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CHARACINIDE_CHARADE.

all consideration of their reproductive organs, asso- ¡ action of damages, either by the servant whom he ciates them with the lower Algæ, rather than with has calumniated, or by a subsequent employer, whom

he has deceived. If true, however, the fact of its being prejudicial will expose the master to no risk. In order to justify the giving of a bad character, however, it must, in general, be asked for by the servant, as the master is not entitled needlessly to publish the servant's defects. In that case, it will lie with the servant to prove its falsehood, not with the master to prove its truth. The case of the servant being known by the master to have cominitted a felony wbile in his service, is, however, an exception to this rule, as, in a case so extreme, the master is at liberty to warı others against taking him into their employment. Even, though strictly true, the character, if prejudicial, must not be more so than the circumstances render necessary.

Acts of petty dishonesty, such as are too common amongst servants, will not warrant the master in branding him as a thief. The safe course, in such a case, is to state the offence, and not to describe it by a general epithet, which may convey an erroneous impression of its magnitude.

It is probable that, partly from the thoughtless good-nature, and partly from a selfish desire to get rid of a bad servant in the niost comfortable manner, false characters are given in favour of servants very

much more frequently than to their prejudice. It Chara Vulgaris.

is desirable that masters and mistresses should have

in view that they may render themselves liable in phanerogamous plants. None of them is of any reparation of any damage which can be shewn to be known use. It was in the C. that the beautiful phe- the direct result of thus inflicting on a strange nomena of Cyclosis (q. v.) were first observed. Sir wrong which is unquestionably within the reach of David Brewster discovered that each of the minute the law. calcarerous particles incrusting the C. possesses By 32 George III. c. 56, personating a master, and double refraction, and has regular neutral and depo- thus giving a false character to a servant, or assertlarising axes.

ing in writing that a servant has been hired for a Fossil Characeæ.—The calcareous incrustation period of time, or in a station, &c., contrary to truth; which covers the organs of reproduction, as well as and any person offering himself as a servant, prethe stems of some C., has, from its power of resist-tending to have served where he has not served, or ing decomposition, caused the abundant preservation producing a false certificate, or altering a certificate, of this order in the Tertiary fresh-water strata. The or pretending not to have been in any former service, nucules originally described under the name of gyro- &c., are offences at common law, punishable on congonites, and supposed to be foraminiferous shells, viction before two justices with a fine of £20. This have been noticed by E. Forbes in strata as old as statute does not extend to Scotland. the Middle Purbeck beds. No remains of these have

CHARACTERI'STIC. See LOGARITHMS. been observed in newer deposits, until we find them in the Tertiaries. The nucules, associated with

CHARA’DE, or syllable-puzzle' as the Germans Lymnæa and Planorbis, are very abundant in the call it, is an amusement which consists in dividing Eocene Bembridge beds (q. v.).

a word of one or more syllables into its component

syllables, or into its component letters, predicating CHARACI’NIDÆ. Sce SALMONIDÆ.

something of each ; and then, having reunited the CHA'RACTER (Gr. charasso or charatto, which whole, and predicated something of that also, the signifit's to scrape, cut, or engrave), means what is reader or listener is asked to guess the word. As a engriven on an object, either physically by the specimen of the C. depending upon syllables, we adaction of another external object or objects, or duce the following: morally by the passions, the affections, by good or evil fortune, and by what we designate generally as frequently buried in it to little purpose. My second is

'My first is ploughed for various reasons, and grain is circumstances.' In art, the expression of C., either neither riches nor honours, yet the former would generin animate or inanimate objects, is, after correct de- ally be given for it, and the latter is often tasteless withlineation, the most important matter to be attended out it. My whole applies equally to spring, summer, to. Though, properly speaking, all distinguishing autumn, and winter; and both fish and tesh, praise and marks are included under it, it is more generally used censure, mirth and melancholy, are the better for being

in it. Ans. Sea-son.' to designate those which mark individual from individual, than species from species, or genus from As a specimen of the second class of charades, genus.

we take the following happy example from the CHARACTER TO SERVANT. The master is French: under no legal obligation, either in England or in

Quatre membres font tout mon bien, Scotland, to give a character to his servant, how

Mon dernier vaut mon tout, et mon tout ne vaut rien.' ever long, faithfully, or efficiently he may have The word is zero. It is composed of four letters, of served him; the duty of bearing testimony in his which the last-viz., 0, is equal to zero ; the wliole, favour being one which, however binding in morality, zero itself, being equal to nothing. it has not been found convenient to enforce by posi- But besides charades of this nature, there is tive law; but, if given, the character must be strictly another kind rather popular at evening-parties-true, or, at all events, in accordance with the mas- the acted C.: the character of which is entirely ter's belief, otherwise he may be exposed to an | dramatic. Half a dozen or so of the company

[graphic]

CHARADRIADÆ_CHARGE.

tators.

Ocean.

the word.

C. is divided into

retire to a private apartment, and there agree to runs north-west past Suintes, and falls into the select a certain word, as the subject of the C.; let i Atlantic below Rochefort, and opposite the islands us suppose INNKEEPER. The next thing done is to Oiéron and Aix. This river gives its name to two take the first syllable, Inn, and arrange a little scene departments, both remarkable for the productive and dialogue, each member taking a certain part. ness of their vineyards; but the wines are mostly This being accomplished, the amateur actors return used in the preparation of brandy and liqueurs. to the drawing-room, and commence their perform

CHARENTE, a department of France, formed ance, the rest of the company constituting the spee, chiefly out of the old province of Angoumois, and

Care is taken to mention conspicuously, and situated in lat. 45° 10 -16° 8' N., and long. 0° 50' yet not obtrusively, in the course of the dialogue, E. and 0° 30' W. Area, about 2200 square miles. the word Inn, which is the subject of the scene. Pop. 379,081. It is generally hilly, and is watered On its couclusion, they again retire, and devise a new series of incidents for the word KEEPER, gene- tributaries, the Tardonère and the Bandiat, with

by the river Charente, above noticed, and its rally something in comection with a menagerie or a the rivers Vienne and Dronne. The highest chain madhouse. This being also represented, they retire of hills in the north of C. is a continuation of the for a third time, to contrive the final scene, into heights of limousin, forming the watershed towards

or keeper, must be dexterously introduced at an odd that the basin of the C. was once filled by the

the Loire. Remains of marine productions show moment when the spectators are thought to be off

The soil is mostly liniestone, here and there the scent.

In order to the effective performance of interrupted by banks of clay and gravel. Only a a C. of this sort, the actors must possess a good portion of the arroidissement Confolens has a rich

The clay-soil is cool and share of inventiveness, self-possession, and ready moist, while the limestone district is dry and hot. talli, as the greater portion of the dialogue has to be the hills are in many places clad with chestnut extemporised.

forests. The climate is generally mild and healthy. CHARADRI'ADÆ, a large family of birds, of the The wines grown are spirituous and fiery in flavour, order Grallatores, and tribe Pressirostres, chiefly and are chiefly used in the manufacture of Cognac, abounding in the temperate parts of the Old World, which forms the most important of the exports. and generally frequenting sandy unsheltered shores Truffles grow abundantly in several parts. Industry and open moors and downs. They have a short bill, is in rather a backward condition. generally soft at the base, hard and often a little in the five arrondissements of Angoulême, Cognac, flated towards the tip; long and powerful wings; Ruffec, Barbezieux, and Coufolens. long legs; and short toes, generally only three in

CHARENTE-INFÉRIEURE, a maritime departa number, and all directed forwarıl, but sometimes ment of France, which includes the former province they have also a very small hinder toe. They run of Angoumois, with the greater part of Saintonge, with great swiftness; they generally congregate in and a small portion of Poitou. It lies in lat. 45° 6' flocks, at least during certain parts of the year;

-16° 19' N., and long. 0° 7' E.-1° 13' W. The many of them are nocturnal in their habits; many Bay of Biscay washes its western boundary—the are migratory. The Plovers (Charadrius) have given their name to the family, which includes also 100 miles. Area, 2740 miles. Pop. 481,060. It is

coast-line, which is very broken, measuring about Lapwings, Pratincoles, Oyster-catchers, Turnstones, watered on its boundaries by the Sèvre-Niortaise and Sanderlings, &c.

the Gironde, and in the centre by the navigable CHARBON ROUGE, or RED CHARCOAL, is a Charente and the coast-stream Sendre. The surface variety of charcoal obtained by sulojecting wood to is level; and the soil-near the coast, intersected by the action of heated air from furnaces, or of steam, ridges of ro«k and sand-banks, and protected from which has been raised to a temperature of 572° F. the sea by dikes--is mostly chalky and sandy, but Air-dried wood, by the ordinary process of charring, very fertile, producing

hemp, flax, saffron, and wine yields at the best 21 to 26 per cent. of black char- in great quantities. The commerce, facilitated by coal; but when acted on by heated air or steam, the structure of the coast, and by canals in the inas mentioned above, 36 or 42 per cent. of C. R. is terior, is considerable, consisting chiefly of brandy ohtained. It is now prepared largely in France and sea-salt, which is found in the department in and Belgiuin, and is used in stoves for heating, great abundance. The oyster and pilchard fisheries and in the preparation of gunpowder. It has a are inportant. The chief harbours are those of dark-red colour, and consists of about 75 per Rochefort, and La Rochelle, the latter of which is cent. pure carbon, and 25 per cent, hydrogen and the chief town. C. is divided into the six arrondisse

ments of La Rochelle, Rochefort, Marennes, Saintes, CIIA'RCOAL is a popular term applied to charred Jonzac, and St. Jean-d'Angely. wood, or coal produced by charring wood. There

CHARENTON-LE-PONT, a town of France, in the are several other varieties of C., however, for which department of Seine, situated on the right bank of see CARBON, ANIMAL CHARCOAL, Wood CHARCOAL, the Marne, 5 miles south-east of Paris. The bridge COKE, BLACK-LEAD, &c.

over the river, which is important, from a military CHARCOAL BLACKS are made both from point of view, being considered one of the keys of animal and vegetable substances-e. g., burnt ivory, the capital, and which has frequently been the scene bones, vine-twigs, peach-stones, nut and other shells, of conflicts, is defended by two forts, forming a part the smoke of rosin condensed, &c. Those which of the fortifications of Paris. At the other side of are derived from vegetable substances, when mixed the river is the National Lunatic Asylum, formerly with white, are usually of a blue tint. See LAMP called Charenton St. Maurice, and now St. Maurice, BLACK.

simply. Pop. 3700. CHARENTE, a considerable river in the west of CHARGE, in Heraldry. The figures represented France, rises in the department of Haute-Vienne, on a shield are called charges, and a shield with about 14 miles north-west of Chalus. It first flows figures upon it is said to be charged (Fr, chargé). north-west to Civray, where it turns southward The charges in a shield ought to be few in number, into the department of Charente to Angoulême, and strongly marked, both as regards their charthence it flows westward past Châteauneuf, Jarnac, acter and the mode of their representation. The and Cognac, and entering Charente-Inférieure, it | family shield belonging to the head of the house,

oxygen.

CHARGE-CHARITY COMMISSIONERS.

almost always is simpler, i. e., has fewer charges the city, and was often adorned with splendid art. than the shields of collaterals, or even of junior The war-C. beld two persons--ths soldier himself and members.

the driver, the latter of wliom usually occupied the CHARGE, in Military Warfare, is a sudden and front; but the chariots used by the Romans in their impetuous attack on the enemy, by horse or foot, or public games beld only thė charioteer.

The oldest war-chiariots of which we read are both. Its object usually is to drive the enemy from a particular position ; but if made with a much those of Pharaoh (Exodus xiv. 7). All the eastern stronger force, it may result in his actual destruction. nations used them, while we learn from Cæsar (De

Bell. Gall., v. 19) that the Britons also were familiar CHARGE, in Military Pyrotechny, is sufficient

with their use. combustible material for one firing or discharge. It is applicable to all kinds of firings, fireworks, and CHA'RITABLE USES AND LAW OF CHARIexplosions; but the name is generally given to the TIES. The law of England has always anxiously, quantity of gunpowder requisite for firing off a gun, though too often ineffectually, sought to provide &c. In cannon, this varies greatly, from / to jo of for the preservation and proper application of the the weight of the shot; some of the rifled ordnance munificent private endowments in that country for now coming into use are remarkable for the small- charitable purposes. The preceding efforts of the ness of the C. with which they are fired. The quota legislature in this direction may now be said to of C. will be mentioned in connection with the have been superseded by the Charitable Trusts Act various kinds of firearms described in the Encyclo- of 1853 (16 and 17 Vict. c. 137; amended by 18 pædia. In breaching a wall, a greater C. is neces- and 19 Vict. c. 124, and 20 and 21 Vict. c. 76). See sary than in attacking a ship or a column of troops, CHARITY COMMISSIONERS. As these statutes 10W even with the same kind of gun and projectile. contain a species of code of charity-law, it will

CHARGE. In the law of Scotland, a C. is a com- here only be necessary to mention certain general mand to perform an act, conveyed in the letters of principles which govern the law of England in its

relation to charities. the sovereign. The same term is applied to a mes

The courts of equity are senger's copy for service, requiring the person to those which in general take cognizance of all obey the order contained in the letters-e. g., a C. charitable uses, or trusts of a public description. on letters of horning, or a C. against a superior.

Under the authority of these tribunals—or, in cases

in which the annual income does not exceed £30, CHARGER is a name sometimes given to a war- in accordance with the act just quoted, under that horse, accustomed to the din of battles, and reliable of the county courts of the district-trustees may under circumstances of confusion and danger. In be called to account for the funds committed to the middle ages, when armour was used, and gun; their charge, or new trustees may be appointed, powder unknown, the military horses were barbed improrident'alienations may be rescinded, schemes or barded when ridden by men-at-arms-that is

, they for carrying the donor's ohject into effect may be were nearly covered with armour. head, and the ears were covered with a mask called judicially considered and adopted, and every species

of relief afforded which such institutions require. a chanfron, to prevent fright when charging, the Where the management of the charity has been enemy; and an iron spike projected from the middle confided by the donor to governors and other of the forehead. The neck was defended by small functionaries, the law will not interfere with their plates called crinières ; the breast by a poitrinal ; proceedings unless they can be shown to be squanand the buttocks and haunches by croupières. These dering the revenues or otherwise abusing the trust. various pieces of armour were mostly made of metal, Where the crown is founder, the Lord Chancellor is but sometimes of tough leather. occasionally covered with chain-mail; and in other visitor, but in his personal character only, and not instances with a gambeson of stuffed and quilted nature of the trusts to which the equitable jurisdic

as judge of the Court of Chancery. As regards the cloth. The man at-arms generally rode another tian of the chancery extends, it is necessary to horse when not charging, to relieve the C. from his remark that the word charitable here includes instigreat burden. The barhed or bardé horse received tutions for the advancement of learning, science, and its name from an old French word implying covered, art, and, indeed, for all useful public purposes, as clothed, or armed. A war-horse is still called a C., well as for the support of the poor. It also comthough not armed as in ancient times.

prises all donations for pious and religious objects, CHARGÉS D'AFFAIRES are fourth-class diplo- under which are included all those which tend to the matic agents, accredited, not to the sovereign, but benefit of the Church of England, or of any body of to the department for foreign affairs ; they also hold dissenters sanctioned by law. Roman Catholics their credentials only from the minister, and are were admitted into this category by 2 and 3 Will. c. sometimes only empowered by an ambassador to act 115, and Jews by 9 and 10 Vict. c. 59, s. 2. The in his absence.

charity, or other benevolent purpose, however, must CH A'RIOT, in ancient times, was a kind of car- be public ; 'for if a sum of money be bequeathed, riage used either for pleasure or in war. Accordizg with direction to apply it to such purposes of beneto the Greeks, it was invented by Minerva ; while volence and liberality as the executor shall approve,' Virgil ascribes the honour to Erichthonius, a mythi- or even “in private charity,' the law will take no cal king of Athens, who is said to have appeared at notice of such a trust. the Panathenaic festival founded by him, in a car Legacies to pious or charitable uses are not by drawn by four horses. The ancient Č. had only two the law of England entitled to a preference, though wheels, which revolved upon the axle, as in modern such was the doctrine of the civilians; but where a carriages. The pole was fixed at its lower extremity deficiency of assets arises, they are abated in proporto the axle, and at the other end was attached to the tion with the others. yoke, either by a pin or by ropes.

The Greeks and

CHA'RITY, SISTERS OF. See SISTERS OF CHARRomans seem never to have used more than one pole, but the Lydians had carriages with two or three. In general, the C. was drawn by two horses. CHARITY COMMI’SSIONERS. A body of comSuch was the Roman Biga (q. v.), but we also read missioners was created in 1853, by the Charitable of a triga, or three-horse C., and a quadriga, or four- Trusts Act, 16 and 17 Vict. c. 137 (see CHARITABLE

The last was that in which the Roman Cses), with power to inquire into all charities generals rode during their triumphal entrance into in England and Wales, with reference to their

ITY.

horse one.

CHARIVARI-CHARLEMAGNE.

The Lombard dukes

venna.

ܪ

the

nature, objects, and administration, and the amount CHARLEMAGNE, i. e. Charles the Great, king and condition of the property belonging to them. of the Franks (768–814 A. D.), and Roman emThe commissioners have power to call for the pro- peror (800—814 A. n.), was born on 20 April, 742, duction of accounts and documents from trustees, probably at Aix-la-Chapelle, and was the son of and to appoint inspectors to visit and report on their Pepin the Short, the first Carlovingian (q. v.) king of management. The statute does not extend to Scot- the Franks, and grandson of Charles Martel (q. v.). land or Ireland, to the English universities, or to On Pepin's death in 768, he and his brother Carlóthe city of London. An annual report of their pro- man jointly succeeded to the throne. By Carloman's ceedings must be laid before parliament by the com- death, and the exclusion of both his sons from the missioners.

throne, C. became sole king. In 772, it was resolved

in the Diet at Worms to make war against the a to nate a wild tumult and uproar, produced by the Saxons, for the security of the frontiers, which they beating of pans, kettles, and dishes, mingled with continually threatened, and for the extension of

the Christian religion. C. advanced as far as the whistling, bawling, groans, and hisses, and got up Weser in 772, securing his conquests by castles and for the purpose of expressing a general dislike to the person against whom it is directed. The etymo- aid against Desiderius, king of the Lonibards. C

garrisons. Pope Adrian I. now called him to his logy of C. is obscure; the Germans translate it by had married the daughter of Desiderius, and had Katzenmusik, the English of which is caterwauling. sent her back to her father because she bore him In France, during the iniddle ages, a C. was gener, no children, and married Hildegarde, daughter of ally raised against persons contracting second the Swabian duke, Godfrey. Desiderius had sought nuptials, in which case the widow was specially assailed. On these occasions, the participators in it

, of Carloman, and on the pope's refusal, had laid who were masked, accompanied their hubbub by the singing of satirical and indecent verses, and would waste the papal territory. C. crossed the Alps from not cease till the wedding couple had purchased and Mont Cenis, in 773, and overthrew the kingdom

Geneva, with two armies, by the Great St. Bernard their peace by ransom. C. answers to the English

of the Lombards in 774. concert upon marrow-bon's and cleavers,' with which it was customary to attack a married couple pope's favour by confirming the gift which Pepin

acknowledged him as their king, and he secured the who lived in notorious discord. It was also got up had made to the papul see, of the exarchate of Raagainst an unequal match, such as where there

In 775, he was again employed in the most was great disparity in age between the bride and bridegroom.

northerly part of his dominions, reducing the Saxons

to subjection; in 776, he suppressed an insurrection Similar customs seem to have existed under different names in all parts of Europe, and some

in Italy ; in 777, he so completed his victory over times they were of such a licentious and violent the Saxons, that their nobles generally acknowcharacter as to require military interference to put Paderborn. Being now invited to interpose in the

ledged him as their sovereign in an assembly at them down. Even as early as the 14th c., church found itself forced to threaten punishment, to that country in 778, and added to his dominions

wars of the Arabs and Moors in Spain, he hastened and even excommunication, against those who par- the regions between the Pyrenees and the Ebro. ticipated in them. In.more recent times, the C. has From Spain he was summoned in haste by a new taken a purely political colouring; as, for example, insurrection of part of the Saxons, who had adduring the Restoration in France, at which time, vanced almost to Cologne, but whom he drove however, the popular voice began to seek vent by

back to the Elbe. casting its satirical darts against public men through the pope crowned his second son, Pepin, king of

In 781, he went to Italy, where the press. The papers published for this purpose were called C., the most famous among which is the Italy, and his third son, Louis, an infant of three CHARIVARI, which was established in Paris, Decem- years old, king of Aquitaine. The Saxons once ber 2, 1832, corresponding to the English publication, Frankish army on the Süntel in 782, which c., after

more rising in arms, defcated and destroved a Punch,

a new victory, fearfully revenged by causing no CHARKO'V. See KIARKOV.

fewer than 4500 prisoners to be executed as rebels CHA'RLATAN, a mountebank, quack-doctor, or in one day. A more general rising of the Saxons empiric, and hence any one who makes loud preten- followed, but in 783_-785, the Frankish monarch sions to knowledge or skill that he does not possess. succeeded in reducing them completely to subThe word seems to be derived from the Ital. ciarlare, jection, and in persuading their principal chiefs to babble or talk, the chief art of the C. consisting to submit to baptism, and to become his faithful in talk. Charlatanism abounds in all departments vassals. Subsequent insurrections and wars in Gerof life, and manifests itself in various ways accord- many, between this year and 800, resulted in vicing to the subject and character of the person. It tories over the Bulgarians and Huns, and in the changes also in form with the spirit of the time. further consolidation and extension of his empire, The medical C. no longer appears on a stage in the the eastern boundary of which now reached to the guise of Doctor Ironbeard, but as a fine-dressed Raab. gentleman, receiving grateful acknowledgments In 800, C. undertook an Italian campaign, which through the newspapers, and publishing popular was attended with the most important consequences. medical books, with the address of the author, and Its immediate purpose was to support Pope Leo. III. recoinmendations to apply to him. It has not un- against the rebellious Romans. When C., on Christfrequently happened, however, that extraordinary mas Day, 800, was worshipping in St. Peter's Church, men who were so far before their age as not to be the pope unexpectedly, as it appeared, set a crown understood by it, such as Paracelsus, have passed upon his head, and, anid the acclamations of the for charlatans until more justly estimated by later people, saluted him as Carolus Augustus, emperor times. Several books have been written on the of the Romans. Although this added nothing charlatanism of scholars. J. B. Mencke's satire, directly to his power, yet it greatly confirmed and De Charlataneria Eruditorum (Leip. 1715), is a increased the respect entertained for him, such was classical work, which has been continued by Büschel still the lustre of a title with which were associated in his book, Uber die Charlatanerie der Gelehrten seit recollections of all the greatness of the Roman emMercke.

pire. A scheme for the union of the newly revived CHARLEROI-CHARLES.

Western Empire with the Empire of the East, I a protracted and desperate resistance, it wils by C.'s marriage with Irene (q. v.), the Byzantine surrendered to the French by capitulation, when the empress, failed by reason of Irene's overthrow. fortifications were demoiished. The importance of After this, C. still extended and confirmed his con- the place in a strategic point of view having become quests both in Spain and Germany. He laboured apparent during the campaign of 1815, the fortificato bring the Saxons to a general reception of tions have beeu since restored. Christianity, and founded bishoprics for this purpose, To the end of his reign, he was incessantly engaged

CHARLES,

surnamed

MARTEL-i. e. the in wars, and insurrections were always apt to break Hammer-was the son of Pepin of Heristal, mayor out in the frontier parts of his dominions; which he of the palace under the last Merovingian kings, endeavoured to secure, however, not only by military and was born about 690 A. D. After his father's power and arraugements, but by improvements

death in 114, he was proclaimed mayor of the palace in political and social institutions. His views by the Austrasian party. King Chilperic and he were liberal and enlightened to a degree rare for now quarrelied, and a civil war arose, which ended many subsequent ages. Whilst he made the power in C. becoming undisputed mayor of the palace and of the central government to be felt to the utmost ruler of the Franks. During the latter years of his extremities of his empire, he recognised in his life, he indeed allowed the nominal throne to remain subjects civil rights, and a limitation of monarchic occupied—the titular kings bưiig mere puppets power by their assemblies. He zealously endea- in bis hands. He was much engaged in wars against voured to promote education, agriculture, arts, the revolten Alemanni and Bavarians, the Saxons, manufactures, and commerce. He projected great &c., but his importance as a historic personage is national works, one of which was a canal to con-chiefly due to his wars against the Saracens, who, nect the Rhine and the Danube; but he deemed having conquered Septimania from the Western nothing beneath his attention which concerned Goths in 720, advanced thence into Aquitaine, the interests of his empire or of his subjects. conquered Bordeaux, defeated the Duke of Aquitaine, He required his subjects to plant certain kinds crossed tlie Garonne, advanced to the Loire, alid of fruit-trees, the cultivation of which was thus threatened Tours. C. defeated them between Tours extended northward in Europe. His own domains and Poictiers in 732, in a great battle, in which were an example of superior cultivation. Ile had their leader, Abd-ur-Ralımân, fell, and a stop was a school in bis palace for the sons of bis servants. put to their progress in Europe, which had filled all He built sumptuous palaces, pirticularly at his Christendom with alarm. He defeated them again favourite residences, Aix-lot-Chapelle and Ingelheim in 738, when they had advanced in the Burgundian --for he had no fixed capital and many churches. territories as far as Lyon; deprived them of Learned men were encouraged to come to his court. Languedoc, which he added to the kingdom of the He himself possessed an aniount of learning unusual Franks; and left them nothing of their possessions in his age; he could speak Latin and read Greek. north of the Pyrenees beyond the river Aude. He He attempted to draw up a grammar of his own

died on the 22d October 741, at Quiercy on tlie Oise, language." C. was of more than ordinary stature, in the midst of his victories, his projects, and his and of a noble and commanding appearance.

He greatness, leaving the government of the kingdom was fond of manly exercises, particularly of hunting to be divided between his two sons-Carloman, and He was too amorous, but in eating and drinking he Pepin the Short. was very moderate. His fame spread

CHARLES, Archduke of Austria, third son of to all parts of the world: in 768, the Emperor Leopold II., was born at Florence, llarun-al-Rasclid sent ambassadors 5th September 1771. Whilst yet a youth, he purto salute him. He enjoyed gooil sued military studies with much ardour; and after health till shortly before his death, having greatly distinguished himself as a general in 28th January 814. Ile was buried at inferior commands, he was intrusted, in 1796, with

Aix-la-Chapelle (q. v.), in a church the chief command of the Austrian army on the Crown of C., which he had built there. He was Rhine. He fought with great success against Moreau now at Vienna. succeeded by his son Louis, styled at Rastadt, defeated Jourdan in several battles,

Louis le Débonnaire, the only one of drove the French over the Rhine, and concluded his sons who survived him; but the greatness of is his victories by taking Kehl in the winter. In 1799, dynasty terminated with his own life. C. is styled he was again at the head of the army on the Rhine, Charles I. in the enumeration both of the French

was several tinies victorious ovor Jourdan, protected kings and of the German or Roman emperors. Swabia, and successfully opposed Massena. In 1800, Besides his capitularies (q. v.), there are extant, bad health compelled him to retire from active letters and Latin poems ascribed to him. His life service; but being appointed governor-general of was written by his secretary, Eginhard.

Bohemia, he formed a new army there. After the CHARLEROI, a Belgian town and fortress in battle of Hohenlinden, he was again called to the the province of Hainaut, stands on the Sambre, chief command, and succeeded in staying the rapid between Mons and Namur, on the line of the progress of Moreau, but almost immediately entered Brussels and Namur railway. The population is into an armistice with him, which was followed by about 6500, who carry on considerable mannfactures the peace of Luneville. In 1805, he commanded the in hardware, glass, woollen-varn, &c. The district is army opposed to Massena in Italy, and fought the rich in coal, and the nuniber of smelting-furnaces hard battle of Caldiero; but upon bad tidings from and nail-factories in the neighbourhood is very Germany, retreated from the left bank of the Adige great. The ironworks of Couliers, which yield a to Croatia. This retreat was one of his greatest third of all the cast iron produced in Belgium, lie military achievements. In 1809, he won the great within a mile or two of the town. C. possesses battle of Aspern, which first shewed to Europe considerable historical and political interest as a that Napoleon was not invincible; but he did not fortress. The fortifications were begun by the promptly enough follow up his victory, and NapoSpaniards in 1666, but falling into the hands of the leon, who hastened to reinforce his arnıy, retrieved French next year, they were completed by Vauban. his fortunes at Wagram, and the archduke was now After six exchanges of masters between the French compelled to give way before the enemy, till ne and Spaniards, the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748, reached Znaim, where an armistice was concluded left C. in the possession of Austria. In 1794, after on 12th July. In the campaigns of 1813 aud 1814

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