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from the letter of the law which he had established, | belongs to him, and their existence does not preonly where it could be shown to him that it did not judice his right to sit alone. The lords justices meet the substantial justice of the particular case. possess the same authority in matters of lunacy as He would consequently be a judge, not of the inter- the chancellor; and they, sitting together, constipretation or application of the law, which he would tute, without the chancellor, the Court of Appeal in leave to his ordinary judges, but of its adequacy to Bankruptcy. An appeal, which may also be enter circumstances which had changed, or had not been tained by the Lord Chancellor sitting alone, lies to anticipated; and when he interfered, it would be to this court, from the Master of the Rolls, and from some extent in the character of a legislator, as well each of the vice-chancellors; and from these appelas of a judge. The king would thus be a judge in late jurisdictions there is an appeal in turn to the equity; in the popular and intelligible sense of that House of Lords. The lords justices may also take word; and acting in this capacity himself, it would up original causes, though these, in practice, are be in this capacity that he would call in the aid of mainly confined to the vice-chancellors, and the his chancellor. It is not mysterious, then, how in Master of the Rolls. Till recently, certain parts of early times the Court of C. came to be a court of the equitable jurisdiction of the Court of C. were equity and the chief difficulty regarding its origin confided to the Masters in Ordinary (See MASTELS seems to attach to the other of the two great IN CHANCERY) and the Accountant-general. The departments into which it is divided, and in which office of the masters has been abolished, but that it exercises jurisdiction as a court of common law. of the accountant continues to be one of the most But as the free constitution of England developed important connected with the court. Besides these itself, it soon became apparent that equity in the more important officers, the Court of C. has always old despotic or patriarchal sense-in which it was had a large body of subordinates, registrars, taxingnot so much the administration as the making or masters, and a staff of record and writ clerks modifying of law-was inconsistent with its prin- attached to it. ciples, whether it proceeded from a judge or from the monarch himself. The popular sense of equity was consequently abandoned; and a technical sense, unknown to the jurisprudence of every other nation, was given to it. The proceedings of the Court of C. on its equity side,' which had hitherto been a mere interference with law, came now to be hedged in by rules and precedents as closely as those of any court of common law. What henceforth continued to be the distinction in principle between law and equity, or between the functions of the courts of common law and the Court of C., or even of the two great departments of this court itself, it is perhaps impossible to state. The arbitrary line which has been drawn between the class of cases assigned to the one set of courts and to the other, will be considered under EQUITY.

To the common-law jurisdiction of the Court of C. belong all matters by and against the crown, which are not, as matters of revenue, cognizable in the Court of Exchequer; and from it issue all writs of habeas corpus, certiorari, prohibition, and also the commissions of the peace. The Courts of C. have no fixed situation. On the first day of term, they meet at Westminster; and afterwards the courts of the chancellor, the lords justices, and the vice-chancellors, meet in Lincoln's Inn; that of the Master of the Rolls at the Rolls in Chancery Lane.

The Courts of C. of the counties palatine of Lancaster and Durham, and the Court of C. in Ireland, dispense the same equity, within the limits of their respective jurisdictions, as the High Court of Chancery. The appeal from the Lancaster Court is to the lords justices. From the chancellor's decree, or that of the lords justices, it is immediate to the House of Lords.

In various colonies of the British empire, local courts have been established in imitation of the High Court of C., an institution which, from its cumbrous, anomalous, and unscientific character, scarcely merited imitation; but in America, though the distinction between law and equity was at first adopted and long adhered to with the tenacity with which Englishmen cling to their native customs, it has been abolished in the state of New York, and law and equity there, as elsewhere in the world, now constitute one system, administered in one series of tribunals of originial and appellate jurisdiction. On the continent, the English Court of C. has always been a subject of ridicule; and a recent French writer, in speaking of it, says: Nothing ever comes to an end in it; and the unhappy man who has a process there, can be sure of but one thing-viz., that whether he gains it or loses it, his ruin is certain.' The acts by which evils which are inseparable from the constitution of the Court of C.-and which spring from the distinction between law and equity, on which its very existence depends-have been mitigated, are the following-15 and 16 Vict. cc. 80, 86, and 87, November 1, 1852; and 21 and 22 Vict. c. 27.



The judicial duties of the chancellor have long been shared by the Master of the Rolls, an officer of high rank, who was originally appointed only for the superintendence of the writs and records appertaining to the common-law departments of the court, but who was accustomed also to sit as a separate though subordinate judge on the equity side. The disputes which had arisen regarding his powers were set at rest by 3 Geo. II. c. 30, which declares that all orders made by him, except such as by the course of the court are appropriated to the great seal alone, shall be valid, subject nevertheless to be discharged or altered by the Lord Chancellor, and so as that they shall not be enrolled till they are signed by his lordship. By 3 and 4 Will. IV. c. 94, the master's powers are further increased, and he may now hear motions, pleas, and demurrers, as well as causes generally. The salary of the Master of the Rolls (q. v.) is £6000 a year. The vast increase of business, and the still greater increase of arrears, during the previous half-century, rendered it necessary, in 1813 (53 Geo III., c. 24), to appoint another 1 assistant to the chancellor, under the title of the Vice-chancellor of England; and in 1841, when the equity business of the Exchequerwas transferred to the C., two more vice-chancellors were added. Each of these judges sits separately from the Lord Chancellor, and their functions extend to both | departments of the court. Their salaries are £5000 a year. The last important addition (14 and 15 Viet e 83) has been that of the lords justices of the Court of Appeal in Chancery. This court consisted of the Lord Chancellor, together with these judges; but the lords justices, when sitting without the chancellor, possess the same jurisdiction which

CHANDERNAGO'RE, a French city, with a scanty territory of about 2000 acres, on the right or west bank of the Hoogly, 21 miles above Calcutta by railway, on the opposite shore, in lat. 22° 50' N., and long. 88° 23′ E. The population, estimated at


32,670, consists of 218 Europeans, 435 Eurasians of Paris and of the National Guard. He held this (q. v.), and 32,017 natives of unmixed blood. Inde- double office till the middle of May 1849, and pendently of political considerations, the place has, again for some time after the insurrectionary moveC. was a member of through the gradual silting up of the river, lost ments of June of that year. some of its commercial advantages. Within 100 the Legislative Assembly, where he held a sort of years back, ships of the line ascended to C.; now, neutral position between the Orleanists and Legiti however, vessels even of far inferior burden seldom mists, at the same time that he was decidedly get above Diamond Harbour, which is nearly 50 opposed to the Bonapartists. At the coup d'état in miles further down. C. was established in 1676, December 1851, he was one of the generals arrested and for awhile rivalled Calcutta. It was captured and sent to the fortress of Ham. He continues to live by Clive in 1757, but finally restored to the French in exile, having refused to take the oath of allegiance iu 1816. to the emperor, and is now considered one of the chiefs of the Legitimists.

CHANDLER, DR. RICHARD, a scholar and antiquary of considerable eminence of the last century, was born at Elson, in Hampshire, in 1738, and educated at Oxford. He first became known as the editor of the magnificent work, Marmora Oxoniensia, published by the Oxford University in 1763. He afterwards travelled

through Greece and Asia Minor, with Revett, an architect, and Pars, a painter, at the instance of the then flourishing Dilettanti Society, with a view to collect information regarding the former state of these countries, and to procure exact descriptions of the ruins. The result of their united labours appeared in 1769, in 2 vols., entitled Ionian Antiquities. C. also published a valuable account of the ancient inscriptions of Asia Minor and Greece; and his account of his travels in these countries, issued in 1775-1776, is still a standard work. He also published a History of Troy. He died in February 1810.

CHANDO'RE, a town and fort in the district of Ahmednuggar, presidency of Bombay, the lat. and long. being 20° 20′ N. and 74° 14' E. The town is a flourishing place, with a population of 7000. The fort, which commands an important pass on the route between Candeish and Bombay, is situated on the summit of a hill naturally inaccessible everywhere but at the gateway. It surrendered to the British in 1804; and being subsequently restored to Holkar, was finally ceded by him in 1818.

CHANDOS CLAUSE. During the discussion of the clauses of the Reform Bill (q. v.) in 1831, the Marquis of Chandos (Tory), afterwards Duke of Buckingham, proposed the insertion of a clause giving the county franchise to tenants at will paying an annual rent of £50. This was opposed by the ministers, on the ground that the class proposed to be enfranchised would be subject to the coercion of the landowners, who would thus virtually determine the elections. The amendment, however, was supported by many of the Radicals, who at that time regarded any extension of the suffrage as a boon, and was carried by a majority of 84. The clause was incorporated in the bill of the following year, and was finally carried by a majority of 272 to 32. The result has been as was then predicted. In the parliament that passed the Reform Bill, almost all the English county members, elected by the old freeholders, were 'Reformers; ever since, ●wing to the operation of this clause, the English county members have been mostly Conservative.


CHANGARNIER, NICHOLAS ANNE THÉODULE, a French general, was born at Autum in 1793-and received his education at the military school of Saint-Cyr. In 1830, he went as lieutenant to Algeria, where he distinguished himself, and rose to the rank of general of division. After the proclamation of the Republic in 1848, he was appointed governor-general of Algeria, in the room of Cavaignac; but being chosen a member of the National Assembly, he returned to Paris, when he was appointed commander-in-chief of the garrisons

CHANG-CHOW-FOO, or CHAOU-CHOW, a city of China, and capital of a department of the same name, in the province of Keang su, in 31° 50′ N. lat., and 3° 24′ long. E. of Pekin.

CHANG-CHOW-FOO, a city of China, and capital of a department of the same name, in the province of Fuh-keen, in 24° 31' N. lat., and 1° 24′ long. E.

of Pekin.

CHANGELING. It was at one time a common superstition, that infants were taken from their cradles by fairies, who left instead their own weakly and starveling elves. The children so left were called changelings, and were known by their peevishness, and their backwardness in walking and speaking. As it was supposed that the fairies had no power to change children that had been christened, infants were carefully watched until such time as that ceremony had been performed. This superstition is alluded to by Shakspeare, Spenser, and other poets; and it has not yet quite died out of some of

the rural districts in Britain.

CHANG-SHA-FOO, a city of China, capital of the province of Hoo-nan, in 28° 20' N. lat.

CHANNEL, ENGLISH-the Mare Britannicum of the ancients-is that arm of the Atlantic Ocean which divides England from France, gradually narrowing to the Strait of Dover. It is often called simply the Channel; and the fleet stationed in it for the protection of the English coast, the Channel Fleet. The greatest river which falls into it is the Seine. It forms bays both on the English and on the French coast; but the larger ones are those on the French coast, whilst the best harbours are on the English.

CHANNEL ISLANDS, a group of islands belonging to Great Britain, lying off the north-west coast of France, between Normandy and Brittany. They are about 120 miles south-west of Southampton, and the nearest distance from the French coast is about 10 miles. The C. I. are the only parts of the dukedom of Normandy now belonging to the English crown, to which they have been attached since the Conquest. King John, about the year 1200, lost all Normandy, except these isles. The chief islands of the group are Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, and Sark. The area of the whole is 112 square miles, and the population in 1851 was 90,739. They are more particularly described under


CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY, D.D., a celebrated Unitarian preacher and author, was born 7th April 1780, at Newport, Rhode Island, in the United States, entered Harvard University at the age of 14, and took his degree in 1798. In 1803, he was ordained minister of a church in Boston. During the earlier years of his ministry, his theological peculiarities had little prominence in his discourses, and in consequence he stood upon friendly terms with his brethren in more orthodox churches. In 1819, however, he preached a sermon at the ordination of the Rev. Jared Sparks, in which he


advocated the Unitarian doctrine with so much instruction as a pupil of the Royal Academy. zeal and ability, that he was termed the Apostle It was probably then that he commenced seriof Unitarianism.' This involved him in controversy, ously to prepare himself for the work of his future as In the earlier part of his career an a thing which he naturally loathed. Nevertheless, life. to the end of his life, he preserved a devoutly artist, C. is said to have been under great obliChristian heart, shrinking with the delicate instinct gations to Nollekens, who had the shrewdness to of a pious nature from everything cold, one-sided, see, and the generosity to see without envy, his and dogmatic, whether Unitarian or Trinitarian. great promise in the branch in which he himself was As late as 1841, he wrote: 'I am little of a eminent. am little of a eminent. In 1816, C. was elected an Associate, and Unitarian, have little sympathy with the system in 1818 a Member of the Royal Academy; and in Like the of Priestley and Belsham, and stand aloof from 1819 he visited Italy for the first time. all but those who strive and pray for clearer lives of many other eminent men, that of C. presents light.' In 1821, he received the title of D. D., from few claims on our interest after his early struggles Harvard University, on account of the high talent were ended. As an ideal artist, he never attained a he had exhibited in his tractate on the Evidences high rank, and, in comparison with Flaxman, he of Christianity, his Address on War, and his possessed little reputation in this country and none Sermons. In 1822, he visited Europe, and made the abroad. But he executed, with much truth to acquaintance of several great English authors, such nature, as it presented itself to his eye, an endless as Wordsworth and Coleridge, both of whom were variety and almost countless number of works of strongly impressed in his favour. Coleridge said of individual portraiture; so much so, that there is him: He has the love of wisdom and the wisdom scarcely any town of importance in Great Britain of love.' In 1823, he published an Essay on National which cannot shew specimens of his skill. As a Literature; in 1826, Remarks on the Character and consequence of the department of art to which he Writings of John Milton; in 1829, the Character chiefly devoted himself, C. accumulated a very and Writings of Fénelon; in 1835, a work in oppo- considerable fortune, the greater part of which, after sition to Negro Slavery; and in 1838, an essay on providing for his widow, he bequeathed for artistic Self-culture. Besides these, he wrote a variety of purposes. In this respect, he formed a remarkable other essays and treatises, all characterised by contrast to Flaxman, whose modest savings were vigour, eloquence, pure taste, and a lofty tone of sworn under £4000; whilst Nollekens, whose name, moral earnestness. He died October 2, 1842, at at the distance of less than half a century, is almost Bennington, Vermont. An interesting memoir of forgotten, and who, in his own day, was a sort of him has been published by his nephew, William humbler C., realised the enormous sum of £150,000, Henry Channing (3 vols., London, 1848). or it is even said £200,000. Sir Francis died childless on the 25th November 1841, and was buried in a tomb prepared by himself in the churchyard


at Norton.

CHANTILLY, a town of France, in the depart ment of Oise, about 23 miles north-north-east of Paris. Being one of the most beautiful places in the vicinity of the metropolis, it attracts immense numbers of visitors from thence. Apart from its natural beauty, it is interesting as the place where the great Condé spent the latter years of his life in the society of such men as Boileau, Racine, and Bossuet. The magnificent château in which he resided was pulled down at the revolution of 1793; but a lesser château, one of the finest specimens of the renaissance in France, still remains. The park and grounds are very charming. C. is also noted for its extensive manufacture of the lace called blonde. Pop. 2500.

CHANTREY, SIR FRANCIS, an eminent English sculptor, was born at Jordanthorpe, in Derbyshire, on 7th April, 1781, not 1782, as has been generally said. His father, who was a carpenter, and rented a small farm, died when C. was only 12 years of age, leaving his mother in narrow circumstances. It is Said that she gave him 'as liberal an education as her limited means would admit;' but much cannot be meant by the phrase, if it be true, as asserted by Holland in his Memorials, that his attendance at the little lane-side school was very irregular, and that 'for a while he certainly drove an ass daily, with milk-barrels, between Norton and Sheffield.' C.'s mother married a second time, and the boy was, in 1797, apprenticed for 7 years to a carver and gilder in Sheffield, called Ramsay. It was in this humble department that C. acquired the rudiments of his future art. It was during this period that his first attempts at modelling in clay were made, and that by the help of casts taken from the faces of his fellow-apprentices and his own, he began the work of portraiture, in which his great eminence ultimately consisted. C.'s apprenticeship was cancelled two years before its expiry; but his subsequent career is not very accurately known. It is certain that he visited both London and Dublin in 1802, probably in the capacity of a journeyman carver and gilder; and in that year he seems to have received

CHANTRY (Fr. chantererie, from chanter, to sing). The term C. is applied alike to endowments or benefices, to provide for the chanting of masses, and to the chapels in which the chanting takes place. These endowments were commonly made in the form of testamentary bequests, the object being to insure the erection of a chapel near or over the spot where the testator was buried, and to remunerate the priests for saying masses in it for the benefit of his soul, or of the souls of others named in his will. Many such chantry chapels are still to be seen in English parish churches; but they were more common in abbeys and monastic establish

ments, in which it was considered a privilege to be buried, and where some such offering to the brotherhood was in a measure the price of sepulture. These chapels, which have generally the tomb of the founder in the middle of them, are separated from the aisles or nave of the church by open screenthe aisles or nave of the church by open screenwork, a circumstance which has sometimes led to their being called Chancels (q. v.) Sometimes, again, they are separate erections projecting from the church externally; but in cathedrals and the larger churches they are generally constructed within the church, often between the piers. Many chantries are lavishly enriched with sculpture and tracery of all descriptions, and some of them are adorned with gilding and painting.

CHA'OS signified, in the ancient cosmogonies, that vacant infinite space out of which sprang all things that exist. Some poets make it the single original source of all; others mention along with it Gæa, Tartaros, and Eros. By some also only the rough outlines of heaven and earth were supposed to have proceeded from C., while the organisation and perfecting of all things was the work of Eros. Still later cosmogonists, such as Ovid, represent it as that confused, shapeless mass, out of which the universe was formed into a kosmos, or harmonious

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order. Hesiod makes C. the mother of Erebus and numerous varieties of C. B. at exceedingly small Nox. prices. The French government being desirous to substitute a wholesome class of tracts of this kind for what are generally objectionable on the score of taste and morality, have lately, through commissioners, taken some steps on the subject. See Histoire des Livres Populaires, ou de la Littérature du Colportage, by M. Nizard.

W. C.

CHAOS, or BIRD ISLANDS, is the name given to several rocky islets situated at the entrance of Algoa Bay, South Africa, about 35 miles east of Port Elizabeth. It was on one of these islands that Bartholomew Diaz, the navigator, died in 1500.

CHA'OU-CHOW-FOO, a city of China, and capital of a department of the same name, in the province of Kwang-tung, in 23° 36′ 6′′ N. lat., and 0° 46' 40" long. W. of Pekin.

CHAOU-KING-FOO, a city and capital of a department of the same name, in the province of Kwang-tung, 50 miles west of Canton, in 23° 4' 48" N. lat., and 4° 24′ 30′′ long. W. of Pekin.

CHAP BOOKS, the name given to a variety of old and scarce tracts of a homely kind, which at one time formed the only popular literature. In the trade of the bookseller, they are distinguishable from the ordinary products of the press by their inferior paper and typography, and are reputed to have been sold by chapmen (see CHAPMAN) or pedlers; hence their designation. The older C. B. issued in the early part of the 17th c. are printed in black letter, and are in the form of small volumes. Those of a later date are in the type now in use, but are equally plain in appearance. Of either variety, they were mostly printed in London; many being without dates. They were of a miscellaneous kind, including theological tracts, lives of heroes, martyrs, and wonderful personages, interpretations of dreams, fortune-telling, prognostications of the weather, stories of giants, ghosts, hobgoblins, and witches, histories in verse, and songs and ballads. See Notices of Fugitive Tracts and Chap Books, also Descriptive Notices of Popular English Histories; both by J. O. Halliwell, printed for the Percy Society. An inferior class of tracts succeeded these books for the common people, and are best known as Penny Chap Books. For the most part they consisted of a single sheet duodecimo, or 24 pages. Besides the title, the first page usually contained a coarse wood-cut embellishment. The paper was of the coarsest kind adapted for printing, and the price, as the name imports, was a penny each. The subjects, besides being of a similar nature to the above, included stories of roguery and broad humour. These penny C. B. were issued by an obscure class of publishers in London and several English provincial towns, of which we might particularise Newcastle-on-Tyne. They were also issued from the press of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Falkirk, and Paisley. It is a curious fact, that nearly all the penny C. B. of this very homely kind which were latterly popular, were written by Dougald Graham, who, previous to his death in 1789, filled the office of bellman or town-crier of Glasgow. The most reputable production of this humble genius was a History of the Rebellion in a Hudibrastic metre, which was a great favourite with Sir Walter Scott, and is now scarce; see Chambers's Journal, First Series, vol. x. p. 84; also the Paisley Magazine (1828), an extinct publication of great rarity, in which is given a biographic sketch of Dougald Graham, with a list of his productions. In some parts of Scotland and the north of England, Graham's penny C. B. are still seen on stalls at markets; but the general advances in taste, along with the diffusion of an improved literature, have displaced them in almost all other quarters. Collections of the older C. B. are now found only in the libraries of bibliomaniacs, by whom they have been picked up at extravagant prices from dealers in second-hand books. In various continental countries, there are

CHAPA'LA, the largest lake in Mexico, containing about 1300 square miles. It is about lat. 20° 20' N., and ranges in W. long, from 102° to 103° 25'. It is merely an expansion of the Rio Grande de Lerma, which enters the Pacific at San Blax. lies on the table-land of Anahuac, and has many



CHA'PEL (Fr. chapelle), a word derived from capa, which originally signified a case, or chest in which were contained the relics of a saint, and afterwards the place where the chest was kept. The term now signifies a building erected for the purposes of public worship, but not possessing the full privileges and characteristics of a church. In this sense, all places of worship erected by dissenters are now called chapels in England, and the term is also applied to supplementary places of worship, even though in connection with the established church-such as parochial chapels, chapels of ease, free chapels, and the like. free chapels, and the like. In former times, it was applied either to a domestic oratory, or to a place of worship erected by a private individual, or a body corporate. In the latter sense, we speak of chapels in universities and colleges. But its carliest signification was that of a separate erection, either within or attached to a large church or cathedral, separately dedicated, and devoted to special services. See CHANTRY. Chapels had no burying-ground attached to them, and the sacrament of baptism was not usually administered in them.

CHAPELLE, LA, the name of several places in France, the most important of which forms a northern suburb of Paris. Chemicals, salt, starch, liqueurs, &c., are manufactured. Pop. 33,346.


CHA'PERON, a hood or cape worn by knights of the Garter. Such a hood was at one time in general use, but was latterly appropriated to doctors and licentiates in colleges. A person who acts as a guide and protector to a lady at public places, is called a C., probably from this particular piece of dress also applied to devices which were placed on the having been used on such occasions. The name was heads of horses at pompous funerals.

CHA'PLAIN, was originally the title of the ecclesiastic who accompanied an army, and carried the relics of the patron saint. See CHAPEL. It has now come to signify a clergyman not having charge of a parish, but employed to officiate at court, in the household of a nobleman, or in an army, garrison, ship, &c. Such officials began early to be appointed in the palace of the Byzantine emperors. The practice afterwards extended to the western empire, and to the courts of petty princes, and even of knights, and continued to subsist after the Refor mation. Forty-eight clergymen of the Church of England hold office as chaplains of the Queen in England, four of whom are in attendance each month. Six clergymen of the Church of Scotland have a similar title in Scotland; but their only duty. is to conduct prayer at the elections of Scottish representative peers. A statute of Henry VIII. limits the right of nominating private chaplains in England: thus, an archbishop may have eight, a duke six, a baron three; and chaplains so appointed


have certain privileges, and may hold two benefices | theatre with tragedies and comedies, and some of
with cure of souls.
these, after the fashion of the time, were written
in conjunction with other dramatists. As a writer
for the stage, C. does not rank high. Despite
many nervous passages, his plays want the irra-
diation of a constant genius, and his characters are
unnatural. As a translator, he has no equal. His
translation of the Iliad is the finest that has yet
been executed in England, and in reading it, many
have felt with Keats-

Like some watcher of the skies'
When a new planet swims into his ken.

An ARMY CHAPLAIN is a clergyman whose services are retained especially by the government for the soldiery of the army. There have been such chaplains for many generations, and the office was at one time regarded as a saleable perquisite; but the system was reorganised and improved in 1795. In recent years, Roman Catholic and Presbyterian chaplains have also been appointed-a degree of tolerance not known in continental armies. The chaplains belong, not to regiments, but to brigades, or other groups of regiments. At home, they are attached to the military stations; but in the field they are located at head-quarters, at the hospitals, and with the brigades. The officers at the stations usually arrange for the men to attend divine service at the nearest parish-church; but this still leaves the chaplains many duties to fulfil. Where, as sometimes happens, there is no regular church or chapel near at hand, the C. reads and preaches to as many men as can conveniently group themselves around him at one time, and thus serves many different congregations at different times of the Sunday. He visits the sick at the hospitals, and examines and encourages the regimental schools. Among the wooden huts at Aldershott Camp, a church has been built, which is rendered available for chaplains of different religious denominations in succession.

NAVY CHAPLAIN. Every ship in commission, down to, and including fifth-rates, has a chaplain. The Navy Estimates (1860-1861) provide for 99 commissioned chaplains, at stipends varying from £160 to £255 per annum; 9 others in district guard-ships, at average stipends of about £175; and 66 on half-pay, at 5s. to 10s. per day. The chaplains perform divine service at stated times on shipboard, visit the sick sailors, and assist in maintaining moral discipline among the crew.

the army.

When the system of army-chaplains was remodelled in 1796, a chaplain-general was appointed; this office was abolished by the Duke of Wellington soon after the termination of the great war, but revived by Mr. Sidney Herbert in 1846. The C.-general, who receives £1000 per annum, hs duties partaking somewhat of those of an archdeacon. He assists the War Office in selecting chaplains, and in regulating the religious matters of His office forms one of the 17 departments under the new organisation of the War Office. There are about 80 chaplains on the staff, besides assistant-clergymen and chapel-clerks. The commissioned chaplains receive from 16s. to 238. per day; and there are always some on half-pay; while the assistant-clergymen receive from £200 to £400 a year. The whole expenditure for commissioned chaplains, assistant-clergymen, chapel-clerks, and church and chapel-books, figures in the Army Estimates for 1860-1861 at about £45,000.

CHA'PLET, a garland or head-band of leaves and flowers. In heraldry, a C. is always composed of four roses, the other parts being leaves.

CHA'PMAN, a trader, but popularly applied in a more limited sense to a dealer in small articles, who travels as a pedler, or attends markets. C. is from chap, equivalent to cheap, a word which in its origin signified a market or place for trading; hence Cheapside, Eastcheap. See CHAP Books.

C. seems to have led a long, temperate, and happy life, unblasted by poetic fire. He closed his career in 1634, at the age of 77.

CHAPMAN, GEORGE, dramatist and translator, was born in 1557, educated at Cambridge and Oxford, and was the contemporary and friend of Spenser, Johnson, and Shakspeare. His first play, entitled The Blind Beggar of Alexandria, was printed in 1589. Up to 1620, he supplied the

CHAPPED HANDS AND CHILBLAINS, a lesser and a greater form of disease of the skin, produced by undue exposure to extremes of cold and heat, and affecting chiefly the most exposed joints, the skin over which swells and cracks, with itching, pain, and heat; in the most severe cases there is ulceration, which is difficult to heal in proportion to the length of time the disease has been neglected. Chilblains may generally be avoided if the hands are washed always with tepid water, and not habitually exposed to great cold, or when cold, to the heat of a fire. When formed, they may be treated with oxide of zinc ointment; or with a dilute solution of borax, in glycerine and water; or with glycerine alone, slightly diluted with water; the hands being in any case habitually covered with woollen gloves in cold weather.

CHAPTER-HOUSE (Fr. chapitre), the building in which the monks and canons of monastic establishments, and the deans and prebendaries of cathedral and collegiate churches, meet for the management of the affairs of their order or society. See CATHEDRAL. Chapter-houses frequently exhibit the most elaborate architectural adornment, as, for example, those at York, Southwell, and Wells. The original stained-glass windows remain at York, and are of exquisite beauty. On the walls of that at Westminster, the original painting has been discovered. Chapter-houses are of various forms: those at York and Westminster are octagonal; those at Oxford, Exeter, Canterbury, Gloucester, &c., are parallelograms; Lichfield is an oblong octagon; Lincoln, a decagon; and Worcester, a circle. They are always contiguous to the church, and are generally placed to the west of the transepts. They generally either open into the church, or are entered by a passage. Chapterhouses were often used as places of sepulture, and have sometimes crypts under them, as at Wells and Westminster.

CHARA'CEÆ, aquatic plants, forming, according to some botanists, a distinct natural order of acotyledonous plants; according to others, a sub-order of Alga. Their stems are tubular, consisting either of a single tube, or of parallel tubes, a central one with smaller ones applied to its surface; they are either pellucid or incrusted with carbonate of lime, which is not to be regarded as a mere accidental incrustation, but belongs to their proper structure; and they have whorls of symmetrical tubular branches. They grow in stagnant waters, both fresh and salt, are always submersed, and often completely conceal muddy bottoms. A number of species are natives of Britain, all belonging to the genus Chara. The organs of reproduction are of two kinds-lateral globules, and axillary nucules. These organs have caused no little difficulty to botanists; the nature and use of the globules in particular being by no means well unders:ood. The simple cellular structure of the C., apart from 761

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