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from the letter of the law which he had established, belongs to him, and their existence does not preonly where it could be shown to him that it did not judice his right to sit alone. The lords justices meet the substantial justice of the particular case. possess the same authority in matters of lunacy as He would consequently be a judge, not of the inter- the chancellor; and they, sitting together, constipretation or application of the law, which he would tute, without the chancellor, the Court of Appeal in leave to his ordinary judges, but of its adequacy to Bankruptcy. An appeal, which may also be entere circumstances which had changed, or had not been tained by the Lord Chancellor sitting alone, lies to anticipated; and when he interfered, it would be to this court, from the Master of the Rolls, and from soine extent in the character of a legislator, as well each of the vice-chancellors; and from these appelas of a judge. The king would thus be a judge in late jurisdictions there is an appeal in turn to the equity ; in the popular and intelligible sense of that House of Lords. The lords justices may also take word; and acting in this capacity himself, it would | up original causes, though these, in practice, are be in this capacity that he would call in the aid of mainly confined to the vice-chancellors, and the his chancellor. It is not inysterious, then, how in Master of the Rolls. Till recently, certain parts of early times the Court of C. came to be a court of the equitable jurisdiction of the Court of C. were equity: and the chief difficulty regarding its origin confided to the Masters in Ordinary (See MASTELS seems to attach to the other of the two great In CHANCERY) and the Accountant-general. The departments into which it is divided, and in which office of the 'masters has been abolished, but that it exercises jurisdiction as a court of common law. of the accountant continues to be one of the most But as the free constitution of England developed important connected with the court. Besides these itself, it soon became apparent that equity in the more important officers, the Court of C. bas always old despotic or patriarchal sense-in wliich it was had a large body of subordinates, registrars, taxingnot so much the administration as the making or masters, and a staff of record and writ clerks modifying of law-was inconsistent with its prin- attached to it. ciples, whether it proceeded from a judge or from To the common-law jurisdiction of the Court of the monarch himself. The popular sense of equity C. belong all matters by and against the crown, was consequently abandoned; and a technical sense, which are not, as matters of revenue, cognizable unknown to the jurisprudence of every other nation, in the Court of Exchequer; and from it issue all was given to it. The proceedings of the Court of writs of habeas corpus, certiorari, prohibition, and C. 'on its equity side,' which had hitherto been a also the commissions of the peace. The Courts miere interference with law, came now to be hedged of C. have no fixed situation. On the first day in by rules and precedents as closely as those of of term, they meet at Westminster; and afterwards any court of common law. What henceforth con- the courts of the chancellor, the lords justices, and tinued to be the distinction in principle between law the vice-chancellors, meet in Lincoln's Inn; that of and equity, or between the functions of the courts the Master of the Rolls at the Rolls in Chancery of coinmon law and the Court of C., or even of the Lane. two great departments of this court itself, it is per- The Courts of C. of the counties palatine of haps impossible to state. The arbitrary line which Lancaster and Durham, and the Court of C. in has been drawn between the class of cases assigned Ireland, dispense the same equity, within the limits to the one set of courts and to the other, will be of their respective jurisdictions, as the High Court considered under EQUITY.

of Chancery. The appeal from the Lancaster Court The judicial duties of the chancellor have long is to the lords justices. From the chancellor's been shared by the Master of the Rolls, an officer decree, or that of the lords justices, it is immediate of high rank, who was originally appointed only to the House of Lords. for the superintendence of the writs and records In various colonies of the British empire, local appertaining to the common-law departments of the courts have been established in imitation of the court, but who was accustomed also to sit as a sepa- High Court of C., an institution which, froin its rate though subordinate judge on the equity side. cumbrous, anomalous, and unscientific character, The disputes which had arisen regarding his powers scarcely merited imitation; but in America, though were set at rest by 3 Geo. II. c. 30, which declares the distinction between law and equity was at first that all orders inade by him, except such as by the adopted and lorg adhered to with the tenacity with course of the court are appropriated to the great seal which Englishmen cling to their native customs, it alone, shall be valid, subject nevertheless to be dis- has been abolished in the state of New York, and charged or altered by the Lord Chancellor, and so as law and equity there, as elsewhere in the world, that they shall not be enrolled till they are signed now constitute one system, administered in one by his lordship. By 3 and 4 Will. IV. c. 94, che series of tribunals of originial and appellate jurismaster's powers are further increased, and he may diction. On the continent, the English Court of now hear motions, pleas, and demurrers, as well as C. has always been a subject of ridicule ; and causes generally. The salary of the Master of the a recent French writer, in speaking of it, says: Rolls (q. v.) is £6000 a year. The vast increase of Nothing ever comes to an end in it; and the business, and the still greater increase of arrears, I unhappy man who has a process there, can be sure during the previous half-oentury, rendered it neces- of but one thing—-viz., that whether he gains it or sary, in 1813 (53 Geo III., c. 24), to appoint another loses it, his ruin is certain.' The acts by which assistant to the chancellor, under the title of the evils which are inseparable from the constitution of Vice-chancellor of England; and in 1841, when the the Court of C.-and which spring from the distincequity business of the Exchequerwas transferred to / tion between law and equity, on which its very exthe C., two more vice-chancellors were added. Each istence depends have been mitigated, are the of these judges sits separately from the Lord following-15 and 16 Vict. cc. 80), 86, and 87, No. Chancellor, and their functions extend to both vember 1, 1852; and 21 and 22 Vict. c. 27. departments of the court. Their salaries are £5000

CHA 'NCRE. See SYPHILIS. a vear. The last important addition (14 and 15 Vict c 83) has been that of the lords justices of the CHANDERNAGO'RE, a French city, with a Court of Appeal in Chancery. This court consisted scanty territory of about 2000 acres, on the right or of the Lord Chancellor, together with these judges; west bank of the Hoogly, 21 miles above Calcutta but the lords justices, when sitting without the by railway, on the opposite shore, in lat. 22° 50' N., chancellor, possess the same jurisdiction which I and long. 88° 23' E. The population, estimated at




32,670, consists of 218 Europeans, 435 Eurasians of Paris and of the National Guard. He held this (q. v.), and 32,017 natives of unmixed blood. Inde- double office till the middle of May 1849, and pendently of political considerations, the place has, again for some time after the insurrectionary moves through the gradual silting up of the river, lost ments of June of that year. C. was a member of some of its commercial advantages. Within 100 the Legislative Assembly, where he held a sort of years back, ships of the line ascended to C.; now, neutral position between the Orleanists and Legitihowever, vessels even of far inferior burden seldom mists, at the same time that be was decidedly get above Diamond Harbour, which is nearly 50 opposed to the Bonapartists. At the coup d'état in iniles further down. C. was established in 1676, December 1851, he was one of the generals arrested and for a while rivalled Calcutta. It was captured and sent to the fortress of Hai. He continues to live by Clive in 1757, but finally restored to the French in exile, having refused to take the oath of allegiance iu 1816.

to the emperor, and is now considered one of the CHANDLER, DR. RICHARD,

scholar and chiefs of the Legitimists. antiqnary of considerable eminence of the last CHANG-CHOW-F00, or CHAOU-CHOW, a city century, was born at Elson, in Hampshire, in of China, and capital of a department of the same 1738, and educated at Oxford. He first became name, in the province of Keang su, in 31° 50' N. known as the editor of the magnificent work, lat., and 3° 24' long. E. of Pekin. Marmora Oxoniensia, published by the Oxford

CHANG-CHOW-F00, a city of China, and capital University in 1763. He afterwards travelled through Greece and Asia Minor, with Revett, an of Fuh-keen, in 24° 31' N. lat., and 1° 24' long. E.

of a department of the same name', in the province architect, and Pars, a painter, at the instance of the

of Pekin. then flourishing Dilettanti Society, with a view to collect information regarding the former state of

CHA XGELING. It was at one time a comthiese countries, and to procure exact descriptions mon superstition, that infants were taken from of the ruins. The result of their united labours their cradles by fairies, who left instead their own

The children so left appeared in 1769, in 2 vols., entitled Ionian Anti- weakly and starveling elves. quities. C. also published a valuable account of were called changelings, and were known by tlieir the ancient inscriptions of Asia Minor and Greece; peevishness, and their backwardness in walking and and his account of his travels in these countries, speaking. As it was supposed that the fairies had no issued in 1775—1776, is still a standard work power to change children that bad been christened, He also published a History of Troy. He died in infants were carefully watched until such time as February 1810.

that ceremony had been performed. This superstiCHANDO'RE, a town and fort in the district of tion is alluded to by Shakspeare, Spenser, and other Ahmednuggar, presidency of Bombay, the lat. and poets; and it has not yet quite died out 'cf some of

the rural districts in Britain. long. being 20° 20' N. and 74' 14' E. The town is a flourishing place, with a population of 7000. The

CHANG-SHA-F00, a city of China, capital of the fort, which commands an important pass on the province of Iloo-nan, in 28° 20' N. lat. route between Candeish and Bombay, is situated on CHANNEL, ENGLISH--the Mare Britannicum of the summit of a hill naturally inaccessible every- the ancients—is that arm of the Atlantic Ocean where but at the gateway. It surrendered to the which divides England from France, gradually British in 1804; and being subsequently restored to narrowing to the Strait of Dover. It is often called Holkar, was finally ceded by him in 1818.

simply the Channel ; and the fleet stationed in it CHANDOS CLAUSE. During the discussion for the protection of the English coast, the Channel of the clauses of the Reform Bill (q. v.) in 1831, the Fleet. The greatest river which falls into it is the Marquis of Chandos (Tory), afterwards Duke of Seine. It forms bays both on the English and on Buckingham, proposed the insertion of a clanse the French coast; but the larger ones are those on giving the county franchise to tenants at will paying the French coast, whilst the best harbours are on an annual rent of £50. This was opposed by the the English. ministers, on the ground that the class proposed to CHANNEL ISLANDS, a group of islands be enfranchised would be subject to the coercion belonging to Great Britain, lying off the north-west of the landowners, who would thus virtually deter-coast of France, between Normandy and Brittany. mine the elections. The amendment, however, was They are about 120 miles south-west of Southampsupported by many of the Radicals, who at that ton, and the nearest distance from the French coast time regarded any extension of the suffrage as a is about 10 miles. The C. I. are the only parts of boon, and was carried by a majority of 84. The the dukedom of Normandy now belonging to the clause was incorporated in the bill of the following English crown, to which they have been attached year, and was finally carried by a majority of 272 since the Conquest. King John, about the year to 32. The result has been as was then predicted. 1200, lost all Normandy, except these isles. The In the parliament that passed the Reform Bill, chief islands of the group are Jersey, Guernsey, almost all the English county members, elected by Alderney, and Sark. The area of the whole is the old freeholders, were “Reformers ; ' ever since, 112 square miles, and the population in 1851 was owing to the operation of this clause, the English 90,739. They are more particularly described under county members have been mostly Conservative. JERSEY. CHA'NFRON. See CHARGER.

CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY, D.D., a celeCHANGARNIER, Nicholas ANNE THÉODULE, a brated Unitarian preacher and author, was born French general, was born at Autum in 1793--and 7th April 1780, at Newport, Rhode Island, in the received his education at the military school of United States, entered Harvard University at the Saint-Cyr. In 1830, he went as lieutenant to age of 14, and took his degree in 1798. In 1803, he Algeria, where he distinguished himself, and rose was ordained minister of a church in Boston. During to the rank of general of division. After the the earlier years of his ministry, his theological proclamation of the Republic in 1848, he was peculiarities had little prominence in his dis appointed governor-general of Algeria, in the room courses, and in consequence he stood upon friendly of Cavaignac; but being chosen a member of the terms with his brethren in more orthodox churches. National Assembly, he returned to Paris, when he in 1819, however, he preached a sermon at the was appointed commander-in-chief of the garrisons' ordination of the Rev. Jared Sparks, in which he




advocated the Unitarian doctrine with so much instruction as a pupil of the Royal Academy. zeal and ability, that he was termed the “Apostle It was probably then that he commenced seriof Unitarianism. This involved him in controversy, ously to prepare himself for the work of his future a thing which he naturally loathed. Nevertheless, ' life. In the earlier part of his career to the end of his life, he preserved a devoutly artist, C. is said to have been under great obliChristian heart, shrinking with the delicate instinct gations to Nollekens, who had the shrewdness to of a pious nature from everything cold, one-sided, see, and the generosity to see without envy, his and dogmatic, whether Unitarian or Trinitarian. great promise in the branch in which he himself was As late as 1841, he wrote: “I am little of a eminent. In 1816, C. was elected an Associate, and Unitarian, have little sympathy with the system in 1818 a Member of the Royal Academy; and in of Priestley and Belsham, and stand aloof from 1819 he visited Italy for the first time. Like the all but those who strive and pray for clearer lives of many other eminent men, that of C. presents light.' In 1821, he received the title of D. D., from few claims ou our interest after his early struggles Harvard University, on account of the high talent were ended. As an ideal artist, he never attained a he had exhibited in his tractate on the Evidences high rank, and, in comparison with Flaxman, he of Christianity, his Address on War, and his possessed little reputation in this country and none Sermons. In 1822, he visited Europe, and made the abroad. But he executed, with much truth to acquintance of several great English authors, such nature, as it presented itself to his eye, an endless as Wordsworth and Coleridge, both of whom were variety and almost countless number of works of strongly impressed in his favour. Coleridge said of individual portraiture; so much so, that there is him: "He has the love of wisdom and the wisdom 'scarcely any town of importance in Great Britain of love.' In 1823, he published an Essay on National which cannot shew specimens of his skill. As a Literature ; in 1826, Remarks on the Character and consequence of the department of art to which he Writings of John Milton; in 1829, the Character chiefly devoted himself, C. accumulated a very and Writings of Fénelon; in 1835, a work in oppo- considerable fortune, the greater part of which, after sition to Negro Slavery; and in 1838, an essay on providing for his widow, he bequeathed for artistic Self-culture. Besides these, he wrote a variety of purposes. In this respect, he formed a remarkable other essays and treatises, all characterised by contrast to Flaxman, whose modest savings were vigour, eloqnence, pure taste, and a lofty tone of sworn under £1000; whilst Nollekens, whose name, moral earnestness. He died October 2, 1842, at ! at the distance of less than half a century, is almost Bennington, Vermont. An interesting memoir of forgotten, and who, in his own day, was a sort of him has been published by his nephew, William humbler C., realised the enormous sum of £150,000, Henry Channing (3 vols., London, 1848).

or it is even said £200,000. Sir Francis died child

less on the 25th November 1811, and was buried CHANTILLY, a town of France, in the depart in a tomb prepared by himself in the churchyard ment of Oise, about 23 miles north-north-east of

at Norton. Paris. Being one of the most beautiful places in the vicinity of the metropolis, it attracts immense num- CHA'NTRY (Fr. chantererie, from chanter, to bers of visitors from thence. Apart from its natural sing). The term C. is applied alike to endowments beanty, it is interesting as the place where the great or benefices, to provide for the chanting of masses, Condé spent the latter years of his life in the society and to the chapels in which the chanting takes of such men as Boileau, Ricine, and Bossuet. The place. These endowments were commonly made in magnificent château in which he resided was pulled the form of testamentary bequests, the object being down at the revolution of 1793; but a lesser châtean, to insure the erection of a chapel near or over the one of the finest specimens of the renaissance in spot where the testator was buried, and to remuneFrance, still remains. The park and grounds are rate the priests for saying masses in it for the very charming. C. is also noted for its extensive benefit of his soul, or of the souls of others named manufacture of the lace called blonde. Pop. 2500. iu his will. Many such chantry chapels are stin to CHANTREY, SIR FRANCIS, an eminent English

be seen in English parish churches; but they were sculptor, was born at Jordanthorpe, in Derbyshire,

more common in abbeys and monastic establishon 7th April

, 1781, not 1782, as has been generally ments, in which it was considered a privilege to be said. His father, who was á carpenter, and rented hood was in a measure the price of sepulture. These a small farm, died when C. was only 12 years of age, chapels, which have generally the tomb of the leaving his mother in narrow circumstances. It is said that she gave him 'as liberal an education as the aisles or nare of the church by open screen.

founder in the middle of them, are separated from her limited means would admit;' but much cannot work, a circumstance which has sometimes led be meant by the phrase, if it be true, as asserted by to their being called Chancels (q. v.). Sometimes, Holland in his Memorials, that his attendance at the little lane-side school was very irregular, and again, they are separate erecions projecting from that for a while he certainly drove an ass daily, with the church externally; but in cathedrals and the milk-barrels, between Norton and Sheffield.”' C.'s larger churches they are generally constructed mother married a second time, and the boy was, in within the curch, often between the piers. Many 1797, apprenticed for 7 years to a carver and gilder tracery of all descriptions, and some of them are

chantries are lavishly enriched with sculpture and in

adorned with gilding and painting. department that C. acquired the rudiments of his future art. It was during this period that his first CHA'OS signified, in the ancient cosmogonies, attempts at modelling in clay were made, and that that vacant intinite space out of which sprang all by the help of casts taken from the faces of his things that exist. Some poets make it the single fellow-apprentices and his own, he began the work original source of all; others mention along with it of portraiture, in which his great eminence ulti- Gæa, Tartaros, and Eros. By some also only the mately consisted. C.'s apprenticeship was cancelled rough outlines of heaven and earth were supposed two years before its expiry; but his subsequent to have proceeded from C., while the organisation career is not very accurately known. It is certain and perfecting of all things was the work of Eros. that he visited both London and Dublin in 1802, Still later cosmogonists, such as Ovid, represent it probably in the capacity of a journeyman carver and as that confused, shapeless mass, out of which the gilder; and in that year he seems to have received uuiverse was formed into a kosmos, or harmonious CHAOS-CHAPLAIN.

W. C.

order. Hesiod makes C. the mother of Erebus and numerous varieties of C. B. at exceedingly small Nox.

prices. The French government being desirous to CHAOS, or BIRD ISLANDS, is the name given substitute a wholesome class of tracts of this kind to several rocky islets situated at the entrance of for what are generally objectionable on the score Algoa Bay, South Africa, about 35 miles east of of taste and morality, have lately, through commisPort Elizabeth. It was on one of these islands that sioners, taken some steps on the subject. See Bartholomew Diaz, the navigator, died in 1500.

Histoire des Livres Populaires, ou de la Littérature CHA'OU-CHOW-F00, a city of China, and capital

du Colportage, by M. Nizard. of a department of the same name, in the province CHAPA'LA, the largest lake in Mexico, containof Kwang-tung, in 23° 36' 6" N. lat., and 0° 46' 40" ing about 1300 square miles. It is about lat. 20° long. W. of Pekiö.

20' N., and ranges in W. long. from 102° to 103° 25'. CHAOU-KING-F00, a city and capital of a de- It is merely an expansion of the Rio Grande de partment of the same name, in the province of Lerma, which enters the Pacific at San Blax. C. Kwang-tung, 50 miles west of Canton, in 23° 4' 48" lies on the table-land of Anahuac, and has many N. lat., and 4° 24' 30" long. W. of Pekin.

islands. CIIAP BOOKS, the name given to a variety

CHA'PEL (Fr. chapelle), a word derived from of old and scarce tracts of a homely kind, which capa,, . which originally signified a case, or chest at one time formed the only popular literature. in which were contained the relics of a saint, and In the trade of the bookseller, they are distin- afterwards the place where the chest was kept. guishable from the ordinary products of the press The term now signifies a building erected for the by their inferior paper and typography, and are purposes of public worship, but not possessing the reputed to have been sold by chapmen (see CHAP- full privileges and characteristics of a church. In MAN) or pedlers; hence their designation. The this sense, all places of worship erected by dissenter's older C. B. issued in the early part of the 17th are now called chapels in England, and the term c. are printed in black letter, and are in the form is also applied to supplementary places of worship, of small volumes. Those of a later date are in cren though in connection with the established the type now in use, but are equally plain in church-such as parochial chapels, chapels of ease, appearance. Of either variety, they were mostly free chapels, and the like. In former times, it

was applied either to a domestic oratory, or to a They were of a miscellaneous kind, including theo place of worship erected by a private individual,

a "ates. logical tracts, lives of heroes, martyrs, and wonderful or a body corporate. In the latter sense, we speak personages, interpretations of dreams, fortune-telling, of chapels in universities and colleges. But its prognostications of the weather, stories of giants, carliest signification was that of a separate erection, ghosts, hobgoblins, and witches, histories in verse, cither within or attached to a large church or and songs and ballads. See Notices of Fugitive cathedral, separately dedicated, and devoted to Tracts and Chap Books, also Descriptive Notices of special services. See CHANTRY. Chapels had no Popular English Histories; both bý J. 0. Halliwell

, burying-ground attached to them, and the sacraprinted for the Percy Society. An inferior class of

An inferior class of ment of baptism was not usually administered in tracts succeeded these books for the common people

, them. and are best known as Penny Chap Books. For tlie CHAPELLE, LA, the name of several places in most part they consisted of a single sheet duo- France, the most important of which forms a decimo, or 24 pages. Besides the title, the first page northern suburb of Paris. Chemicals, salt, starch, usually contained a coarse woud-cut embellishment. liqueurs, &c., are manufactured. Pop. 33,346. The paper was of the coarsest kind adapted for

CHAPELLE DE FER. See HELMET. printing, and the price, as the name imports, was a penny each. The subjects, besides being of a similar the Garter. Such a hood was at one time in general

CHA'PERON, a hood or cape worn by knights of nature to the above, included stories of roguery use, but was latterly appropriated to doctors and and broad humour. These penny C. B. by an obscure class of publishers in London and licentiates in colleges. A person who acts as a guide several English provincial towns, of which we might and protector to a lady at public places, is called

They were also a C., probably from this particular piece of dress issued from the press of Edinburgh, Glasgow, having been used on such occasions. The name was Falkirk, and Paisley. It is a curious' fact, that also applied to devices which were placed on the nearly all the penny C. B. of this very homely kind heads of horses at pompous funerals. which were latterly popular, were written by CHA'PLAIN, was originally the title of the Dougald Graham, who, previous to his death in ecclesiastic who accompanied an army, and carried 1789, filled the office of bellman or town-crier of the relics of the patron saint. See CHAPEL. It has Glasgow. The most reputable production of this now come to signify a clergyman not having charge humble genius was a History of the Rebellion in a of a parish, but employed to officiate at court, in the Hudibrastic metre, which was a great favourite household of a nobleman, or in an army, garrison, with Sir Walter Scott, and is now scarce ; see ship, &c. Such officials began early to be appointed Chambers's Journal, First Series, vol. x. p. 84; also in the palace of the Byzantine emperors. the Paisley Magazine (1828), an extinct publication practice afterwards extended to the western empire, of great rarity, in which is given a biographic and to the courts of petty princes, and even of sketch of Dougald Graham, with a list of his knights, and continued to subsist after the Refor. productions. In some parts of Scotland and the mation. Forty-eight clergymen of the Church of north of England, Graham's penny C. B. are England hold office as chaplains of the Queen in still seen on stalls at markets; but the general England, four of whom are in attendance each advances in taste, along with the diffusion of an month. Six clergymen of the Church of Scotland improved literature, have displaced them in almost have a similar title in Scotland; but their only duty all other quarters. Collections of the older C. is to conduct prayer at the elections of Scottish B. are now found only in the libraries of biblio- representative peers. A statute of Henry VIII. maniacs, by whom they have been picked up at Jimits the right of nominating private chaplains in extravagant prices from dealers in second-hand England: thus, an archbishop may have eight, a boolis. In various continental countries, there are duke six, a baron three; and chaplains so appointed





Like some watcher of the skies


have certain privileges, and may hold two benefices | theatre with tragedies and coniedies, and some of with cure of souls.

these, after the fashion of the time, were written An Army CHAPLAIN is a clergyman whose ser- in conjunction with other dramatists. As a writer vices are retained especially by the government for for the stage, C. does not rank high. Despite the soldiery of the army. There have been such many nervous passages, his plays want the irrachaplains for many generations, and the office was diation of a coustant genius, and his characters are at one time regarded as a saleable perquisite ; but unnatural. As a translator, he has no equal. His the system was reorganised and improved in 1795. translation of the lliad is the finest that has yet In recent years, Roman Catholic and Presbyterian been executed in England, and in reading it, many chaplains have also been appointed—a degree of bave felt with Keats tolerance not known in continental armies. The

When a new planet swims into his ken. chaplains belong, not to regiments, but to brigades, or other groups of regiments. At home, they are C. seems to have led a long, temperate, and happy attached to the military stations; but in the field life, unblasted by poetic fire. He closed his career they are located at head-quarters, at the hospitals, in 1634, at the age of 77. and with the brigades. The officers at the stations CHAPPED HANDS AND CHILBLAINS, a lesser usually arrange for the men to attend divine service and a greater form of disease of the skin, proat the nearest parish-church; but this still leaves duced by udue exposure to extremes of cold and the chaplains many duties to fulfil. Where, as heat, and affecting chiefly the most exposed joints, sometimes happens, there is no regular church or the skin over which swells and cracks, with itching, chapel near at hand, the C. reads and preaches to pain, and heat ; in the most severe cases there is as many men as can conveniently group themselves ulceration, which is difficult to heal in proportion to around him at one time, and thus serves many the length of time the disease has been neglected. different congregations at different times of the Chilblains may generally be avoided if the lands Sunday. He visits the sick at the hospitals, and are washed always with tepid water, and not examines and encourages the regimental schools. habitually exposed to great cold, or when cold, Among the wooden huts at Aldershott Camp, a to the heat of a fire.

to the heat of a fire. When formed, they may be church has been built, which is rendered available treated with oxide of zinc ointment; or with a dilute for chaplains of different religious denominations solution of horax, in glycerine and water; or with in succession.

glycerine alone, slightly diluted with water; the When the system of army-chaplains was hands beisig in any case habitually covered with modelled in 1796, a chaplain-general was appointed; woollen gloves in cold weather. this office was abolished by the Duke of Welling- CHA'PTER-HOUSE (Fr. chapitre), the building ton soon after the termination of the great war, in which the monks and canons of monastic but revived by Mr. Sidney Herbert in 1846. The establishments

, and the deans and prebendaries C.-general, who receives' £1000 per annum, his of cathedral and collegiate churches, meet for duties partaking somewhat of those of an arch- the management of the affairs of their order or deacon. He assists the War Office in selecting


See CATHEDRAL. Chapter-houses free chaplains, and in regulating the religious matters of quently exhibit the most elaborate architectural the army. His office fornis one of the 17 depart-adornment, as, for example, those at York, Southments under the new organisation of the War Office. well, and Wells. The original stained-glass windows There are about 80 chaplains on the staff, besides remain at York, and are of exquisite beauty. On assistant-clergymen and chapel-clerks.

The com

the walls of that at Westminster, the original missioned chaplains receive from 168. to 288. per painting has been discovered. Chapter houses are day; and there are always some on half-pay; while of various forms: those at York and Westminster the assistant-clergymen receive from £200 to £100

are octagonal; those at Oxford, Exeter, Cantera year. The whole expenditure for commissioned bury, Gloucester, &c., are parallelograms; Lichfield chaplains, assistant-clergymen, chapel-clerks, and is an oblong octagon ; Lincoln, a decagon; and church and chapel-books, figures in the Army Esti- Worcester, å circle. They are always contiguous mates for 1860-1861 at about £45,000.

to the church, and are generally placed to the west Navy CHAPLAIN. Every ship in commission, of the transepts. They generally either open into down to, and including fifth-rates, has a chaplain. the church, or are entered by a passage. ChapterThe Navy Estimates (1860—1861) provide for 99 houses were often used as places of sepulture, and comniissioned chaplains, at stipende varying from have sometimes crypts under them, as at Wells and £160 to £255 per annum;

9 others in district Westminster. . guard-ships, at average stipends of about £175; and 66 on half-pay, at 5s. to 10s. per day. The

CHARA'CEÆ, aquatic plants, forming, according chaplains perforın divine service at stated times

to some botanists, a distinct natural order of acoon shipboard, visit the sick sailors, and assist in tyledonous plants; according to others, a sub-order maintaining moral discipline among the crew.

of Algo. Their stems are tubular, consisting either

of a single tube, or of parallel tubes, a central CHA'PLET, a garland or head-band of leaves

one with smaller ones applied to its surface; they and flowers. In heraldry, a C. is always composed

are either pellucid or incrusted with carbonate of of four roses, the other parts being leaves.

lime, which is not to be regarded as a mere acciCHA'PMAN, a trader, but popularly applied in a dental incrustation, but belongs to their proper strucmore limited sense to a dealer'in small articles, who ture; and they have whorls of symmetrical tubular travels as a pedler, or attends markets. C. is from branches. They grow in stagnant waters, both chap, equivalent to cheap, a word which in its origin fresh and salt, are always submersed, înd often signified a market or place for_trading; hence completely conceal muddy bottoms. A number of Cheapside, Eastcheap. See CHAP Books.

species are natives of Britain, ail belonging to CHAPMAN, GEORGE, dramatist and translator, the genus Chara. The organs of reproduction are was born in 1557, educated at Cambridge and of two kinds -lateral globules, and axillary nucules. Oxford, and was the contemporary and friend of These organs have caused no little dificulty to Spenser, Johnson, and Shakspeare. His first play, botanists; the nature and use of the globules in entitled The Blind Beggar of Alexandria, was particular being, by no means well unders:ood. printed in 1589. Up to 1620, he supplied the | The simple cellular structure of the C., apart from


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