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at Parisma fac-simile of which was edited by Christians. It originally include d only the canon of Tischendorf, Leip. 1843), and C. Cantabrigiensis, or the Old Testament, and was probably the work of C. Bezce (given by Beza to the university of Cam- some Christian author or authors-though Simon, bridge, a fac-simile being issued by Th. Kipling, Frankel, and others maintain that the Pentateuch 1793). Of these, the Codex Vaticanus is considered must have been translated by a Jew living near the to be the oldest, but Tischendorf, in 1859, brought close of the 2d c. It was undoubtedly executed before the notice of biblical scholars a Sinaitic Ms., from the original Hebrew text, to which it closely which he believed to belong, 'beyond a doubt, to the adheres. Several Arabic versions were founded on first half of the 4th c., and to be, therefore, the the Peshito.-5. The later Arabic versions, executed oldest now extant in the world. Of this MS. a fac- during the middle ages, partly from the Hebrew simile edition of 300 copies was produced in 1861. Antext, and partly from the Samaritan Pentateuch.English Edition of the N. T. was published by Tauch- 6. The Persian translation of the Pentateuch, made nitz in 1869 with foot-note readings from the above by a Jew nanied Jacob, not earlier than the 9th c.-Cordexes.

17. The Latin Vulgate (q. v.). The earliest division of the New Testament into Anong ancient versions of the New Testament we verses of which we read is that made by Euthalius, may notice three in Syriac : the first is the Peshito, Deacon of Alexandria, 462 A.D. He arranged those with a twofold secondary translation of the four words that were related to each other by the sense gospels into Arabic and Persian. It does not, howinto stichoi or lines. Subsequently, to save space, ever, contain 2d Peter, 2d and 3d John, Jude, or the a colon or point was substituted, until, finally, a Apocalypse, which, at a later period, were classed complete system of punctuation arose. In the 13th among the antilegomena, or disputed books. The c., as we have already seen, the division into chap- second, or Philoxenian, prepared in 508, under the ters took place, and in the 16th the versicular direction of Philoxenius, Bishop of Hierapolis. It no division was perfected by Stephens. The argu- longer exists, but a counterpart of it dues, in the ments or contents prefixed to the several chapters | translation made in the following century (616 A.D.) are also of modern origin.

by Thomas of Harkel or Heraclea, the successor of B. Versions or Translations.--These may be Philoxenius. The best MS. of this version is one divided into ancient and modern. The ancient which belonged to Ridley, and is now in the archives translations of the Old Testament from the origin of the new College, Oxford. It includes all the nal Hebrew may be classed as follows: 1. Greek. books of the New Testament excepting the Apoca-The earliest of these is the Alexandrine or lypse. The style is slavishly literal. It was edited Septuagint (q. v.), after which come respectively by White, Oxford, 1778. The third, or Jerusalemthe translations by Aquila (q. v.), Theodotion (q. v.), Syriac version, preserved in a Vatican MS. of and Symmachus (q. v.). The whole of these, with 1030, but which is probably a copy from an older fragments of others by unknown authors, were version of the 7th c. With the above Syriac vergiven by Origen in his Hexapla (q. v.). The Versio sions we may class the Ethiopic translation ; the Veneta, a Greek translation of several books of the Egyptian duplex version, made probably in the Old Testament, made in the 14th c., and preserved latter part of the 3d c., and of considerable critical in the St. Mark's library, Venice, was published / value; the Armenian, Georgian, Persian, and Copticby Villoison at Strasburg, in 1784. Several carly Arabic. Besides these may be mentioned the old versions were also based on the Septuagint; but for Italic; the Vulgate by Jerome; the Gothic translathat reason do not possess an independent value, tion by the Arian Bishop Ulphilas (about the middle being for the most part simply translations of a of the 4th c.), of which the most famous MS. is translation. Among these may be mentioned the preserved in the library of Upsal, in Sweden (this old Latin version or Italic (q. v.), improved by has only the four gospels, and not even these in perJerome (382 A.D.); the Syriac, including the Versio fect condition); the various Anglo-Saxon versions of Figurata, made some time before Christ, but only parts of Scripture, which seem to have been executed partially preserved and collated by Jacob of Edessa, during the years 709—995 A.D.; and the Slavonic. in the beginning of the 8th c.; and that by Paul, Modern Translations. During the middle ages, Bishop of Tela (617 A.D.); the Ethiopic, made by when the laity were considered by the priesthood certain Christians in the 4th c. ; the duplex Egyptian unfit to be intrusted with the B. as a whole, various (3d or 4th c.), the one being in the language of poetical versions such,as the Gospel History, by Lower Egypt, and termed the Coptic or Memphitic, Otfried von Weissenburg, and the version of Job and the other in the language of Upper Egypt, and of the Psalms by Notker-Labco (980 A.D.) and termed the Sahidic or Thebaic ; the Armenian, served a very important object, and stimulated tho by Miesrob and his pupils in the 5th c. ; the Geor- desire for more biblical information. As early as gian, of the 6th c.; the Slavonian, commonly 1170, Petrus Waldus caused the New Testament ascribed, but for unsatisfactory reasons, to the to be translated into the Provençal dialect by missionaries Methodius and Cyrillus in the 9th c. ; Etienne d'Anse. This important work was followed lastly, several Arabic translations of the 10th and by the translations made under Louis the Pioue 11th centuries.-2. The Chaldaic translations or (1227) and Charles the Wise (1380), the B. Hisa Targums. These had an early origin ; but, with tory (Bible ystoricus) by Guyars of Moulins (1286), the exception of those of Onkelos, and Ben Uzziel, the Spanish version under Alfonso V. in the 13th are unsatisfactory in a critical point of view. See c., the English by Wickliffe, and the Bohemian TARGUM.-3. The remarkably literal translation version of John Huss. After the invention of into the Aramaic dialect of the later Samaritans, printing-especially after the latter part of the of the ancient copy of the Pentateuch, possessed by 15th c.--the harbingers of a new ecclesiastical era the Samaritans, and supposed to be derived from appeared in numerous republications of the translated MSS. in use among the Israelites in the days of B.--the Bohemian (Prague, 1448); the Italian, by Rehoboam. It is of unknown age and authorship, the Benedictine Nic. Malherbi (1471); the French, but certainly older than the 3d c. after Christ. by Des Moulins (1477-1546); the Dutch (Delf, The later Samaritans conceived Nathanael, the high- 1477); the Spanish (1478—1515); but, above all, in priest, to be the author (20 B.c.), while Gesenius con- the seventeen German translations before Luther, siders it to have been executed shortly after the time of which five were printed before 1477, and the of Christ.-4. The Church translation, known as the remainder in the Low-German dialect during 1477-. Peshito ('true or literal'), received by all the Syriac / 1518.

wel

Luther's translation of the B. is universally I layman belonging to the Inner Temple, published esteemed by the best German scholars as a master- an edition, the text of which is based on that of piece of general interpretation. It displays qualities Matthew's Bible. In 1557 appeared the famous far superior to those ordinarily expected in a trans- ,Geneva B.. so called because the translation was lation--deep insight, true sympathy with the tone executed there by several English divines, who had of the Hebrew Scriptures, and a perfect command fled from the persecutions of the bloody Mary. of clear, popular language; indeed, every one who Among these may be mentioned Gilby and Whittingcan thoroughly appreciate the merits of this great ham. This edition the first printed in Roman letwork, will be ready to excuse the boldness of the ter and divided into verses-was accompanied by assertion, that it was rather a re-writing than a notes, which showed a strong leaning to the views mere translation of the B.,' a transfusion of the of Calvin and Beza. It was, in consequence, long original spirit into a new language, rather than a the favourite version of the English Puritans and mere version of the letter. The New Testament was the Scotch Presbyterians. It is, however, best finished by Luther at Wartburg, and appeared in known as the Breeches B., on account of the renderSeptember 1522. In the following year, the five ing of Genesis iii. 7: Then the eyes of them both books of Moses appeared; and, in 1534, the remain- were opened, and they knew that they were naked, ing part of the Old Testament canon was completed and they sewed fig-tree leaves together, and made along with the Apocrypha. With wonderful rapidity, themselves breeches.' In 1568, the Bishop's B. was this translation was circulated throughout Germany. published at London. The text of this was comIn the course of forty years, one bookseller, Hans pared with the original by eight bishops, and Luft of Wittenberg, sold 100,000 copies; an astonish- several other scholars of reputation, who appended ing number, when we consider the price of books in their initials to their respective tasks; the whole the 16th c. It was reprinted thirty-eight times in being under the superintendence of Matthew Parker, Germany before 1559, and meanwhile, the New Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1582 appeared at Testament had been separately printed in seventy- Rheims, in France, an English version of the New two editions. Numerous other translations in Dutch, Testament, prepared by several Roman Catholic Swedish, &c., were based upon the work of Luther, exiles; and in 1609-1610, a similar version of the

English Translations of the Bible.--England was Old Testament at Douay. Both were taken from the very late in commencing to print even portions Vulgate, and form the standard English Scriptures of Scripture. Long after Germany, France, Spain, of the Roman Catholics, being generally known as Italy, Holland, and other countries, had issued the Douay Bible. vernacular versions of the B., that land continued | We now come to the version which has been in to sit in darkness. The earliest attempt was a common use for nearly 250 years, generally called translation of the seven penitential psalms in 1505. King James's Bible. At the Hampton Court ConNo doubt, a very considerable number of MSS. ference in January 1604, Dr. Rainolds, an eminent circulated among the people; but still we may Puritan, suggested a new translation as a great

ask: What were these among so many ? | national want; and this, though opposed by the Such a question the noble martyr, William Tyndale Bishop of London, was sanctioned by the king. (q. v.), seems to have put to himself, and bravely he Arrangements were at once made for carrying out answered it, vowing that “if God would spare his the project. In July, the king wrote a letter, intilife, ere many years he would cause the boy who mating the appointment of 54 scholars for the predriveth the plough to know more of the Scriptures paration of the version, and instructing the bishops than did all the priests. To accomplish his pur- that whenever 'a living of twenty pounds' became pose, he passed over to the continent. "Before 1526, vacant, they should inform his majesty of the cirhe had completed an English translation of the New cumstance, in order that he might recommend one Testament, which appeared 'both in quarto and duo of the translators to the patron. This was all that decimo. In the beginning of 1526, the volumes were James did on behalf of the translation which bears secretly conveyed into England, where they were his name. The expenses seem to have been borne bought up and burned, which, however, only stimu- by Barker, the printer and patentee, who paid the lated Tyndale to greater exertions. Of the admirable sum of £3500. Of the 54 scholars who had been character of his translation, we have a sufficient nominated to the work, only 47 undertook it. testimony in this fact, that in our present version These were divided into six companies, two of a very large portion of the New Testament is taken which were to meet at Westminster, two at Camalmost verbatim from Tyndale's Testament. Tyndale bridge, and two at Oxford. The first company at next proceeded to prepare a version of the Old Westminster translated the Pentateuch and the Testament out of the original Hebrew, and in 1530, historical books to the end of 2d Kings; the first at he published the Pentateuchi, aud in the following Cambridge, from the beginning of Chronicles to the year, the book of Jonah. The first English version end of Canticles; and the first at Oxford undertook of the whole B. was that published by Miles Cover the remaining books of the Old Testament canon. dale, a friend of Tyndale. It is dated 1535, and The second company at Westminster translated dedicated to Henry VIII., but where printed, is the apostolic epistles; the second at Cambridge, the unknown. It is much inferior to Tyndales. The Apocrypha ; and the second at Oxford, the gospels, next English B. issued was called Matthew's B., the Acts of the Apostles, and the Apocalypse. from the circumstance that the editor assumed the According to Selden, they then met together, and name of Thomas Matthew, but was simply Tyndale's one read the translation, the rest holding in their version revised by his friend John Rogers, who also hands some B., either of the learned tongues, or translated those books in the Old Testanient which French, Spanish, Italian, &c. If they found any the martyr had not been able to overtake. It was fault, they spoke ; if not, he read on. When a finished in 1537, and Cranmer obtained for it the portion was finished by one of the company, it patronage of Henry, though that monarch had per- was sent to all the others in succession for their secuted Tyndale sonie years before. Matthew's B. deliberative examination; and whenever a difference soon superseded Coverdale's. In April 1539, appeared of opinion was elicited, reference was made to a the Great B., usually called Cranmer's, because he committee. The final revision of the whole was wrote a preface to it. It was a large volume for use conducted in London by two delegates from each in churches. The text was Tyndale's revised. In the of the six companies. These twelve scholars, in same year, Richard Taverner, a learned but eccentric / the discharge of their critical functions, met daily

BIBLE-BIBLE SOCIETY.

in the old hall of the Stationers' Company for nine | B.-reading by the laity. On the contrary, as the months. The work of translation and revision foundation on which the Church was built, and the occupied from 1607 to 1610. The superiority of the sole source of religious knowledge, the reading of authorised version soon proved itself; for though the B. formed an essential part of the instruction there were several rivals in the field, and no steps communicated by pastors to their congregations; were taken to secure for it a preference, it quickly and the greatest orators of the Church-especially gained the foremost place, and in the course of forty Chrysostom and Augustine-continually reminded years from its publication, all others had quietly their hearers that private reading and study of succumbed to it; it became, and has ever since re- the Scriptures should follow attendance on public mained the English Bible. Its ascendency, and its services. This great fact is by no means contraexclusive use among all classes in Great Britain, dicted by the warnings found, here and there, in and in her vast colonies, can only be traced to its the Fathers against abuse or mistake of the meanintrinsic excellence. Of late, however, there has ing of Scripture; these warnings rather imply that been an agitation for the preparation of a new Eng. Scripture-reading was common among the laity. lish version.

The gradual widening of the distinction, or rather The exclusive right to print the present authorised the separation, between the clergy and the laity, was version has been claimed by the Crown, ever since the work of the middle ages; and, among other the date of its first publication, and under this royal means of preserving traditions inviolate and mainprerogative, the B. is printed in different forms, and taining the exclusive character and sacred authority sold wholesale by certain patentees and licensees in of the hierarchy, the B. was held in the backEngland, Scotland, and Ireland. This claim, which ground, even while there was no direct prohibition does not practically affect Bibles with notes, has of its common use. In 1080, Gregory VII. ordained lately been much remonstrated against as a mono- that Latin should be the universal language of poly injurious to the free circulation of the Scrip- Catholic worship, and consequently excluded all tures at a moderate price, and a modification is now vernacular readings of Scripture in public assemlooked for (See Book TRADE).

blies. Again, with regard to the Waldenses, InnoThe more liberal Catholics—especially the Jan-cent III., in 1199, prohibited the private possession senists De Sacy, Arnauld, and Nicole ; the enlight- and reading of Scripture (excepting the portions ened Richard Simon and Quesnel-also shared in contained in the Breviary and the Psalter) without the common zeal for diffusing a knowledge of the priestly permission and supervision. Similar proScriptures; but though many versions have been hibitions were repeated at Toulouse (1229), at Béziers prepared by Catholics, the Romish Church has con-|(1233), and with regard to Wickliffe, at the synod sistently maintained an opposition to the general of Oxford (1383). Ultimately, the recognised Latin circulation of Holy Scripture without ecclesiastical version, or Vulgate, was more and more decidedly comments.

made the sole authorised Church version. Indeed, The numerous recent translations of the Scrip- | as early as 1234, the synod of Tarragona denounced tures into languages beyond the pale of Christen- as a heretic any one who, having a translation of dom, have been executed chiefly under the auspices the B., refused to surrender it to be burned of Missionary and Bible Societies (q. v.).

within the space of eight days. As, however, it · As to the contents of the B., its one grand object, soon appeared plain that little could be effected by under whatever form it may appear in the various such prohibitions, milder measures were employed. books, is to give an account of this world, both The Tridentine Council, being required to proin its origin and government, as the work of announce on the question of B. translations, purposely Almighty Creator, always and everywhere present; employed a word of ambiguous meaning in styling and especially to exhibit the relation of man to this the Vulgate simply 'authentic ;' but nothing was Creator, and, in consequence of that relation, in what determined on B.-reading among the laity. This manner, and with what hopes he ought to live and was first done in the publication of the first Index die-subjects undeniably the most momentous that Librorum Prohibitorum soon after the Tridentine can occupy human thought. The sacred books of Council. Afterwards, the rules of the Church, other religions have all an analogous aim ; to account, placing the use of the Scriptures under the supernamely, for the origin of all things, and to explain vision of the bishops, were more and more strictly the nature and human relations of that something defined. The publication of the New Testament divine, which it is an instinct of the human mind to with practical annotations by Paschasius Questiel conceive as actuating and controlling all that moves. (1687), gave occasion to the Roman Catholic Church But so different--so immeasurably superior to all to speak more definitely on the reading of the other sacred books is the B. in the conception it B, by the laity in the bull Unigenitus Dei Filius, unfolds of the Divine nature as one personal God, | 1713. New ordinances were issued by Pope Pius exercising towards men the love and care of a parent VII, in his Brief to the Archbishop of Gnesen and to his offspring, and in the system of human duties Mohilew (1816) against translations formerly authorspringing therefrom, that on this consideration alone ised ; again, by Leo XII., in his condemnation of B. many rest its claim to being received as a direct societies (1824), and by Pius VIII. All these revelation from heaven. The questions regarding ordinances of the Roman Catholic Church imply the B., considered in this point of view, fall to be that it is dangerous to give the B. freely to the treated under the heads of Inspiration and Revela- laity, and that, therefore, no vernacular versions tion. To attempt to analyse or give any detailed ought to be used without interpretations taken from account of the contents of the Scriptures is beyond the Fathers, and an especial papal sanction. the scope of this article. The leading features of BIBLE SOCIETY, an association having excluthe doctrines and precepts, as a system, will be sively for its object the diffusion of the sacred briefly sketched under the head of Christianity ; Scriptures. Such associations must be regarded as å while the chief individual doctrines receive notice natural form or expression of Christian benevolence, under their respective names, and in the accounts of acting according to the principles of Protestantism, the controversies to which they have given rise and seeking to take advantage of the facilities

BIBLE, PROHIBITION OF. This is one of the afforded by the art of printing : but a long period main points of opposition between the Roman elapsed after the Reformation before a B. Š. was Catholic and the Protestant Church. In the earliest formed; during which, however, an extensive diffutimes, we find no evidence of any prohibition of sion of the Scriptures took place, and partly by the BIBLE SOCIETY.

agency of associations which included it among average of £70,000, and in 1859 amounted to £78,047, other means for the advancement of Christianity. derived from donations, legacies, collections, &c., and It necessarily became, along with the translation applicable to the general purposes of the Society, of the Scriptures, one of the objects to which mis- besides £5156 for special objects (a Chinese New sionary societies directed their energy. But perhaps Testament Fund,' and an 'India Fund'), and £75,918 the first association ever formed for the sole and derived from sales of Bibles and New Testaments. specific purpose of providing copies of the Scriptures Auxiliary and branch societies and dependent asfor those who were destitute of them, was that sociations rapidly sprang up in all parts of Britain, founded by Baron Hildebrand von Canstein, an and in the colonies, the number of which at present intimate friend of Spener, in conjunction with amounts to more than 8000. Much more than oneFrancke at Halle, and which, down to 1834, when half of the expenditure of the British and Foreign other Bible Societies had begun to be established B. S. has been devoted to the diffusion of the author. in Germany, had distributed 2,754,350 copies of ised English version of the Bible, the only English the Bible, and about 2,000,000 copies of the New version with which its fundamental rules permit it Testament. The impulse, however, to the formation to have anything to do; it has also spent large sums of the Bible Societies now existing in all parts of in printing and circulating the Scriptures in the Protestant Christendom proceeded from England, different Celtic languages spoken in Great Britain where, in 1780, an association was formed for the and Ireland, and a very inportant branch of its distribution of Bibles among soldiers and sailors. operations has been the printing of translations of It was at first simply called The B. S. ; it exists the Bible prepared by missionaries. The number to the present day, is now known as the Naval of translations of the Scripture-in many cases and Military B. S., and confining itself to its complete, in others extending only to the New original specific object, has accomplished much Testament, in some only to particular booksgood. It is not an uninteresting circumstance, that which have been printed at the expense of the the first ship in which Bibles were distributed by Society, amounts to not less than 157, the greater this Society was the ill-fated Royal George.-In part being translations never before printed, and the beginning of 1792, a similar association was many in languages possessing no previous literature. formed in London, under the name of the French — The British and Foreign B. S. now issues annually B. S., with a similar limited and specific object more than a million and a half of copies of the Bible, of distributing Bibles in the French tongue. It the New Testament, or such portions of sacred was probably the attitude assumed by infidelity Scripture as have been printed in languages not

this Society, but the greater part of its funds having ber issued, from the formation of the Society to 31st been remitted to Paris for the printing of the Bible March 1859, was 35,609,931. This Society has also there, were lost, and everything belonging to the employed, besides the officials necessary for the Society destroyed in the tumult of the Revolution. / management of its funds and its extensive business, - It was not till 1802 that the first steps were agents of high education and Christian character, taken towards the formation of the BRITISH who have visited different countries for the promoAND FOREIGN B. S., the parent of a multitude tion of its great object. The names of Dr. Henderson of similar institutions, and the establishment of and Dr. Pinkerton niust be familiar to many readers, which must be regarded as the great epoch in the and perhaps no instance could be mentioned more history of this branch of Christian beneficence; nor happily illustrative of the character of this branch was the Society fully organised and established till of the Society's operations than the visit of Dr. March 7, 1804. Its formation took place in conse- Henderson to Iceland, an account of which is given quence of the deep impression made upon the mind in his well-known and very interesting volume of of the Rev. Thomas Charles of Bala, in Wales, by travels in that country.-A controversy concerning the destitution of the sacred Scriptures which he the circulation of the books of the Apocrypha along found to exist in the sphere of his labours, and with the canonical Scriptures by the British and particularly by a circumstance strikingly illus- Foreign B. S. (see APOCRYPHA), led. to a resolution trative of that destitution. Meeting a little girl in 1826— not, however, till after the withdrawal of in one of the streets of the town, he inquired if she some of its most zealous supporters—that its funds could repeat the text from which he had preached should be devoted, according to its original design, on the preceding Sunday. Instead of giving a to the diffusion of the canonical books alone.--The prompt reply, as she had been accustomed to do, EDINBURGH B. S. has from that time to the present she remained silent, and then weeping tuld him subsisted as an entirely separate Society. that the weather had been so bad she could not The AMERICAN B. S. is in the magnitude and im get to read the Bible. She had been accustomed portance of its operations, next to the British and to travel every week seven miles over the hills to Foreign Bible Society. It was founded at New York a place where she could obtain access to a Welsh in 1817, and still has its head-quarters in that city, Bible. Mr. Charles, on his next visit to London, in the Bible House,' a very large and magnificent brought the subject of the want of Bibles in Wales building, erected by special subscription. It reckong under the notice of the committee of the Religious fully 1200 auxiliary societies, in all parts of the Tract Society (q. v.), when it was suggested by Mr. United States. Its income now amounts to about Hughes, a member of the committee, that a Society | 400,000 dollars (£82,000) a year, rather more than might be formed for the purpose of supplying Bibles one-half being derived from sales of Bibles and not only in Wales, but wherever destitution exisied Testaments, and the rest from donations, collections, throughout the world. The Society was constituted &c. The American B, S. has for some time issued on the widest possible basis, churchmen and dis- annually more than 250,000 Bibles, and nearly twice senters being alike included in it; and soon attained that number of New Testaments and other portions a greatness corresponding with that of the other two of Scripture. The funds of the Society have been religious societies, the London Missionary Society chiefly expended in supplying the wants of the (see MissionARY SOCIETY), and the Religious Tract inhabitants of the United States, amongst whom the Society (q. v.), which had been formed on similar Indian tribes have not been neglected. “The Bible principles, a few years before. It was indeed able to Association of Friends in America,' founded at Philexpend only about £019 in the first year of its exist- ailelphia in 1829, has distributed the Bible extensively ence; but its annual income gradually increased to an lamong the members of that society and others.

BIBLIA PAUPERUM-BIBLIOGRAPHY.

Of the numerous Bible Societies of Germany, the , BIBLICAL ANTIQUITIES, or BIBLICAL most important and extensively ramified is the Prus- ARCHÆOLOGY, is a study which has for its sian Central B. S. (Hauptbibelgesellschaft) in Berlin. objects the social and political constitution, the It was founded in 1814, and has branches in all parts manners, customs, geography, &c., of the Jews and of the Prussian dominions. More Bibles, however, other peoples mentioned in the Scriptures. A knoware annually supplied to the people of Germany by ledge of these is essential to a right understanding the agents of the British and Foreign B. S. than by of many passages of Scripture. The antiquities of all the German Bible societies together, and there the ancient Jews themselves undoubtedly form still exists a great and acknowledged destitution.-- the most important part of such a study ; but an Bible societies were prohibited by the Austrian examination of the laws, customs, &c., of the neighgovernment in 1817, and some which had already | bouring Semitic nations is likewise indispensable. been established in Hungary were dissolved.--The The principal sources of such knowledge are the RUSSIAN B. S. founded at St. Petersburg in 1813, Old and the New Testament; the books of Josephus through the exertions of Dr. Paterson, and under the on Jewish Antiquities and the Wars of the Jews ; patronage of the Emperor Alexander I., entered the writings of Philo, the Talmud and Rabbinical upon a career of great activity and usefulness, co-works; and lastly, Greek, Roman, and Arabian operating with the British and Foreign B. S. for the writers, with medals, monuments, and other worlas of printing of the Scriptures in the numerous lan- art, the accounts of travellers, &c. The first work guages spoken within the Russian dominions; but on Hebrew archæology was Thomas Goodwin's its operations were suspended in 1826 on the acces- | Moses et Aaron, seu Civiles et Ecclesiastici Ritus sion of the Emperor Nicholas, its stock of Bibles, Antiquorum Hebr. (Oxford, 1616). Among later and the whole concern, being transferred to the treatises we may especially notice-Jahn's Biblical Holy Synod, under the pretence that the sacred Archæology (5 vols. Vienna, 1796–1805); Bauer's work of supplying the people with the Holy Scrip- | Manual of Hebrew Antiquities (Leip. 1797); De tures belonged to the Church, and not to a secular Wette's Manual of Hebrew-Jewish Archeology society. The Bibles and Testaments in stock were (Leip. 1814); Rosenmüller's Manual of Biblical indeed sold, and very large editions were thus dis- Antiquities (Leip. 1823); and Winer's Biblical posed of, but the activity of a society which had no Dictionary (3d ed. Leip. 1847). A convenient equal in continental Europe was at an end. A Pro-work of reference on this subject is Dr. Kitto's testant B. S. was then, however, formed, for the pur- Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature, which numbers pose of providing editions of the Scriptures and among its contributors many of the ablest British circulating them among the Protatants of all parts and continental scholars; or The Pictorial Bible, of the empire, which now reckons 277 auxiliary edited by the same writer, and containing original societies. But the action of this Society 'does not notes explanatory of passages connected with the touch the members of the Greek Church, or, if at History, Geography, Natural History, Literature, all, only slightly and incidentally, and it makes no and Antiquities of the Sacred Scriptures (newest provision of the Scriptures in the language spoken edition published by W. and R. Chambers, 1856.) by the great mass of the people. It is merely | BIBLIO'GRAPHY, a term applied to the descrip. designed to meet the wants of colonists and others, tion and proper cataloguing of books. It is derived who do not use the Russian language. Of the froni bibliographia, which was employed by the translations of the Scriptures published by the Greeks to signify the transcription of books, while original Russian B. S., the greater number have bibliographos was merely a copyist. The introducnever been reprinted since its suppression.

tion of the term in the meaning which we now There can be no doubt that Bible societies have attach to it may be dated from the appearance of contributed very much to the progress of Chris- | the first volume of De Bure's Bibliographie Instructianity and civilisation since the beginning of the tive in 1763. 19th c., and their influence is continually increasing The bare enumeration of the works that have and extending.

been written on this branch of literature would BI'BLIA PAU'PERUM, or Bible of the Poor, more than fill an ordinary volume; we shall here was a sort of picture-book of the middle ages, giving, confine ourselves to the more important of them. on from forty to fifty leaves, the leading events of A favourite dream of bibliographers has been the human salvation through Christ, each picture being production of a general catalogue, embracing the accompanied by an illustrative text or sentence in whole range of printed literature ; and one attempt Latin. A similar and contemporaneous work on a at least has been made to realise it. In the year more extended scale, and with the legend or text in 1545, Conrad Gesner published at Zurich, in one rhyme, was called Speculum Humance Salvationis, folio volume, his Bibliotheca Universalis, in which are i. e., the Mirror of Human Salvation.' Before the described, under the names of the authors, arranged Reformation, these two books were the chief text-alphabetically, all the books in the Hebrew, Greek, books used, especially by monks, in preaching, and and Latin languages about which the compiler could took the place of the Bible with the laity, and even obtain information. This restriction as to lanclergy; and as the lower orders of the regular guage, of course, does away to some extent with clergy, such as the Franciscans, Carthusians, &c., the idea of universality indicated by the titletook the title of 'Paupers Christi,' Christ's Poor, page; still, as the three which are included were hence the name. Many manuscripts of the B. in Gesner's time almost the only ones employed by P., and of the Mirror of Salvation, several as men of learning, his work may be regarded as a old as the 13th C., are preserved in different nearly complete account of the state of printed languages. The pictures of this series were copied | literature as it then existed. The only other effort in sculptures, in wall and glass painting, altar-pieces, in this direction which we have to record is the &c., and thus become of importance in the art of Bibliotheca Britannica of Dr. Robert Watt, 4 vols. 4to the middle ages. In the 15th c., the B. P. was (Edinburgh, 1824). Its object will be best described perhaps the first book that was printed in the by the following extract from the preface to it: Netherlands and Germany, first with blocks, and The account given of British writers and their then with types. The chief proof for the discovery works is universal, embracing every description of of printing in Haarlem rests on the first impres- authors, and every branch of knowledge and literasions of the Speculum Humance Salvationis. See ture. What has been admitted of foreign publicaCOSTER.

I tious, though selective, forms a very considerable

The

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