Par. 1835—1845). On

the results were given by Rosellini in the Monumens navigable throughout for vessels of about 100 tons, his return to Paris, 1830, C. was made a member having its communications improved by one canal on its own river, and by another to the Hudson. It of the Académie des Inscriptions, &c.; and, in the stretches in lat. from 43° 30' to 45° 6' N., and in following year, was appointed to the new chair of long. from 7:30 to 73° 30' W.; its extreme breadth, Egyptian Antiquities in the College of France; but

soon after the commencement of his intended course however, never exceeding 15 miles. Its principal of lectures, in May 1831, he fell ill, and died, March towns are Whitehall at the south, Plattsburg. 4, 1832. According to Silvestre de Sacy, 'few men, the west, and Burlington on the east. C., and its tributary, Lake George, have been since the birth of letters, have rendered to erudition prominent in the history of the country-during services equal to those which have consecrated to

immortality the name of Champollion.' the rivalry of France and England before the conquest of 1759-1760; during the revolutionary

CHAMPOLLION-FIGEAC, JEAN JACQUES, a disstruggle of 1774-1782; and lastly, during the war tinguished French archæologist, was born, 1778, at of 1812–1814, between Great Britain and the Figeac, in the department of Lot. After holding

in Grenoble the offices of librarian and professor

of Greek literature, he was appointed, in 1828, conCHAMPOLLION, JEAN FRANÇOIS an illustrious name in modern Egyptian archæology, was born servator of MSS. in the Imperial Library in Paris; December 23, 1790, at Figeac, in the department from office by Carnot. În 1849, he was appointed,

but, after the February revolution, was deposed of Lot, France. In 1801, he was introduced to by Louis Napoleon, librarian of the palace of FonBaron Fourier, secretary to the Institut d'Egypte, tainebleau. Beside the Antiquités de Grenoble (1807), who initiated 'him into the science of Egyptian his chief works include the Annales des Lagidés antiquities. In 1807, C. went to Paris, in order and Egypte Ancienne (forming a part of L'Univers to pursue, with studies; and, in 1809, was appointed professor of Pittoresque); Les Tournois du Roi René, a splendid

work, with lithographs by Motte; and several publihistory in the Lyceum of Grenoble. In 1811, he

cations of old French documents. Since the death published his work, L'Egypte sous les Pharaons of his younger and more celebrated brother, C. has intended as the forerunner of a more elaborate work been employed in editing the Mss. left by that on Egypt, of which only the geographical section distinguished scholar, and has given an account of appeared, in 1814. In his endeavour to decipher them in the Notice sur les Manuscrits Autographes de the Rosetta Stone, C. laboured under the error of Champollion le Jeune (Par. 1842). He died May, 1867. supposing that in this inscription the hieroglyphics

His son, Aimé CHAMPOLLION-FIGEAC, follows the were wholly ideographic, and the demotic and hieratic characters wholly phonetic. Afterwards, published several interesting, useful works.

same path of historical antiquarianism, and has he was led to believe that the hieratic characters were of the same nature as the hieroglyphic, and

CHANA'K-KALESSI' (Turkish, “Pot Castle'), a this conviction he expressed in a communication town of Anatolia, deriving its name from its manui made to the Académie des Inscriptions, in August factures of crockery, is situated on the Dardanelles,

In the same year he published his essay, about 28 miles south-west of Gallipoli. Its castle is Sur l'Ecriture Hiératique des Anciens Egyptiens the most important on the Dardanelles, which name (Grenoble), a work which is now scarce.

In this is sometimes given to the town itself. Pop. some essay he continued to assert the common ideo- 3000 or 4000. graphic nature of both hieroglyphic and hieratic CHANCE, in its original and strict meaning, characters. Meanwhile C. had been made acquainted may be defined as that which determines the course with the conclusions of the acute mathematician, of events, in the absence of law, ordinary causation, Dr. Thomas Young (q. v.), respecting the phonetic or providence. Strictly speaking, it is an idea which use of hieroglyphic signs. Without doubt, it was few would now be disposed to admit as correspond: this important discovery, of which Dr. Young, how-ing to anything which really exists; the religious ever, made no great use, that set C. on the right mind excluding it as inconsistent with the belief in track of investigation, and led to those brilliant re- the Divine government, and the philosophical mind sults which were regarded by Niebuhr as constitut- rejecting it as inconsistent with a recognition of ing the greatest discovery of the century. By a universal laws of causation. As a word, however, « comparison of the name of Ptolemy on the Rosetta it has always been, and always will be popularly Stone with that of Cleopatra on the Philensian accepted; and its use is correct so far as we overobelisk, he was enabled to lay the foundation of look, or choose for the moment to throw out of an alphabet, which he continued to eleborate until view, the more universal connection of events, and it now forms the basis of modern Egyptian archæ- regard them as their emergence, on a superficial ology. His first decisive discoveries were made view, appears to be determined. The idea of C., known in his celebrated Lettre à Mons. Dacier as referring to some apparently capricious or at : (Par. 1822), which was followed by the Précis du least inexplicable cause of an event, distinguishes Système Hiéroglyphique (Paris, 1824 ; second ed. it from the word probability, or the degree with 1828); but his principal work, the Grammaire which the expectation of an event approves itself Egyptienne, was posthumously published in 1836. to a particular mind, the first expressing what

In 1824, appeared his Panthéon Egyptien; and, in metaphysicians would call on objective, and the 1825, his celebrated letters to the Duc do Blacas, 1 second a subjective idea. It is clear that C., being

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only legitimate as an expression in popular parlance | though their powers and duties are very various. In -or iť admitted as a term in philosophy, one that Austria, Prince Metternich was 'C. of the House, of would at once lead into the most inextricable prob- the Court, and of the State ; ' and in Prussia, Prince lems--is a term which is much too indefinite to Hardenberg enjoyed a similar title. In Russia, the admit of any kind of measurement; while what we title of Vice-C. of the Empire is often given to call probability, or the degree with which an expec- the minister of foreign affairs. Besides these statetation approves itself, owing to certain data pre-chancellors, there were officers in many other capisented to the mind, does, as we shall hereafter see, cities to whom the title was given. Every bishop admit of a kind of measurement which leads to has his C. in the Church of Rome, and there are very important consequences. For these reasons, still Law C. of cathedrals, dioceses, universities, &c. the consideration of what is sometimes called the

CHANCELLOR, Lord. There can be no doubt Doctrine of Chances, but what is more properly that the existence of the office in England, as in the the Theory of Probabilities, will be found under the other states of Europe, is to be ascribed to the infiuhead of PROBABILITY,

ence which the constitution of the Roman empire had c. was, and in some churches is still, separated the medium of the church, the profession of the law CHA'NCEL (Fr. ; Lat. cancellus, a screen). The on the constitutions of the modern nations. This

influence was exercised in no small measure through from the nave by a screen of lattice-work, so as to prevent general access thereto, though not to being generally exercised by ecclesiastics ; and it is interrupt either sight or sound. As it was in this

for this reason, probably, that the bishop and the part of the c. that the service was always title, and exercising analogous functions. The C. is

king are furnished with officers bearing the same perfornied previous to the Reformation, the clergy were held to have a special right to it, in return always the confidential adviser of the sovereign in

sta:c affairs. It is for this reason that he has been for which its repairs in general still fall on the called the keeper of his conscience, and that in Engimpropriator, rector, or vicar, and not parish. The chief pew in the c belongs to the land it is to him alone that can be constitutionally

confided the most special function of sovereigntyrector or impropriator, but the disposal of the seats in the church, with this exception, belongs to the that, namely, of modifying legal by equitable con

siderations. It is in this latter prerogative that ordinary, or, practically, to the church wardens, to

the chief distinction exists between the C. and all whom the authority of the ordinary is delegated: other jr:dges; for, whiist they are held by the letter No monument, moreover, can be set up without of the liv, he, in theory at all events, is entitled to the ordinary's consent. confined to parish churches which have no aisles modify it juxta bonum et æquum. In certain more around the choir, or chapels behind it or around special points of view, there is a similarity between it; and in this case the C. and the choir have the the functions of the chancellors in different states. same signification. But in larger churches there In all of them he sems to have had the superare sometimes chancels at the ends of the side vision of a.l charters, letters, and such other public aisles, and this whether the choir has the character instruments of the crown as were authenticated of a choir in the larger sense, or of a chancel. See in the most solemn manner; and therefore when

seals came into use, le had always the custody of

the sovereign's great seal. —Stephen's Commentaries, CHANCELLOR (Lat, cancellarius). It is said vol. iii. p. 398. It is from this last-mentioned that the chief notary or scribe of the Roman circumstance that the office of C. or Keeper (q. v.

7.), emperor was called

was called C., either because he was which, by 5 Elizabeth, c. 18, is declared to be exactly intrusted with the power of obliterating, cancelling, the same, is created without writ or patent, by the or crossing out (cancellare, to make lattice-work) mere delivery of the great seal, and that the C., if a such expressions in the edicts of the prince as baron, takes precedency of every temporal lord not seemed to him to be at variance with the laws, a member of the royal family, and of all bishops or otherwise erroneous; or because he sat intra except the Archbishop of Canterbury. The C. is a cancellos, within the lattice-work or railings (cancelli) privy-councillor by his oflice, a member of the which were erected to protect the emperor from the cabinet, and prolocutor, or speaker of the House crowding of the people when he sat in judgment. of Lords, by prescription. Though the form in Neither the title nor the office of C. is at all which his tenure of office is terminated, is by the peculiar to England. The C. of France (Chancelier resumption of the great seal by the sovereign, the de France), from a very early time, was an officer of C. practically resigns office with the party to which state of great power and dignity, under whion several he is attached. He has the appointment of all other officers, bearing also the title of C., were justices of the peace throughout the kingdom, but einployed in the adıninistration of justice and in the this privilege he exercises generally on the recomdefence of the public order. The C. of France was mendation of the lord-lieutenants. But the most the constitutional interpreter of the will of the sove- important, and, as it now secms, somewhat anomreign; his functions being, on the whole, analogous alous branch of his patronage, arises out of his to those exercised by the C. of England. As ün having been originally an ecclesiastic. Though the instance in the change of the value of money, not last bishop who held the office was John Williams, more remarkable than many which could be cited in Archbishop of York, who was Lord Keeper from July our own country, it may be mentioned that, in 1290, 10, 16:1, to November 1, 1625, the C. still continues the salary of this high official was six sous a day, to be patron of all the crown livings of the value of with the privilege, to him and his, of eating at the £20 per annum, or under, in the King's Books—i. (.,

When he was at Paris, and ate at his own according to a valuation made in the time of Henry lodgings, he had twenty-sous a day. The office was VIII., and confirmed in that of Elizabetlimand visitor abolished at the Revolution ; and though it was of all hospitals and colleges of the king's foundarestored by the Bourbons, and even under the first tion. As representing the character of ihe Napoleon the higher-sounding title of Archi-chan- sovereign, again, the C. is the general guardian of all celier was revived, many of the functions of the old | infants, idiots, and lunatics, and has tlie supervision C. were transferred to the minister of justice, and of all charitable uses in the kingdom. As regards have ever since been held by him.

his judicial patronage, the arrangement is, that ihe In most of the other countries of Europe there are i C. appoints in general all the judges of the superior officers of state who bear this, or analogous tiiles, I courts, except the two chief-justices, who





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nominated by the prime-minister of the day. Of infc- l in the lists given in Crawford's Oficcrs of State, aunt rior appointments, the latter also has reserved to him Chalmers's Caledonia. On the

bojon of the the commissioners of bankruptcy and the judges office, a Keeper of the Great Seal was appointed, of the county-courts. All these functions the C. who acts nierely ministerially in affixing it to the performs in addition to his extensive duties as the writs which pass under it. See GREAT SEAL. supreme judge of the Court of Chaucery, both as CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER. an ordinary court of common law and of record, and See ExCHEQUER. as an extraordinary court of equity. Much ir:convenience has arisen from the accumulation of duties in


CHAND-MEDLEY, the single person of this high dignitary, and various or MELLÉ (Tr. chaud, hot; and méiée, a fray), expedients have been devised for lessening the evil. as it is called in Scotland, are French expressions Vice-chancellors have been appointed, and the duties borrowed by our law. Though often spoken of as of the Master of the Rolls have been extended. The synonymous, they are, in reality, distinct in meanappointment of a Minister of Justice to share the ing--the one signifying a casual affray; the other, C.'s duties bas often been discussed, but the change an affray in the heat of blood or passion. Both is too fundamental to find favour in England ; and are in this country, and in most others, recogtemporary alleviations of the evil alone are likely :ised as pleas in mitigation of the offence of to be considered practicable, till it assumes dimension's homicide (q. v.). See also SANCTUARY. which render it absolutely intolerable. The salary CIIA'NCERY (Lat. cancelaria). As the Roman of the C. is £10,000 a year, and he lias an annuity emperors, and after them the various sorereigns of £5000 on his retirement from office. The style who divided the vast inheritance of the empire, had of the C., since the union with Scotland, has been each a Chancellor (q. v.), so in every European Lord High Chancellor of great Britain ; but he has kingdom there was an establishment called a C., scarcely any jurisdiction in Scotland, and in Ireland where these officers performed their functions. If there is a separate C., having powers in most re- we imagine a large chamber divided by lattice-work spects the same as those of the C. of Great Britain. (cancelli), the outer half devoted to the people, the To slay the C. is treason under 25 Edward III. c. 2. inner occupied by the chancellor and his subordi

nates, engaged in framing edicts, letters of nobility, CHANCELLOR OF A CATHEDRAL is

and the like, and engrossirg them on parchment, officer who superintends the arrangements for the and sealing them with the king's own seal in proof of celebration of the religious services. His office is

His office is their authenticity, and then landing them through quite distinct from that of the

the railings to the people without, we shall have a CHANCELLOR OF A DIOCESE, who, as pretty good conception of the C. in its earliest form. vicar-general to the bishop, is an ecclesiastical In France, as there were subordinate chancellors judge, appointed to assist the bishop in questions attached to the parliaments of the respective proof ecclesiastical law, and hold his courts for him. vinces, so there were subordinate chanceries ; but By 37 Hen. VIII. c. 17, it is provided that the C. the grand C. of France, which followed the person of a diocese may be a layman, whether married of the king, was alone, in strictness, entitled to the or single, provided he be doctor of the civil law, name. lawfully create and made in some university. By Tlie apostolic C. at Rome, in which, in addition the canons of 16t3, he must be a bachelor of

to the documents pertaining to his temporal sorelaw, at the least, or a master of arts. There are reignty, the bulls and briefs of the pope are authencertain cases, however, in which the bishop must ticated, is presided over by a cardinal, with the sit in person. In case of complaint against a clerk title of Vice-chancellor. in holy orders, for any ecclesiastical offence

CHANCERY, or CHANCELLARY, of Scotland, against the Church Discipline Act (3 and 4 Vict. is a public office in the General Register House, at c. 86), the bishop is to hear the cause, assisted by Edinburgh, managed by the director of C. and his three assessors; of whom the dean of his cathe-deputies, in which all charters, patents of dignities, dral, or one of his archdeacons, or his chancellor, gifts of offices, remissions, legitimations, present:must be one ; and a serjeant-at-law, or an advocate | tions, commissions, brieves, retours, and other writs who has practised five years in the court of the appointed to pass the great and quarter seals, are archbishop of the province, or a barrister of seven

recorded. See GREAT SEAL. years' standing, another.


The the functions pertaining to the chancellor in other highest honorary office connected with a university | countries, the Chancellor of England had early is generally that of chancellor. See UNIVERSITY.

assigned to him the office of a judge; and the English CHANCELLOR OF SCOTLAND. Previous to C. consequently became a court of law, the peculiar the union of the two kingdoms in 1707, when the character of which will be rendered intelligible by office was abolished, the C. of S. performed func- the following considerations : In assigning judicial tions in many respects analogous to those which functions to the chancellor's department, it was belong to the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain. not intended that it should interfere with that other He presided in parliament, and was the head of all department of government which has everywhere the courts of judicature; he was the chief coun- been distinguished both from the legislative and sellor of the king, and keeper of the great seal. the executivem-viz., the judicial. But in all departFrom the fact of the distinction between law and ments, according to the imperial theory from which equity in the English sense nerer having been the idea of the C. at least was derived, the sovereign recognised in Scotland, the C. had no judicial func- was supreme, and to his will, or to his sense of tions separate from those of the ordinary courts of justice, there was consequently an appeal in judicial, law, but he had the principal direction of the as in other matters. His chancellor, however, was Chancery, the constitution of which is described his adviser in all matters whatsoever; and thus, below. In early times, the C. of S., as of England, though not a judge in the stricter sense, it is maniwas very frequently an ecclesiastic; but the first, fest that his counsel, in judicial matters of the Constantine, Earl of Fife, in the reign of Alexander I., highest importance, would constantly be called in. and the last, the Earl of Seafield, who held the office But further, the king governed by laws, even before at the Union, were both laymen; and many other he was governed by them; and for the sake of order nobles, Earls of Argyle, Angiis, Huntly, &c., appear and his own convenience, he would raturally depars


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